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Welsh language

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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. [1]

243 relations: Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth University, Alexander John Ellis, Alun Cairns, Alun Ffred Jones, Android (operating system), Aneirin, Anglesey, Anglicanism, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Archenfield, Argentina, Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters, Auxiliary verb, Bath, Somerset, Battle of Deorham, BBC, BBC Radio Cymru, Bible, Bible translations into Welsh, Bishop of Hereford, Blog, Book of Common Prayer, Book of Taliesin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Iron Age, Brittonic languages, Bronze Age, Canada, Carmarthenshire, Carwyn Jones, Celtic Britons, Celtic languages, Central (Liverpool ward), Ceredigion, Chartism, Chirk, Chubut Province, Circumflex, Code talker, Code-switching, Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol, Collation, Colloquial Welsh morphology, Common Brittonic, Conditional mood, Consonant mutation, Conwy County Borough, Council of the European Union, ..., Cryptography, Dal Ati, De facto, De jure, Denbighshire, Descriptio Cambriae, Diacritic, Dialect, Digital television transition, Digraph (orthography), Discourse, Early Middle Ages, Elizabeth I of England, England, English and Welsh, English language, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Exonym and endonym, Facebook, Falklands War, Firefox, First language, Firth of Forth, Florida, Fusional language, Future tense, Gaels, Gboard, Gerald of Wales, Glamorgan, Glywysing, Golwg360, Government of Wales Act 1998, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Great Britain, Greenbank (ward), Gwenhwyseg, Gwynedd, Hen Ogledd, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, Henry II of England, History of the Welsh language, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Hugh Owen (educator), Imperfect, Inflected preposition, Inflection, Insular Celtic languages, IOS, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Kenneth H. Jackson, Kenneth O. Morgan, Kingdom of Dyfed, Kingdom of Gwent, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Powys, Languages of Europe, Languages of the United Kingdom, Latin script, Legislation.gov.uk, LibreOffice, Linguistic typology, Linux distribution, List of Welsh areas by percentage of Welsh-speakers, List of Welsh films, List of Welsh people, List of Welsh-language authors, List of Welsh-language media, List of Welsh-language poets (6th century to c. 1600), Liverpool, Llanymynech, Local education authority, Mabinogion, Massacre of Glencoe, Medieval Welsh literature, Medium of instruction, Meri Huws, Microsoft Office, Middle Welsh, Middle-earth, Morphology (linguistics), NASA, Nasal consonant, National Assembly for Wales, National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), National Eisteddfod of Wales, Navajo language, New Testament, Newport, Wales, Nonconformist, Nonconformity in Wales, Norah Isaac, Northern England, Object (grammar), Office for National Statistics, Old Welsh, Open University, OpenOffice.org, Orange UK, Oswestry, Owen Morgan Edwards, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Patagonia, Patagonian Welsh, Pembrokeshire, Pencader, Carmarthenshire, Periphrasis, Personal pronoun, Phonetics, Phonology, Pitch (music), Plaid Cymru, Poetry, Powys, Predictive text, Preposition and postposition, Preterite, Pro-drop language, Ralph Lingen, 1st Baron Lingen, Rebecca Riots, Regions of England, Register (sociolinguistics), Rhyl, Royal Welch Fusiliers, S4C, SAGE Publications, Samsung, Scotland, Shropshire, Sindarin, SMS, St Benet's, Paul's Wharf, Statutory instrument (UK), Stress (linguistics), The Independent, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The Times, Thomas Charles-Edwards, Tolkien's legendarium, Toll road, Treachery of the Blue Books, Turnpike trusts, Tywyn, United Kingdom, United Kingdom census, 2001, United Kingdom census, 2011, United States, United States Armed Forces, University of Wales Press, Verb–subject–object, Verbnoun, Vigesimal, Voiceless alveolar trill, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Vowel, Vowel length, Voyager Golden Record, Voyager program, Wales, Walhaz, Welsh (surname), Welsh Braille, Welsh Government, Welsh language, Welsh Language Act 1993, Welsh Language Board, Welsh Language Commissioner, Welsh Language Society, Welsh law, Welsh medium education, Welsh nationalism, Welsh Not, Welsh orthography, Welsh toponymy, Welsh Tract, Welsh-language literature, Western Brittonic languages, William Morgan (Bible translator), William Salesbury, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, World War II, Y Byd, Y Cymro, Y Wladfa, Ysgol Glan Clwyd, Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen, 8th century. Expand index (193 more) »

Aberystwyth

Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre, and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales, often colloquially known as Aber.

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Aberystwyth University

Aberystwyth University (Prifysgol Aberystwyth) is a public research university in Aberystwyth, Wales.

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Alexander John Ellis

Alexander John Ellis, (14 June 1814 – 28 October 1890) was an English mathematician, philologist and early phonetician, who also influenced the field of musicology.

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Alun Cairns

Alun Hugh Cairns (born 30 July 1970) is a Welsh Conservative politician, who became Secretary of State for Wales on 19 March 2016.

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Alun Ffred Jones

Alun Ffred Jones (born 29 October 1949) is a Welsh politician and member of Plaid Cymru.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

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Aneirin

Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.

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Anglesey

Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.

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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Archenfield

Archenfield (Old English: Ircingafeld) is the historic English name for an area of southern and western Herefordshire in England.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters

The Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters (in Welsh, Cymdeithas Cyfieithwyr Cymru) is a professional body representing English/Welsh translators and interpreters in Wales.

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Auxiliary verb

An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.

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Bath, Somerset

Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.

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Battle of Deorham

The Battle of Deorham (or Dyrham) was a decisive military encounter between the West Saxons and the Britons of the West Country in 577.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC Radio Cymru

BBC Radio Cymru is BBC Cymru Wales' Welsh-language national radio network.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bible translations into Welsh

Bible translations into Welsh have existed since at least the 15th century, but the most widely used translation of the Bible into Welsh for several centuries was the 1588 translation by William Morgan, as revised in 1620.

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Bishop of Hereford

The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.

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Blog

A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.

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Book of Taliesin

The Book of Taliesin (Llyfr Taliesin) is one of the most famous of Middle Welsh manuscripts, dating from the first half of the 14th century though many of the fifty-six poems it preserves are taken to originate in the 10th century or before.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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British Iron Age

The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carmarthenshire

Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin; or informally Sir Gâr) is a unitary authority in the southwest of Wales and is the largest of the thirteen historic counties of Wales.

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Carwyn Jones

Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician, currently First Minister of Wales.

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Celtic Britons

The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Central (Liverpool ward)

Central is a Liverpool City Council Ward in the Liverpool Riverside Parliamentary constituency.

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Ceredigion

Ceredigion is a county in the Mid Wales area of Wales and previously was a minor kingdom.

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Chartism

Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.

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Chirk

Y Waun may also refer to Gwauncaegurwen in Glamorgan Chirk (Y Waun, meaning The Moor) is a small town and local government community in Wales.

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Chubut Province

Chubut (Talaith Chubut; Provincia del Chubut) is a province in southern Argentina, situated between the 42nd parallel south (the border with Río Negro Province), the 46th parallel south (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range to the west, and the Atlantic ocean to the east.

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Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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Code talker

Code talkers are people in the 20th century who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime.

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Code-switching

In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.

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Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol

Before deleting any text please note that some of the text contained within this article has been authorised for use on a CC-BY-SA licence.

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Collation

Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Colloquial Welsh morphology

The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Conwy County Borough

Conwy County Borough (Welsh: Bwrdeistref Sirol Conwy) is a unitary authority area in the north of Wales.

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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Dal Ati

Dal Ati (Keep at It) is a series of Welsh language television programmes broadcast on S4C to help Welsh speakers and learners gain confidence in the language.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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De jure

In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.

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Denbighshire

Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych) is a county in north-east Wales, named after the historic county of Denbighshire, but with substantially different borders.

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Descriptio Cambriae

The Descriptio Cambriae or Descriptio Kambriae (Description of Wales) is a geographical and ethnographic treatise on Wales and its people dating from 1193 or 1194.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Digital television transition

The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover, the analog switch-off (ASO), or the analog shutdown, is the process in which older analog television broadcasting is converted to and replaced by digital television.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Discourse

Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English and Welsh

English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkien's inaugural O'Donnell Memorial Lecture of October 21, 1955.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Facebook

Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Firefox

Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Firth of Forth

The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.

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Florida

Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gaels

The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.

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Gboard

Gboard is a virtual keyboard app developed by Google for Android and iOS devices.

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Gerald of Wales

Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.

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Glamorgan

Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, (Morgannwg or Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales.

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Glywysing

Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.

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Golwg360

Golwg360 (Welsh for "360 View") is a news website in the Welsh language.

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Government of Wales Act 1998

The Government of Wales Act 1998 (c. 38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greenbank (ward)

Greenbank is a Liverpool City Council Ward in Liverpool Riverside Parliamentary constituency.

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Gwenhwyseg

Gwenhwyseg is a Welsh dialect of South East Wales.

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Gwynedd

Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Conwy, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, and Ceredigion over the River Dyfi.

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Hen Ogledd

Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.

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Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau

"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is the national anthem of Wales.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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History of the Welsh language

The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh.

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Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion

The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion), often called simply the Cymmrodorion, is a London-based Welsh learned society, with membership open to all.

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Hugh Owen (educator)

Sir Hugh Owen (14 January 1804 – 20 November 1881) was a pioneer of higher education in Wales.

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Imperfect

The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).

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Inflected preposition

In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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IOS

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.

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Kenneth H. Jackson

Prof Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson CBE FRSE FSA DLitt (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.

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Kenneth O. Morgan

Kenneth Owen Morgan, Baron Morgan, (born 16 May 1934) is a Welsh historian and author, known especially for his writings on modern British history and politics and on Welsh history.

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Kingdom of Dyfed

The Kingdom of Dyfed is one of several Welsh petty kingdoms that emerged in 5th-century sub-Roman Britain in southwest Wales based on the former territory of the Demetae (modern Welsh Dyfed).

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Kingdom of Gwent

Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.

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Kingdom of Gwynedd

The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

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Kingdom of Powys

The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain.

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Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

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Languages of the United Kingdom

English, in various dialects, is the most widely spoken language of the United Kingdom, however there are a number of regional languages also spoken. There are 11 indigenous languages spoken across the British Isles: 5 Celtic, 3 Germanic, and 3 Romance. There are also many immigrant languages spoken in the British Isles, mainly within inner city areas; these languages are mainly from South Asia and Eastern Europe. The de facto official language of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by approximately 59.8 million residents, or 98% of the population, over the age of three.According to the 2011 census, 53,098,301 people in England and Wales, 5,044,683 people in Scotland, and 1,681,210 people in Northern Ireland can speak English "well" or "very well"; totalling 59,824,194. Therefore, out of the 60,815,385 residents of the UK over the age of three, 98% can speak English "well" or "very well". An estimated 700,000 people speak Welsh in the UK,, by Hywel M Jones, page 115, 13.5.1.6, England. Published February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2016. an official language in Wales and the only de jure official language in any part of the UK. Approximately 1.5 million people in the UK speak Scots—although there is debate as to whether this is a distinct language, or a variety of English.A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894 There is some discussion of the languages of the United Kingdom's three Crown dependencies (Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man), though they are not part of the United Kingdom.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Legislation.gov.uk

Legislation.gov.uk, formerly the UK Statute Law Database, is the official web-accessible database of the statute law of the United Kingdom, hosted by The National Archives.

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LibreOffice

LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linux distribution

A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.

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List of Welsh areas by percentage of Welsh-speakers

This is a list of subdivisions of Wales by the percentage of those professing some skills in the Welsh language in the 2011 UK census.

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List of Welsh films

1898: Conway Castle 1898: Blackburn Rovers v West Bromwich Albion, is the world's oldest extant soccer film, by Arthur Cheetham.

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List of Welsh people

This is a list of Welsh people (rhestr Cymry); an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales.

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List of Welsh-language authors

For Welsh language poets prior to 1600, see List of Welsh language poets.

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List of Welsh-language media

This article lists and provides a summary of the content of some of those broadcast, print, and other media currently being produced in Welsh.

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List of Welsh-language poets (6th century to c. 1600)

Much of Welsh language poetry has, until quite recently, been composed in various forms of strict metre (canu caeth), latterly with the encouragement of the eisteddfod movement.

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Liverpool

Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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Llanymynech

Llanymynech is a village straddling the border between Montgomeryshire/Powys, Wales, and Shropshire, England, about 9 miles (14 km) north of the Welsh town of Welshpool.

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Local education authority

Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.

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Mabinogion

The Mabinogion are the earliest prose stories of the literature of Britain.

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Massacre of Glencoe

The Massacre of Glencoe (Gaelic: Mort Ghlinne Comhann) took place in Glen Coe in the Highlands of Scotland on 13 February 1692, following the Jacobite uprising of 1689-92.

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Medieval Welsh literature

Medieval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages.

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Medium of instruction

A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching.

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Meri Huws

Meri Huws is the Welsh Language Commissioner.

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Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.

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Middle Welsh

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.

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Middle-earth

Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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National Assembly for Wales

The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.

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National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)

The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act (1988).

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National Eisteddfod of Wales

The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh: Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau that are held annually, mostly in Wales.

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Navajo language

Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Newport, Wales

Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.

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Nonconformist

In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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Nonconformity in Wales

Nonconformity was a significant influence in Wales from the 18th to the 20th centuries.

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Norah Isaac

Norah Isaac (1914 – 3 August 2003) was a Welsh author, drama producer and campaigner for Welsh-language education.

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Northern England

Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Office for National Statistics

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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Old Welsh

Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.

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Open University

The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.

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OpenOffice.org

OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.

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Orange UK

Orange UK was a mobile network operator and former internet service provider in the UK that was launched in 1993.

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Oswestry

Oswestry (Croesoswallt) is a large market town and civil parish in Shropshire, England, close to the Welsh border.

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Owen Morgan Edwards

Sir Owen Morgan Edwards (26 December 1858 – 15 May 1920) was a Welsh historian, educationalist and writer.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Patagonia

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patagonian Welsh

Patagonian Welsh (Welsh: Cymraeg y Wladfa) is the name given to the Welsh language as spoken in Y Wladfa, the Welsh settlement in Patagonia, Argentina, specifically in the province of Chubut.

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Pembrokeshire

Pembrokeshire (or; Sir Benfro) is a county in the southwest of Wales.

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Pencader, Carmarthenshire

Pencader is a small village in the Welsh county of Carmarthenshire, and is part of the Community and Parish of Llanfihangel-ar-Arth.

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Periphrasis

In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pitch (music)

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

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Plaid Cymru

Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Powys

Powys is a principal area, a county and one of the preserved counties of Wales.

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Predictive text

Predictive text is an input technology used where one key or button represents many letters, such as on the numeric keypads of mobile phones and in accessibility technologies.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Preterite

The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.

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Pro-drop language

A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).

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Ralph Lingen, 1st Baron Lingen

Ralph Robert Wheeler Lingen, 1st Baron Lingen KCB (19 December 1819 – 22 July 1905) was an English civil servant.

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Rebecca Riots

The Rebecca Riots took place between 1839 and 1843 in South and Mid Wales.

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Regions of England

The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Rhyl

Rhyl (Y Rhyl) is a Welsh seaside resort town and community in the county of Denbighshire.

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Royal Welch Fusiliers

The Royal Welch Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division.

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S4C

S4C (from the Welsh Sianel Pedwar Cymru, meaning "Channel 4 Wales") is a Welsh-language British public-service TV channel broadcast throughout the UK and Republic of Ireland.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Samsung

Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Shropshire

Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.

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Sindarin

Sindarin is a fictional language devised by J. R. R. Tolkien for use in his fantasy stories set in Arda, primarily in Middle-earth.

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SMS

SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.

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St Benet's, Paul's Wharf

The Church of St Benet Paul's Wharf is a Welsh Anglican church in the City of London.

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Statutory instrument (UK)

A statutory instrument (SI) is the principal form in which delegated legislation is made in Great Britain.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Thomas Charles-Edwards

Thomas Mowbray Charles-Edwards (born 11 November 1943) is an emeritus academic at Oxford University.

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Tolkien's legendarium

Tolkien's legendarium is the body of J. R. R. Tolkien's mythopoetic writing that forms the background to his The Lord of the Rings.

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Toll road

A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.

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Treachery of the Blue Books

The Treachery of the Blue Books or Treason of the Blue Books (Brad y Llyfrau Gleision) was the publication in 1847 of the three-volume Reports of the commissioners of enquiry into the state of education in Wales, which caused uproar in Wales for disparaging the Welsh; being particularly scathing in its view of the Welsh language, nonconformity and the immorality of the Welsh people in general.

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Turnpike trusts

Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Tywyn

Tywyn (Welsh), formerly Towyn, is a town and seaside resort on the Cardigan Bay coast of southern Gwynedd, Wales, and also the largest town in the south.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom census, 2001

A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.

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United Kingdom census, 2011

A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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University of Wales Press

The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.

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Verb–subject–object

In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).

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Verbnoun

A verbnoun is the basic form of a verb in Celtic languages such as Welsh, and is the form usually listed in the dictionary.

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Vigesimal

The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).

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Voiceless alveolar trill

A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill only by the vibrations of the vocal cord.

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Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Voyager Golden Record

The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.

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Voyager program

The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Walhaz

*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".

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Welsh (surname)

Welsh is a surname from the Anglo-Saxon language given to the Celtic Britons.

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Welsh Braille

Welsh Braille is the braille alphabet of the Welsh language.

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Welsh Government

The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the devolved government for Wales.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Welsh Language Act 1993

The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

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Welsh Language Board

The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.

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Welsh Language Commissioner

The role of the Welsh Language Commissioner was created by the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 on 1 April 2012 with the appointment of Meri Huws as Wales' first Commissioner.

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Welsh Language Society

The Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a direct action pressure group in Wales campaigning for the right of Welsh people to use the Welsh language in every aspect of their lives.

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Welsh law

Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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Welsh medium education

Education delivered through the medium of the Welsh language is known as Welsh medium education.

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Welsh nationalism

Welsh nationalism (Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom.

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Welsh Not

The Welsh Not or Welsh Note or Welsh stick was a punishment used in some schools in Wales in the 19th century to dissuade children from speaking Welsh.

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Welsh orthography

Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.

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Welsh toponymy

The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English.

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Welsh Tract

The Welsh Tract, also called the Welsh Barony, was a portion of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania settled largely by Welsh-speaking Quakers.

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Welsh-language literature

Welsh-language literature (llenyddiaeth Gymraeg) has been produced continuously since the emergence of Welsh from Brythonic as a distinct language c. 5th century AD.

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Western Brittonic languages

Western Brittonic languages comprise two dialects into which Common Brittonic split during the Early Middle Ages; its counterpart was the ancestor of the Southwestern Brittonic languages.

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William Morgan (Bible translator)

William Morgan (1545 – 10 September 1604) was Bishop of Llandaff and of St Asaph, and the translator of the first version of the whole Bible into Welsh from Greek and Hebrew.

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William Salesbury

William Salesbury also Salusbury (c. 1520 – c. 1584) was the leading Welsh scholar of the Renaissance and the principal translator of the 1567 Welsh New Testament.

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Windows 7

Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows Vista

Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Y Byd

Y Byd (The World) was an attempt to launch the first Welsh language daily newspaper.

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Y Cymro

Y Cymro (Welsh for The Welshman) is a Welsh language newspaper, published from 1932.

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Y Wladfa

Y Wladfa ('The Colony'); also occasionally Y Wladychfa Gymreig ('The Welsh Settlement') is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.

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Ysgol Glan Clwyd

Ysgol Glan Clwyd (or Ysgol Uwchradd Glan Clwyd) is a Welsh medium secondary school, and was the first of its kind.

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Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen

Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen is a bilingual comprehensive secondary school for pupils aged 11–18, situated in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, Wales.

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8th century

The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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CYMRAEG, Cymraeg, Cymric language, Gymraeg, ISO 639:cy, ISO 639:cym, ISO 639:wel, Preservation of Welsh, Preservation of the Welsh language, Revitalisation of Welsh, Revitalisation of the Welsh language, Revitalization of Welsh, Revitalization of the Welsh language, Revival of Welsh, Revival of the Welsh language, Status of Welsh, Status of the Welsh language, Welsh (language), Welsh Language, Welsh Second Language, Welsh language preservation, Welsh language revitalisation, Welsh language revitalization, Welsh language revival, Welsh language/Archive 1, Welsh lingo, Welsh speaker, Welsh-language, Welsh-speaking, Y Gymraeg.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

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