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Welfare state

Index Welfare state

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. [1]

183 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Accidental death and dismemberment insurance, Al-Ghazali, Alan Ryan, Andrew Fisher, Anti-Socialist Laws, Ashoka, Austria-Hungary, Baby boom, Benjamin Disraeli, Benjamin Radcliff, Beveridge Report, Birth control, Bo Rothstein, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Capitalism, Cato Institute, Chancellor of Germany, Child benefit, Christian democracy, Church of England, Classical liberalism, Cloward–Piven strategy, Cold War, Communism, Comprehensive school, Conservative Party (UK), Constitutional economics, Corporate welfare, Council house, County councils of Sweden, David Lloyd George, Decommodification, Democracy, Dharma, Dignity of labour, Distribution of wealth, Economic development, Economic interventionism, Economic liberalism, Edinburgh University Press, Eduard Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe, Equal opportunity, European social model, Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, Fifth power, Five Pillars of Islam, Flexicurity, Folkhemmet, ..., Frances Perkins, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free trade, Free-rider problem, Gøsta Esping-Andersen, Georges Menahem, German Empire, German language, Great Depression, Gross domestic product, Gustav Möller, H. H. Asquith, Happiness economics, Henry Steele Commager, Hidden welfare state, Historical school of economics, History of Social Security in the United States, History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Housing estate, Incarceration in the United States, Income tax, Italian language, J. Bradford DeLong, Jacobin (magazine), Jizya, Karl Kristian Steincke, Karl Marx, Kuwait, Labor unions in the United States, Labour Exchanges Act 1909, Labour Party (UK), Laissez-faire, Lane Kenworthy, Lester Frank Ward, Liberal Party (UK), Liberal welfare reforms, Loïc Wacquant, Matignon Agreements (1936), Mixed economy, Nanny state, National Assistance Act 1948, National Health Service, National Health Service Act 1946, National Insurance, National Insurance Act 1911, National Insurance Act 1946, National insurance contribution, National Minimum Wage Act 1998, National Socialist People's Welfare, Neoliberalism, New Deal, Non-governmental organization, Nordic countries, Nordic model, October Revolution, OECD, Old-Age Pensions Act 1908, One-child policy, Otto von Bismarck, Oxford University Press, Paris Commune, Paternalism, Pension, Poor relief, Popular Front (France), Poverty, Poverty reduction, Programme for International Student Assessment, Progressive tax, Progressivism, Prussia, Public housing, Purchasing power parity, Qatar, Rashidun Caliphate, Richard J. Evans, Robert Paxton, SAGE Publications, Saudi Arabia, Saxony, School meal, Sharia, Social democracy, Social insurance, Social liberalism, Social ownership, Social policy, Social programs in the United States, Social protection, Social security, Social stratification, Social work, Southern United States, State Socialism (Germany), Subsidiarity, Sybil (novel), Tariff, Tax, The Economist, The Journal of Economic History, Theodore Roosevelt, Theoretical Criminology, Third Way, Thomas E. Dewey, Thomas Humphrey Marshall, Thomas Robert Malthus, Tory, Transfer payment, Treasury, Turkish language, Unintended consequences, United Kingdom general election, 1945, United States, United States dollar, Universal health care, University of California, Davis, University of Minnesota Press, Vice (magazine), Vichy France, Walter Scheidel, Welfare, Welfare capitalism, Welfare in Sweden, Welfare reform, Welfare state in the United Kingdom, Western Washington University, Whigs (British political party), William Beveridge, William Temple (bishop), Working class, World Bank, Young England, Zakat. Expand index (133 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Accidental death and dismemberment insurance

In insurance, accidental death and dismemberment (AD&D) is a policy that pays benefits to the beneficiary if the cause of death is an accident.

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Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

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Alan Ryan

Alan James Ryan, FBA (born 9 May 1940) was Warden of New College, Oxford, and Professor of Politics at the University of Oxford and is currently a lecturer at Princeton University.

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Andrew Fisher

Andrew Fisher (29 August 186222 October 1928) was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, and from 1914 to 1915.

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Anti-Socialist Laws

The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws (Sozialistengesetze; officially Gesetz gegen die gemeingefährlichen Bestrebungen der Sozialdemokratie, approximately "Law against the public danger of Social Democratic endeavours") were a series of acts, the first of which was passed on October 19, 1878 by the German Reichstag lasting until March 31, 1881, and extended four times (May 1880, May 1884, April 1886 and February 1888).

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Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Baby boom

A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate.

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Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Benjamin Radcliff

Benjamin Radcliff (born August 28, 1963) is an American political scientist and a professor at the University of Notre Dame.

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Beveridge Report

The Beveridge Report, officially entitled Social Insurance and Allied Services, is a government report, published in November 1942, influential in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Bo Rothstein

Bo Abraham Mendel Rothstein (born 12 June 1954) is a Swedish political scientist.

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Chancellor of Germany

The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.

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Child benefit

Child benefit (children's allowance) is a social security payment which is distributed to the parents or guardians of children, teenagers and in some cases, young adults.

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Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Cloward–Piven strategy

The Cloward–Piven strategy is a political strategy outlined in 1966 by American sociologists and political activists Richard Cloward and Frances Fox Piven that called for overloading the U.S. public welfare system in order to precipitate a crisis that would lead to a replacement of the welfare system with a national system of "a guaranteed annual income and thus an end to poverty".

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Comprehensive school

A comprehensive school is a secondary school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constitutional economics

Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".

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Corporate welfare

Corporate welfare is a term that analogizes corporate subsidies to welfare payments for the poor.

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Council house

A council house is a form of public or social housing built by local municipalities in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

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County councils of Sweden

A county council (landsting) is a self-governing local authority and one of the principal administrative subdivisions of Sweden.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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Decommodification is the strength of social entitlements and citizens' degree of immunization from market dependency.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

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Dignity of labour

The dignity of labour is the philosophy that all types of jobs are respected equally, and no occupation is considered superior.

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Distribution of wealth

--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.

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Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

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Economic interventionism

Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Eduard Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe

Eduard Franz Joseph Graf von Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe (24 February 1833 – 29 November 1895) was an Austrian statesman, who served for two terms as Minister-President of Cisleithania, leading cabinets from 1868 to 1870 and 1879 to 1893.

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Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.

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European social model

The European social model is a common vision many European states have for a society that combines economic growth with high living standards and good working conditions.

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Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (abbreviated as FLSA) is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week.

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Fifth power

The fifth power is a term, apparently created by Ignacio Ramonet, that intends a continuation of the series of the three estates of the realm and the fourth power, the mass media.

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Five Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.

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Flexicurity (a portmanteau of '''flexi'''bility and se'''curity''') is a welfare state model with a pro-active labour market policy.

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Folkhemmet (the people's home) is a political concept that played an important role in the history of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Swedish welfare state.

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Frances Perkins

Frances Perkins (born Fannie Coralie Perkins; April 10, 1880 – May 14, 1965) was an American sociologist and workers-rights advocate who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, the longest serving in that position, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Free-rider problem

In economics, the free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services.

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Gøsta Esping-Andersen

Gøsta Esping-Andersen (born 24 November 1947 in Næstved, Denmark), is a Danish sociologist whose primary focus is on the welfare state and its place in capitalist economies.

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Georges Menahem

Georges Menahem is a French sociologist and economist whose work employs methods drawn from economics, sociology and statistics.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gustav Möller

Gustav Möller (1884–1970) was a prominent Swedish Social democratic politician, credited as the father of the social security system and the Welfare state, also called Folkhemmet.

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H. H. Asquith

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.

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Happiness economics

The economics of happiness or happiness economics is the quantitative and theoretical study of happiness, positive and negative affect, well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction and related concepts, typically combining economics with other fields such as psychology, health and sociology.

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Henry Steele Commager

Henry Steele Commager (October 25, 1902 – March 2, 1998) was an American historian.

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Hidden welfare state

The hidden welfare state is a term coined by Christopher Howard, professor of government at the College of William and Mary, to refer to tax expenditures with social welfare objectives that are often not included in discussions about the U.S. welfare state.

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Historical school of economics

The historical school of economics was an approach to academic economics and to public administration that emerged in the 19th century in Germany, and held sway there until well into the 20th century.

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History of Social Security in the United States

A limited form of the Social Security program began as a measure to implement "social insurance" during the Great Depression of the 1930s, when poverty rates among senior citizens exceeded 50 percent.

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History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany

The foundation of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) can be traced back to the 1860s, and for much of the 20th and 21st centuries it has represented the centre-left in German politics.

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Housing estate

A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.

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Incarceration in the United States

Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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J. Bradford DeLong

James Bradford "Brad" DeLong (born June 24, 1960) is an economic historian who is professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Jacobin (magazine)

Jacobin is a left-wing quarterly magazine based in New York offering socialist and anti-capitalist perspectives on politics, economics and culture from the American left.

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Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.

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Karl Kristian Steincke

Karl Kristian Vilhelm Steincke (25 August 1880 – 8 August 1963), was a Danish politician.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Labor unions in the United States

Labor unions in the United States are organizations that represent workers in many industries recognized under US labor law.

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Labour Exchanges Act 1909

The Labour Exchanges Act 1909 was an Act of Parliament which saw the state-funded creation of labour exchanges.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Lane Kenworthy

Lane Kenworthy is an American professor of sociology and political science.

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Lester Frank Ward

Lester F. Ward (June 18, 1841 – April 18, 1913) was an American botanist, paleontologist, and sociologist.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Liberal welfare reforms

The Liberal welfare reforms (1906–1914) were a series of acts of social legislation passed by the British Liberal Party after the 1906 General Election.

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Loïc Wacquant

Loïc Wacquant (born 1960) is a sociologist and social anthropologist, specializing in urban sociology, urban poverty, racial inequality, the body, social theory and ethnography.

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Matignon Agreements (1936)

The Matignon Agreements (French: Accords de Matignon) were signed on 7 June 1936, at one o'clock in the morning, between the Confédération générale de la production française (CGPF) employers' organization, the CGT trade union and the French state.

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

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Nanny state

Nanny state is a conservative term of British origin that conveys a view that a government or its policies are overprotective or interfering unduly with personal choice.

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National Assistance Act 1948

The National Assistance Act 1948 is an Act of Parliament passed in the United Kingdom by the Labour government of Clement Attlee.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Health Service Act 1946

The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.

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National Insurance

National Insurance (NI) is a tax system in the United Kingdom paid by workers and employers for funding state benefits.

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National Insurance Act 1911

The National Insurance Act 1911 created National Insurance, originally a system of health insurance for industrial workers in Great Britain based on contributions from employers, the government, and the workers themselves.

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National Insurance Act 1946

The National Insurance Act 1946 (c 67) was a British Act of Parliament which established a comprehensive system of social security throughout the United Kingdom.

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National insurance contribution

The welfare state in the United Kingdom was built on the principle of National insurance contributions.

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National Minimum Wage Act 1998

The National Minimum Wage Act 1998 creates a minimum wage across the United Kingdom, which from 1 April 2018 was £7.83 per hour for workers aged over 25, £7.38 per hour for workers aged 21 to 24, and £5.90 per hour for workers aged 18 to 20.

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National Socialist People's Welfare

The Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (NSV), meaning "National Socialist People's Welfare", was a social welfare organization during the Third Reich.

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Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordic model

The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Old-Age Pensions Act 1908

The Old-Age Pensions Act 1908 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1908.

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One-child policy

The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paris Commune

The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

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Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.

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A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.

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Poor relief

In English and British history, poor relief refers to government and ecclesiastical action to relieve poverty.

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Popular Front (France)

The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Poverty reduction

Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.

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Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Progressive tax

A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

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Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Public housing

Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Richard J. Evans

Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.

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Robert Paxton

Robert Owen Paxton (born 1932) is an American political scientist and historian specializing in Vichy France, fascism, and Europe during the World War II era.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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School meal

A school meal or school lunch (also known as hot lunch, a school dinner, or school breakfast) is a meal provided to students at school, typically in the middle or beginning of the school day.

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social insurance

Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Social ownership

Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership.

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Social policy

Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).

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Social programs in the United States

Social programs in the United States are welfare subsidies designed to meet needs of the American population.

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Social protection

Social protection, as defined by the United Nations Research Institute For Social Development, is concerned with preventing, managing, and overcoming situations that adversely affect people’s well being.

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Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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State Socialism (Germany)

State Socialism (Staatssozialismus) was a term introduced to describe Otto von Bismarck's social welfare policies.

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Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution.

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Sybil (novel)

Sybil, or The Two Nations is an 1845 novel by Benjamin Disraeli.

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A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Journal of Economic History

The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.

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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

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Theoretical Criminology

Theoretical Criminology is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the fields of criminology and penology.

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Third Way

The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.

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Thomas E. Dewey

Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was an American lawyer, prosecutor, and politician.

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Thomas Humphrey Marshall

Thomas Humphrey Marshall (19 December 1893, London – 29 November 1981, Cambridge) was a British sociologist, most noted for his essays, such as the essay collection Citizenship and Social Class.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.

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Transfer payment

In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.

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A treasury is either.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Unintended consequences

In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.

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United Kingdom general election, 1945

The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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University of California, Davis

The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.

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University of Minnesota Press

The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.

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Vice (magazine)

Vice is a Canadian-American print magazine focused on arts, culture, and news topics.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Walter Scheidel

Walter Scheidel (born 9 July 1966) is an Austrian historian who teaches ancient history at Stanford University, California.

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Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

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Welfare capitalism

Welfare capitalism is capitalism that includes social welfare policies.

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Welfare in Sweden

Social welfare in Sweden is made up of several organizations and systems dealing with welfare.

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Welfare reform

Welfare reforms are changes in the operation of a given welfare system, with the goals of reducing the number of individuals dependent on government assistance, keeping the welfare systems affordable, and assisting recipients in becoming more self-sufficient.

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Welfare state in the United Kingdom

The welfare state of the United Kingdom comprises expenditures by the government of the United Kingdom intended to improve health, education, employment and social security.

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Western Washington University

Western Washington University (WWU or Western) is one of six public universities in the U.S. state of Washington.

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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William Beveridge

William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge, (5 March 1879 – 16 March 1963) was a British economist who was a noted progressive and social reformer.

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William Temple (bishop)

William Temple (15 October 1881 – 26 October 1944) was a bishop in the Church of England.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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Young England

Young England was a Victorian era political group born on the playing fields of Cambridge, Oxford and Eton.

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Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.

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Criticism of welfare states, Social state, Social state of right, Social welfare state, Sozialstaat, State assistance, The welfare state, Welfare State, Welfare politics, Welfare states, Welfare statism, Welfare theory.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welfare_state

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