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Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali: অভয় চরোনারবীন্দ্র ভক্তিবেদান্তো স্বামী প্রভুপাদ; 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was a Vedic spiritual teacher (guru) and the founder preceptor (Acharya) of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement".
Aajkaal (pronounced: and its evening edition Sandhya Aajkaal) is a Bengali newspaper in Kolkata, India.
Abanindranath Tagore CIE (অবনীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর) (7 August 1871 – 5 December 1951) was the principal artist and creator of the "Indian Society of Oriental Art".
ABP Ananda (also known as Anandabazar Patrika Ananda) is a Bengali language 24-hour cable and satellite television news channel headquartered in Kolkata.
The Adina Mosque is the ruins of the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent, located in the Indian state of West Bengal near the border with Bangladesh.
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Aircel Ltd. is a defunct Indian mobile network operator headquartered in Gurgaon that offered voice and 2G and 3G data services.
Ajay (/ˈədʒɑɪ/) is a river which flows through the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
Akshaya Tritiya, also known as Akti or Akha Teej, is annual spring time festival of the Hindus and Jains.
Alan Bennett (born 9 May 1934) is an English playwright, screenwriter, actor and author.
Rev Alexander Duff, D.D. LLD.
Alipurduar District is the 20th district in the state of West Bengal, India.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
The All India Trinamool Congress (abbreviated AITC, TMC or Trinamool Congress) is an Indian political party based in West Bengal.
Alstonia scholaris (commonly called blackboard tree, devil tree, ditabark, milkwood-pine,saptparni,shaitan tree,white cheesewood) is an evergreen tropical tree in the family Apocynaceae.
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Anandabazar Patrika is an Indian Bengali language daily newspaper published in Kolkata, New Delhi, Mumbai and Silchar by the ABP Group.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
Anil Kumar Gain (অনীল কুমার গায়েন), (1 February 1919 – 7 February 1978) (also spelt Anil Kumar Gayen) was an Indian mathematician and statistician best known for his works on the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient in the field of applied statistics, with his colleague Ronald Fisher.
Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Newar: अन्नपूर्णा) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over, thirteen peaks over, and sixteen more over.
Anushilan Samiti (Ōnūshīlōn sōmītī, lit: body-building society) was a Bengali Indian organisation that existed in the first quarter of the twentieth century, and propounded revolutionary violence as the means for ending British rule in India.
Aparna Sen (Ôporna Shen; born 25 October 1945) is an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter and actress who is known for her work in Bengali cinema.
Arabari or Arabari Forest Range, is the name of a forest range in the West Midnapore district of West Bengal, India.
The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements with influences from different parts of the world.
The association of Armenians with India and the presence of Armenians in India are very old, and there has been a mutual economic and cultural association of Armenians with India for the last several centuries.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.
An art film is typically a serious, independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience.
Asansol is a city in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the second largest and most populated city in West Bengal after Kolkata and the district headquarters of Paschim Bardhaman district. It is the 39th largest urban agglomeration in India. According to a 2010 report released by the International Institute for Environment and Development, a UK-based policy research non-governmental body, Asansol was ranked 11th among Indian cities. and 42nd in the world in its list of 100 fastest-growing cities. Asansol is classed as a Y-category city for calculation of HRA (House Rent Allowance) for public servants, making it a Tier-II city.
Ashapoorna Devi (8 January 1909 – 13 July 1995) also Ashapurna Debi or Asha Purna Devi, was a prominent Bengali novelist and poet.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee CSI, FASB, FRSE, FRAS, MRIA (anglicised, originally Āśutōṣh Mukhōpādhyāẏa, also anglicised to Asutosh Mookerjee) (29 June 1864 – 25 May 1924) was a prolific Bengali educator, jurist, barrister and mathematician.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
The Assamese people are the indigenous people of the state of Assam.They are a physically diverse group formed after years of assimilation of Austroasiatic, Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman and Tai races.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atul Prasad Sen অতুল প্রসাদ সেন (20 October 1871 – 26 August 1934) was a Bengali composer, lyricist and singer, and also a lawyer, philanthropist, social worker, educationist and littérateur.
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw.
Avant-garde music is music that is considered to be at the forefront of experimentation or innovation in its field, with the term "avant-garde" implying a critique of existing aesthetic conventions, rejection of the status quo in favor of unique or original elements, and the idea of deliberately challenging or alienating audiences.
Bagdogra Airport, is a customs airport located in about west of the city of Siliguri, away from Jalpaiguri and away from Darjeeling, the cities which the airport mainly serves, at Bagdogra in Darjeeling district in northern West Bengal, India.
Baharampur (pronounced asˌ) is a city in the state of West Bengal, India,in Murshidabad district situated in the central part of the state.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Bandh is a form of protest used by political activists in South Asian countries such as India and Nepal.
Bangal is a term used to refer to the people of East Bengal (usually from regions around Dhaka and Barisal), now in Bangladesh (as opposed to the Ghotis of West Bengal).
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh is the first Bangladeshi encyclopedia.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay or Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (27 June 1838–8 April 1894) was an Indian writer, poet and journalist.
Bankura district (Pron: baŋkuɽaː) is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Bardhaman (Pron: ˈbɑ:dəˌmən) is a city in West Bengal state in eastern India.
Bardhaman district (also spelled Burdwan or Barddhaman) was a district in West Bengal.
The Baro-Bhuyans (spelled variously as Baro-Bhuinas, "Baro-Bhuiyan" etc.) were warrior chiefs and landlords (zamindars) on the Indian subcontinent; in the region of medieval Assam and Bengal, who maintained a loosely independent confederacy.
Bartaman Patrika (বর্তমান) is an Indian Bengali daily newspaper published from Kolkata, West Bengal, India by Bartaman Pvt.
The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1763; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
Baul or Bauls (বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal, which includes Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaves of several plants used in cooking.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Beguni is a Bengali snack made of eggplant (also known as aubergine or brinjal) which is sliced and battered before being either fried or deep fried in oil.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bengal cricket team is a cricket team that represents the Indian state of West Bengal in domestic first class cricket.
The Bengal famine of 1943 (Bengali: pañcāśēra manvantara) was a major famine in the Bengal province in British India during World War II.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah (بنگاله Bangālah, বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (شاهی بنگاله. Shāhī Bangālah, শাহী বাঙ্গলা)) was a Muslim state, established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
Bengali Buddhists, (বাঙালি বৌদ্ধ, are Buddhists of Bengali ethnic and linguistic identity. Bengali Buddhists constitute 0.4% of the population in Bangladesh. Buddhism has a rich ancient heritage in the Bengal. The region was a bastion of the ancient Buddhist Mauryan and Palan empires, when the Mahayana and Vajrayana schools flourished. South-eastern Bengal was ruled by the medieval Buddhist Kingdom of Mrauk U during the 16th and 17th centuries. The British Raj influenced the emergence of modern community. Today, Bengali Buddhists are followers of orthodox Therevada Buddhism.
Bengali Christians (বাঙালি খ্রিস্টান) are adherents of Christianity among the Bengali people.
Bengali Hindus (বাঙালি হিন্দু) are ethnic Bengali adherents of Hinduism, and are native to the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bengali literature (বাংলা সাহিত্য, Bangla Sahityô) denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language.
Bengali Muslims (বাঙালি মুসলমান) are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam.
The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Bengali theatre primarily refers to theatre performed in the Bengali language.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
The Bhāgīrathī (Pron:/ˌbʌgɪˈɹɑːθɪ/) is a turbulent Himalayan river in the Indian states of Uttarakhand, and one of the two headstreams of the Ganges, the major river of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism.
Bhai Phota or Bhai Phonta is a Hindu festival celebrated in Bengal.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bharti Airtel Limited (commonly shortened to Airtel and stylised airtel) is an Indian global telecommunications services company based in New Delhi, India.
Bhawaiya (ভাওয়াইয়া) is a musical form or a popular folk music in Northern Bangladesh, especially Rangpur District and in Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, part of Darjeeling and North Dinajpur district of West Bengal and Dhubri and Goalpara of Assam in India.
Bhojpuris are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group that are part of the Hindustani (Hindavi) panethnicity who speak the Bhojpuri language, which is, sociolinguistically, one of the seven Hindi languages (Haryanvi, Braj, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Bagheli and Kannauji), and inhabit the Bhojpuri-Purvanchal region.
Bhumij are an Kshatriya people living primarily in the Indian states of Assam, West Bengal, Odisha and Jharkhand, mostly in the old Singhbhum district.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
The Bhutia བོད་རིགས (Drenjongpa / Drenjop;; "inhabitants of Sikkim"; in Bhutan: Dukpa) are a community of people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese, a Tibetan dialect fairly mutually intelligible with standard Tibetan.
Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay (12 September 1894 – 1 November 1950) was an Indian Bengali author and one of the leading writers of modern Bengali literature. His best known work is the autobiographical novel Pather Panchali (The Song of the Road), which was later adapted (along with Aparajito, the sequel) into The Apu Trilogy of films directed by Satyajit Ray. The 1951 Rabindra Puraskar, the most prestigious literary award in West Bengal, was posthumously awarded to Bibhutibhushan for his novel, Ichhamati.
This is a bibliography of notable works about India.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Birbhum district (pron: biːrbʰuːm) is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Biryani, also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, ¨spicy rice¨ is a South Asian mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.
Blank verse is poetry written with regular metrical but unrhymed lines, almost always in iambic pentameter.
Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Bogra, officially known as Bogura, is a major city located in the Bogra District, Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
Bose Institute (Basu Bigyan Mandir) is one of the oldest and premier research institutes of India.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Brahmo Samaj (Bengali: ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism, which began as a monotheistic reformist movement of the Hindu religion that appeared during the Bengal Renaissance.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
A bronze medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of bronze awarded to the third-place finisher of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
Buddha's Birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism.
Buddhadeva Bose (also spelt Buddhadeb Bosu) (1908–1974) was an Indian Bengali writer of the 20th century.
Buddhadeb Dasgupta (Bengali: বুদ্ধদেব দাশগুপ্ত Buddhodeb Dashgupto) (born 1944) is a poet and prominent contemporary Indian filmmaker, most known for films like Bagh Bahadur, Tahader Katha, Charachar and Uttara.
Buddhadeb Guha (বুদ্ধদেব গুহ Buddhodeb Guho) (born June 29, 1936 in Calcutta) is a Bengali fiction writer.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India.
Business process outsourcing (BPO) is defined as a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider.
Business Standard is the third largest Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd (BSL) in two languages, English and Hindi.
The Buxa Tiger Reserve (BTR) (বক্সা জাতীয় উদ্যান; Pron: ˈbʌksə) is a tiger reserve located inside the Buxa National Park (বক্সা জাতীয় উদ্যান Bôksha Jatio Uddan) in West Bengal, India, in the Buxa Hills of the southern hilly area of Bhutan.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 188821 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India presently the state of Tamil Nadu, who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
The Calcutta Boys' School was founded by the Rev.
The Calcutta Cricket & Football Club (CC&FC) is a sports club based in Kolkata, India.
The Calcutta Group was a group of modern artists in India, formed in 1943 in Kolkata.
The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India.
Calcutta State Transport Corporation (CSTC) is a West Bengal state government undertaken transport corporation.
Calcutta Tramways Company (CTC) is a state-run company that operates trams and buses in and around Kolkata (formerly known as Calcutta) in West Bengal, India.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Casuarina is a genus of 17 tree species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia, the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, and islands of the western Pacific Ocean.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by Union Government of India.
Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI) is a Kolkata based research institute under Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India.
The Central Provinces was a province of British India.
Centre for Civil Society (CCS) is a non-profit think tank based in New Delhi.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu ((also transliterated Caitanya Mahāprabhu); 18 February 1486 – 14 June 1534) was a Vedic spiritual leader who founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism.
Chandannagar, formerly spelled as Chandernagore, is a city and a municipal corporation with former French colony located about north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India.
Chandidas (চণ্ডীদাস; born 1408 CE) refers to a medieval poet of Bengal or possibly more than one.
Channel 10 is a premier Bengali language television network that carried news and current affairs in India.
Charak Puja (also known as Nil Puja) is a Hindu folk festival, held in southern Bangladesh and West Bengal on the last day of the month of Chaitra (in Bengali calendars called Choitro).
The Charyapada (চর্যাপদ Sôrzapôd) (চর্যাপদ Chôrjapôd) is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chhau dance, also spelled as Chau or Chhau, is a semi classical Indian dance with martial, tribal and folk origins.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese or Han people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting.
The chinkara (Gazella bennettii), also known as the Indian gazelle, is a gazelle species native to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Chukha District (Dzongkhag: ཆུ་ཁ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Chu-kha rdzong-khag; also spelled "Chhukha") is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan.
The cinema of West Bengal (ṭôliuḍ), also known as Tollywood refers to the Indian Bengali language film industry based in the Tollygunge region of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
West Bengal is the state with highest population density in India.
Coastal fish, also called inshore fish or neritic fish, inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
Cooch Behar district is a district of the state of West Bengal, India, as well as the district's namesake town.
Cooch Behar Palace, also called the Victor Jubilee Palace, is a landmark in Cooch Behar city, West Bengal.
The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) is a privately-held national level board of school education in India that conducts the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and the Indian School Certificate examinations for Class X and Class XII respectively.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
A crore (abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
A customs airport is an airport notified by the appropriate customs authority of the country as an airport which shall be airports for the unloading of imported goods and the loading of export goods or any class of such goods.
The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as bike taxi, velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, beca, becak, trisikad, or trishaw.
Dagana is populated mostly by Dzongkha speakers, however in the southwest near Sarpang District, Nepali is also spoken as a native language.
Dakshin Dinajpur or South Dinajpur is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumdar (দক্ষিণারঞ্জন মিত্র মজুমদার; 1877–1956) was a celebrated Indian writer in Bengali of fairy tales and children's literature.
Dakshineswar Kali Temple is a Hindu temple located in Dakshineswar near Kolkata.
Damodar River (Pron: /ˈdæmoˌdaː/) is a river flowing across the Indian states of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
The Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) is a government aided organization which operates several power stations in the Damodar River area of West Bengal and Jharkhand states of India.
Darjeeling District (pronunciation: dɑ:rʤi:lɪŋ) is the northernmost district of the state of West Bengal in eastern India in the foothills of the Himalayas.
Darjeeling Himalayan hill region or Darjeeling Himalaya is the mountainous area on the North-Western side of the state of West Bengal in India.
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, also known as the DHR or Toy Train, is a narrow-gauge railway based on zig zag and loop-line technology which runs between New Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Darjeeling tea is a tea from the Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India.
Dashain (India and Nepal or Baḍādaśãi बडादशैँ), also Bijayā Daśamī), or Mohani (Nepali म्होनि नख) is the Nepali version of Durga Puja (Maithili: दुर्गा पुजा), a fifteen-day-long festival of Shaktism in South Asia. It is celebrated by Hindu groups in Nepal and the ethnic हिन्दू Nepali people of Indian hill states of Sikkim, Assam and Darjeeling district and among the Lhotshampa of Bhutan and the Burmese Gurkhas of Myanmar. It is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Bikram Sambat and Nepal Sambatannual calendar, celebrated by hindu Nepalese people, along with their diaspora throughout the globe. It is the longest and most anticipated festival in Nepal, Bhutan, Burma and North Indian hills. People return from all parts of the world, as well as different parts of the country, to celebrate together. All government offices, educational institutions and other offices remain closed during the festival period.The festival falls in September or October, starting from the shukla paksha (bright lunar fortnight) of the month of Ashvin and ending on purnima, the full moon. Among the fifteen days on which it is celebrated, the most important days are the first, seventh, eighth, ninth and the tenth. Among the Newa of the Nepal mandal Kathmandu valley Dashain is celebrated as the most important festival of as Nepal sambat calendar year. Among the Hindus and Buddhist Newars, it is celebrated with slight differences and interpretations, where each nine days Navaratri (नवरात्री) leading up to the 10th day called 'Dashami' carry special importance. The goddess Durga and her various manifestations are especially worshiped by Hindu Newars throughout the Shaktipeeths of Kathmandu Valley. Among Newars, Mwohni is also important for its emphasis on family gatherings as well as on a renewal of community ties, highlighted by special family dinners called Nakhtyā (नख्त्या) and various community processions of deities called Jātrā (जात्रा) throughout the three royal cities of Kathmandu Valley.
David Hare (1775–1842) was a Scottish watchmaker and philanthropist in Bengal, India (see East India Company and their rule in India).
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line.
Dibyendu Barua (দিব্যেন্দু বড়ুয়া) (born 27 October 1966) is a chess Grandmaster from the city of Kolkata (Calcutta) in the Indian state of West Bengal.
A District Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
The Dooars or Duars are the alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lie south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin.
Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.
Dum Dum is a city with a municipality in Barrackpore subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal.
Durga Puja, also called Durgotsava, is an annual Hindu festival in the Indian subcontinent that reveres the goddess Durga. Durga Puja is believed to be the greatest festival of the Bengali people. It is particularly popular in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh and the diaspora from this region, and also in Nepal where it is called Dashain. The festival is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, typically September or October of the Gregorian calendar, and is a multi-day festival that features elaborate temple and stage decorations (pandals), scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions. It is a major festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism across India and Shakta Hindu diaspora. Durga Puja festival marks the battle of goddess Durga with the shape-shifting, deceptive and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura, and her emerging victorious. Thus, the festival epitomises the victory of good over evil, but it also is in part a harvest festival that marks the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation. The Durga Puja festival dates coincide with Vijayadashami (Dussehra) observed by other traditions of Hinduism, where the Ram Lila is enacted — the victory of Rama is marked and effigies of demon Ravana are burnt instead. The primary goddess revered during Durga Puja is Durga, but her stage and celebrations feature other major deities of Hinduism such as goddess Lakshmi (goddess of wealth, prosperity), Saraswati (goddess of knowledge and music), Ganesha (god of good beginnings) and Kartikeya (god of war). The latter two are considered to be children of Durga (Parvati). The Hindu god Shiva, as Durga's husband, is also revered during this festival. The festival begins on the first day with Mahalaya, marking Durga's advent in her battle against evil. Starting with the sixth day (Sasthi), the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues. Lakshmi and Saraswati are revered on the following days. The festival ends of the tenth day of Vijaya Dashami, when with drum beats of music and chants, Shakta Hindu communities start a procession carrying the colorful clay statues to a river or ocean and immerse them, as a form of goodbye and her return to divine cosmos and Mount Kailash. The festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century. The prominence of Durga Puja increased during the British Raj in its provinces of Bengal and Assam. Durga Puja is a ten-day festival, of which the last five are typically special and an annual holiday in regions such as West Bengal, Odisha and Tripura where it is particularly popular. In the contemporary era, the importance of Durga Puja is as much as a social festival as a religious one wherever it is observed.
Durgapur is a Tier-II city in Paschim Bardhaman district, in the state of West Bengal, India. Durgapur is the third largest urban agglolomeration in West Bengal and happens to be the second planned city of India after Chandigarh and has the only operational dry (inland) port in Eastern India. Durgapur was planned by two American Architects Joseph Allen Stein and Benjamin Polk in 1955.It is the only city in Eastern India to have an operational dry dock.
Dwijendralal Ray (দ্বিজেন্দ্রলাল রায়; 19 July 1863 – 17 May 1913), also known as D. L. Ray (ডি.), was a Bengali poet, playwright, and musician.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
East Bengal Football Club is one of the esteemed club in India which plays the top tier leagues in Indian Football.East Bengal is managed by coach Bastob Roy East Bengal Football Club is a professional football club, based in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The East Zone cricket team is a first-class cricket team that represents eastern India in the Duleep Trophy and Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy Inter Zonal.
The Eastern Development Region (Nepali: पुर्वाञ्चल विकास क्षेत्र, Purwānchal Bikās Kshetra) was one of Nepal's five development regions.
The Eastern Railway (abbreviated ER and পূর্ব, पूरे / पूर्व) is among the 16 zones of the Indian Railways.
The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
Eden Gardens is a cricket ground in Kolkata, India established in 1864.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Ektara (एकतारा, একতারা, ਇਕ ਤਾਰਾ; literally "one-string", also called iktar, ektar, yaktaro, gopichand, gopichant, gopijiantra, tun tuna) is a one-string instrument most often used in traditional music from Bangladesh, Egypt, India, and Pakistan.
Electric rickshaws (also known as electric tuk-tuks or e-rickshaws) have been becoming more popular in some cities since 2008 as an alternative to auto rickshaws and pulled rickshaws because of their low fuel cost, and less human effort compared to pulled rickshaws.
English Bazar, otherwise known as Malda, the "Mango City", is a city in Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Kolkata, India, is largely inhabited by the ethnic community of the native Bengali people.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Farakka Barrage is a barrage across the Ganges River, located in Murshidabad district in the Indian state of West Bengal, roughly from the border with Bangladesh near Chapai Nawabganj District.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Fort William College (also called the College of Fort William) was an academy and learning centre of Oriental studies established by Lord Wellesley, then Governor-General of British India.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.
Gaganendranath Tagore (September 17, 1867 – 1938) was an Indian painter and cartoonist of the Bengal school.
Gajan (গাজন) is a Hindu festival celebrated mostly in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Ganashakti Patrika (গণশক্তি পত্রিকা) is an Indian Bengali daily newspaper published from Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Ganesh Chaturthi (IAST), also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi or Vinayaka Chavithi is the Hindu festival that reveres god Ganesha.
Gangaridai (Γανγαρίδαι; Latin: Gangaridae) is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sunderbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the South Asia, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Ghoti, also called Paschimbangiya or Pangiya, are a social group native to West Bengal (Paschimbanga), India.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Goethals Memorial School is a boarding school run by the Congregation of Christian Brothers in India.
Gambhira is a type of song (originating in Chapai Nawabganj, in the Northern region of Bangladesh).
Gopal Bhar or Gopal Bhand (গোপাল ভাঁড়) was a court jester in medieval Bengal.
Gorkhaland is proposed statehood demand by the people of the hill regions of District Darjeeling demanding separate state from the Indian state of West Bengal.
Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) is a semi-autonomous administrative body for the Darjeeling and Kalimpong hills in West Bengal, India.
Gorumara National Park (গোরুমারা জাতীয় উদ্যান; Pron: ˌgɔ:rʊˈmɑ:rə; Gorumara Jatio Uddan) is a National Park in northern West Bengal, India.
Goutam Ghose (also credited as Gautam Ghosh) (born 24 July 1950) is one of the most acclaimed film directors, music director, and cinematographer of modern India, who works primarily in Bengali cinema.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 23 districts.
The Governor of West Bengal is a nominal head and representative of the President of India in the state of West Bengal.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
The Great Bengal Famine of 1770 (৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর, Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a famine between 1769 and 1773 (1176 to 1180 in the Bengali calendar) that affected the lower Gangetic plain of India from Bihar to the Bengal region.
The Green Revolution in India refers to a period of time when agriculture in India changed to an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, pump sets, etc.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Guru Purnima is a Nepalese and Indian festival dedicated to spiritual and academic teachers.
Habra is a city and a police station under Barasat sadar subdivision in North 24 Parganas district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Haldia is an industrial city and municipality in Purba Medinipur district, in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Happy Valley Tea Estate (হ্যাপি ভ্যালি চা বাগান) is a tea garden in Darjeeling district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism is the largest religious tradition in the Indian state of West Bengal with 70.54 % of the population identifying themselves as Hindus (as of 2011).
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Hindutva ("Hinduness"), a term popularised by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1923, is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of the Republic of India begins on 26 January 1950.
Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Hooghly district is one of the districts of the state of West Bengal in India.
The Hooghly River (Hugli; Anglicized alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) or the Bhāgirathi-Hooghly, traditionally called 'Ganga', is an approximately distributary of the Ganges River in West Bengal, India.
Howrah or Haora, is the second largest city in West Bengal, India, after Kolkata.
Howrah district is a district of the West Bengal state in eastern India.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Idea Cellular (commonly referred to as simply Idea, and stylised as !dea) is an Indian mobile network operator based at Mumbai, Maharashtra.Idea is a pan-India integrated GSM operator offering 2G, 3G and 4G mobile services.
Tenualosa ilisha (ilish, hilsa, hilsa herring "ইলিশ" in Bangla, or hilsa shad) is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to India or Indian culture include: List of India-related topics People are listed by their first names.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) is a trust established by the Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
The Indian Administrative Service (IAST), often abbreviated to I.A.S., or simply IAS, is the administrative arm of the All India Services.
Indian Arts consists of a variety of art forms, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery sculpture), visual arts (e.g., paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk).
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) is an institute of higher learning in Kolkata, India.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB) is a biomedical research centre in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (IIEST Shibpur) is a public engineering institution located at Shibpur, Howrah district, West Bengal.
The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) is an autonomous public business school established in 1963 by the Government of India (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) to help professionalize the country's foreign trade management and increase exports by developing human resources; generating, analysing and disseminating data; and conducting research.
Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (IIM Calcutta or IIM-C) is a public business school located in Joka, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata (IISER-K or IISER - Kolkata) is an autonomous science research and education institute in Nadia district, West Bengal, India, awarding its own degrees.
The Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IIT Kharagpur or IIT KGP) is a public engineering institution established by the government of India in 1951.
Indian Institutes of Engineering Science and Technology (abbreviated as IIEST) are a group of academic institutions in India for research and education in engineering along with IITs and IIsc.These were originally proposed by the Government of India in 2007 to meet the increasing demand for technological and scientific workforce in the industrial and service sectors of India as well as the growing need for qualified personnel in research and development.
The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 20 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India.
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj; lit.: Free Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) is an academic institute of national importance as recognised by a 1959 act of the Indian parliament.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
Industrial action (Europe, India, South Africa and Australia) or job action (Canada and US) refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour, most times when they are forced out of work due to contract termination and no agreement being reached, meant to reduce productivity in a workplace.
Information technology in India is an industry consisting of two major components: IT services and business process outsourcing (BPO).
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891), born Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay (Ishshor Chôndro Bôndopaddhae; Bengali: ঈশ্বরচন্দ্র বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়), was a British Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Since the partition of India in 1947, the majority of the Bengali Muslims have lived in Bangladesh.
Shaikh Alauddin Chisti (1570 – 1613; known as Islam Khan Chisti) was a Mughal general and the Subahdar of Bengal.
ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Jadavpur University is a public autonomous university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Jagaddhatri or Jagadhatri (Bengali: জগদ্ধাত্রী, Devanagri: जगद्धात्री, Oriya: ଜଗଦ୍ଧାତ୍ରୀ, 'Bearer of the World') is an aspect of the Hindu goddess Durga, who is particularly worshipped in West Bengal and Odisha states of India.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.
Jago Bangla is an Indian Bengali weekly newspaper published from Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The Jaldhaka River (Pron:/ˌdʒælˈdɑːkə/) (জলঢাকা নদী.), also known as Dichu River in earlier times, is a trans-boundary river with a length of 192 kilometres that originates from the Kupup or Bitang Lake in southeastern Sikkim in the eastern Himalayas and flows through Bhutan and the Kalimpong, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts of West Bengal, India.
Jalpaiguri district (Pron: dʒɔlpaːiːguɽiː) is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal,2.
Jamdani (জামদানি) is one of the finest muslin textiles of Bengal, produced in South Rupshi, Narayanganj, Dhaka District, Bangladesh for centuries.
Jamini Roy (11 April 1887 – 24 April 1972) was an Indian painter.
"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.
The Janapadas were the realms, republics (GanaPada) and kingdoms (SaamaRajya) of the Vedic period on the Indian subcontinent.
Jessore District, officially known as Jashore District, is a district in the southwestern region of Bangladesh.
A jester, court jester, or fool, was historically an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras who was a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jhargram district (Bengali: ঝাড়গ্রাম জেলা)is a district in the state of West Bengal, India.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Jibanananda Das (জীবনানন্দ দাশ) (17 February 1899 – 22 October 1954) was a Bengali poet, writer, novelist and essayist.
Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited d/b/a Jio is an Indian mobile network operator.
Joy Goswami (জয় গোস্বামী; born 1954) is an Indian poet.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Jugantar or Yugantar (যুগান্তর Jugantor) (English meaning New Era or more literally Transition of an Epoch) was one of the two main secret revolutionary trends operating in Bengal for Indian independence.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.
Kali Puja, also known as Shyama Puja or Mahanisha Puja, is a festival dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali, celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month Kartik especially in West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, Tripura and Bangladesh.
The kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos) is a pheasant found in forests and thickets, especially in the Himalayan foothills, from Pakistan to western Thailand.
Kalimpong district is a district in the state of West Bengal, India.
Kalpataru Day also called Kalpataru Diwas or Kalpataru Utsav is an annual religious festival observed by monks of the Ramakrishna Math monastic order of Hinduism and lay followers of the associated Ramakrishna Mission, as well as the worldwide Vedanta Societies.
Kangsabati River (Pron:/ˌkæŋsəˈbɑːtɪ/) (also variously known as the Kasai and Cossye) rises from the Chota Nagpur plateau in the state of West Bengal, India and passes through the districts of Purulia, Bankura and Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal before draining in the Bay of Bengal.
Karthikai, Kartika, Karthika or Kartik or Kartika maasam is a Hindu calendar month that typically overlaps October and November.
A kati roll (sometimes spelt kathi roll; কাঠি রোল) is a street-food dish originating from Kolkata, India.
Kaushik Ganguly is an Indian director, screenwriter and actor in Bengali cinema.
Kazi Nazrul Islam (কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম,; 24 May 189929 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and revolutionary.
Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport, named after bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, a project under Bengal Aerotropolis Projects Limited (BAPL), is a domestic airport located at Andal, West Bengal, India.
Kazi Nazrul University is a public University in Asansol, West Bengal.
Keshari Nath Tripathi (born 10 November 1934) is an Indian politician and the present Governor of West Bengal.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
Kharagpur is an important industrial city in Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, India.
Khulna Division (খুলনা বিভাগ) is one of the eight divisions of Bangladesh.
Kirtan or Kirtana (कीर्तन) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.
The Koch (Pron:kɒʧ) dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch community, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498.
The term "Kol people" is used in India to refer to some of the indigenous Austroasiatic tribal groups of India.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The International Kolkata Book Fair (Old name: Calcutta Book Fair in English, and officially Antarjatik Kolkata Boimela or Antarjatik Kolkata Pustakmela in romanized Bengali, Bengali: (কলকাতা বইমেলা বা কলকাতা পুস্তকমেলা) is a winter fair in Kolkata. It is a unique book fair in the sense of not being a trade fair – the book fair is primarily for the general public rather than whole-sale distributors. It is the world's largest non-trade book fair, Asia's largest book fair and the most attended book fair in the world. It is the world's third largest annual conglomeration of books after the Frankfurt Book Fair and the London Book Fair. Many Kolkatans consider the book fair an inherent part of Kolkata, and instances of people visiting the fair every day during its duration are not uncommon. The fair offers a typical fairground experience with a book flavour – with picnickers, singer-songwriters, and candy floss vendors. With a total footfall of over 2 million people, it is world's largest book fair by attendance. The success of the Kolkata Book Fair has resulted in many book fairs in smaller cities in West Bengal like Siliguri, and was inspired, in turn, by the first World Book Fair at New Delhi in 1972. The popularity of the Kolkata Book Fair was seminal in India being nominated the Guest of Honour at the Frankfurt Book Fair in 2006, according to the Frankfurt Book Fair organizers. The book fair has been celebrated in theatre, literature, songs and limericks in Kolkata.
Kolkata district is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Kolkata International Film Festival (KIFF) (কলকাতা আন্তর্জাতিক চলচিত্র উত্সব) is an annual film festival held in Kolkata, India.
The Kolkata Knight Riders (also known by the acronym KKR) are a franchise cricket team representing the city of Kolkata in the Indian Premier League.
The Kolkata Metro is a rapid transit system serving the Kolkata metropolitan area in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kolkata TV is a 24-hour Bengali news channel launched by SST Media in 2006.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Krishna Janmashtami (Devanagari कृष्ण जन्माष्टमी, IAST), also known simply as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is an annual Hindu festival that celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu.
KRNB lects (or Kamta, Rajbanshi and Northern Bangla lects) are modern lects that arose from the proto-Kamata language.
Kumortuli (also spelt Kumartuli, or the archaic spelling Coomartolly) is a traditional potters’ quarter in northern Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the east Indian state of West Bengal.
Kurmali (Devanagari: कुर्माली, कुरमाली, Eastern Nagari: কুর্মালী,কুরমালী) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Bihari group spoken in Eastern India.
Kurseong (Nepali: कुर्सियांग Bangla:কার্শিয়ং) comes from the Lepcha word 'Kharsang', meaning "The land of white Orchids".
A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.
The Oraon or Kurukh tribe (Kurukh: Oṛāōn and Kuṛuḵẖ), also spelled Uraon, Oran, or Oram, are an Adivasi group inhabiting various states across central and eastern India, Rakhine State in Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.
La Martinière Calcutta (informally known as LMC) is an independent private day school located in Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal.
Lakshmana Sena (লক্ষ্মণ সেন; reign: 1178–1206), also called Lakshman Sen in modern vernaculars, was the ruler from the Sena dynasty of the Bengal region on the Indian subcontinent.
Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity.
Lakshmi Puja (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी पूजा, IAST: Lakṣmī Pūjā), is a Hindu religious festival that falls on Amavasya (new moon day) of Krishna Paksha (Dark fortnight) in the Vikram Samvat Hindu calendar month of Ashwin, on the third day of Tihar and is considered as the main festive day of Deepawali.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Lanka is the name given in Hindu epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana in the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Leander Adrian Paes (born 17 June 1973) is an Indian professional tennis player who is considered to be one of the best doubles and mixed doubles players of all time, having achieved a career Grand Slam in each discipline.
The Left Front (বামফ্রন্ট, transliterated bamfront) is an alliance of political parties in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The Lepcha are also called the Rongkup meaning the children of God and the Rong, Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup (Lepcha: ᰕᰫ་ᰊᰪᰰ་ᰆᰧᰶ ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰀᰪᰱ ᰛᰪᰮ་ᰀᰪᰱ; "beloved children of the Róng and of God"), and Rongpa (Sikkimese), are among the indigenous peoples of Sikkim and number between 30,000 and 50,000.
Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्,, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"; also linga, Shiva linga), is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.
Lionel Andrés Messi Cuccittini (born 24 June 1987) is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club Barcelona and the Argentine national team.
The Chief Minister of West Bengal is the chief executive of the eastern Indian state of West Bengal.
The following tables are the list of cities in India by population.
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.
The Himalayas lies in the north of the state and the Bay of Bengal is at the south.
There are 24 high courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.
There are a great number of Hindu Religious Festivals held throughout the world.
The list includes all Indian captains of individual, women's and youth cricket.
The national average HDI for India in 2008 was 0.467.
These are lists of Indian states and union territories by their nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP).
This is a list of metropolitan areas by population in India.
A multiple-system operator (MSO) is an operator of multiple cable or direct-broadcast satellite television systems.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This is a list of notable people from West Bengal, India.
The following is a list of states and union territories of the Republic of India by area from largest to smallest according to the census of 2011.
India is a union of 29 states and 7 union territories.
This is a complete listing of the works by Kazi Nazrul Islam, in the Bengali language.
Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 74% (2011 Census figure) with recent reports of 80% literacy.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Lodha may refer to Hindu or Jain surname, caste, tribe or community which have different origin and class.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
Loreto House was established in 1842 in Calcutta, by the Sisters of Loreto belonging to the institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Losar ("new year"William D. Crump, "Losar" in Encyclopedia of New Year's Holidays Worldwide (McFarland & Co.: 2008), pp. 237-38.) is a festival in Tibetan Buddhism.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
The Magahi language, also known as Magadhi, is a language spoken in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of eastern India.
Maha Shivaratri a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
The Mahananda River (Pron:/ˌməhɑːˈnʌndə or ˌmɑːhəˈnʌndə/) (महानदी, महानन्दा नदी, মহানন্দা নদী) is a trans-boundary river that flows through the Indian states of West Bengal and Bihar, and Bangladesh.
Mahaswetah Devi (14 January 1926 – 28 July 2016) Ramon Magsaysay Award.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Mahuaa Khobor was a 24-hour Bengali news channel launched in 2010.
Maithils (Tirhuta: মৈথিল, Devanagri: मैथिल), also known as Maithili people, are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Maithili language and inhabit the Mithila region, which is now situated mainly in northern and eastern Bihar of India and some adjoining districts of the eastern Terai of Nepal.
Makar Sankranti, also known as Makara Sankrānti (Sanskrit: मकर सङ्क्रान्ति) or Maghi, is a festival day in the Hindu calendar, in reference to deity Surya (sun).
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Malda district, also spelt Maldah or Maldaha (often; মালদা, মালদহ) is a district in West Bengal, India.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Mamata Banerjee (Bengali: also known as Didi, born 5 January 1955) is an Indian politician serving as the 8th and current Chief Minister of West Bengal since 2011.
Mangal-Kāvya (মঙ্গলকাব্য, "Poems of Benediction") is a group of Bengali Hindu religious texts, composed more or less between 13th Century and 18th Century, notably consisting of narratives of indigenous deities of rural Bengal in the social scenario of the Middle Ages.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Manik Bandopadhyay (19 May 1908 – 3 December 1956) was a Bengali writer and novelist, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th century Bengali literature.
The Marathi people (मराठी लोक) are an ethnic group that speak Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language.
The Marwari or Marwadi are a South Asian ethno-linguistic group in India and Nepal that originate from the Marwar region of Rajasthan, India.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal (MAKAUT, WB), formerly West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT), is a public state university located in Kolkata, India.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Meghnad Saha FRS (6 October 1893 – 16 February 1956) was an Indian astrophysicist best known for his development of the Saha ionization equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.
A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), or a Member of the Legislature (ML), is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to the legislature or legislative assembly of a sub-national jurisdiction.
Michael Madhusudan Dutt, or Michael Madhusudan Dutta (মাইকেল মধুসূদন দত্ত; 25 January 1824 – 29 June 1873) was a popular 19th-century Bengali poet and dramatist.
Midnapore city (Pron: med̪iːniːpur) is the district headquarters of Paschim Medinipur district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Ministry of Labour and Employment is India's federal ministry which is responsible to protect and safeguard the interest of workers in general and the poor, deprived and disadvantaged sections of the society.
The minivets are passerine birds belonging to the genus Pericrocotus in the cuckoo-shrike family Campephagidae.
A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer.
Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Mohammedan Sporting Club, not to be confused with Mohammedan Sporting Club (Dhaka), founded in 1891 at Kolkata, is one of the oldest and most popular football clubs in India, with a support base in all parts of the country.
Mohun Bagan A.C., is a football club based in Kolkata, India.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mrinal Sen (also spelled Mrinal Shen, born 14 May 1923) is a noted Bengali filmmaker based in Kolkata.
Sistema Shyam TeleServices Limited (SSTL), doing business as Mobile TeleSystems India (MTS India), was the Indian subsidiary of the Russian mobile operator MTS.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyar 'l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or simply Bakhtiyar Khilji (died 1206), a military general of Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
The Munda people (Hindi: मुंडा, Assamese: মুনদা, Bengali: মুন্ডা) are an Adivasi ethnic group of India.
Munshiganj (মুন্সিগঞ্জ), also historically known as Bikrampur, is a district in central Bangladesh.
Muntjacs, also known as barking deer and Mastreani deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus.
Murshidabad (Pron: ˈmʊəʃɪdəˌbɑ:d/bæd or ˈmɜ:ʃɪdəˌ) is a town in Murshidabad district of West Bengal state in India.
Murshidabad district is a district of West Bengal, in eastern India.
Bengali music (বাংলা সংগীত) comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Nabanna (নবান্ন, Nabānna; lit: new Feast) is a Bengali harvest celebration usually celebrated with food and dance and music in Bangladesh and in the Indian State of West Bengal.
Nabanna is a building in industrial township of Howrah which houses the temporary State Secretariat of West Bengal.
Nadia district (Pron: nɔd̪iːaː) (নদিয়া জেলা) is a district of the state of West Bengal, in eastern India.
The national highways network of India is a network of trunk roads that is managed and maintained by CPWD, Central Public Works Department, an agency of the Government of India.
National Institute of Biomedical Genomics is a national level research institute for genomic medicine.
The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), formerly National Open School, (name changed in 2002) is the board of education under the Union Government of India.
The National Institute of Technology Durgapur (abbreviated NIT Durgapur or NIT DGP) is a public engineering institution located in Durgapur, West Bengal, India.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
Nazrul Geeti (নজরুল গীতি) or Nazrul Sangeet (নজরুল সঙ্গীত), literally "music of Nazrul", refers to the songs written and composed by Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh and active revolutionary during the Indian Independence Movement.
Neora Valley National Park is situated in the Kalimpong district, West Bengal, India and was established in 1986.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport is an international airport located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, serving the Kolkata metropolitan area.
News Time also known as News Time Bangla is a 24-hour Bengali news channel launched in 2010.
North 24 Parganas (Pron: pɔrɡɔnɔs) or abv.
North Bengal plains starts from the south of Terai region and continues up to the left bank of the Ganges.
North Bengal State Transport Corporation (NBSTC) is a state government run transport corporation in West Bengal, India.
The Northeast Frontier Railway (abbreviated NFR and पूसीरे), is one of the 17 railway zones in India.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, the night-flowering jasmine or parijat, is a species of Nyctanthes native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
The Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ), formerly known as Oriya, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the East Indian state of Odisha and have the Odia language as their mother tongue.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oliver Rolf Kahn (born 15 June 1969) is a German former football goalkeeper.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to India: India – seventh-largest country by area, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to West Bengal: West Bengal – state in eastern India and is the nation's fourth-most populous state, with over 91 million inhabitants.
The Padma (পদ্মা ''Pôdda'') is a major river in Bangladesh.
Pahela Baishakh (পহেলা বৈশাখ) or Bangla Nababarsha (বাংলা নববর্ষ, Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is the first day of Bengali Calendar.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Panchayat raj is a South Asian political system found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, and Nepal.
Pandua is a ruined city in the Malda district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
Panipuri is a common street snack in several regions of the Indian subcontinent.
Pankaj Roy (31 May 1928 – 4 February 2001) was an Indian cricketer.
Poitabhat or panta bhat (পঁইতা ভাত; পান্তা ভাত; Pàntà bhàt) is rice-based dish prepared by soaking rice, generally leftover, in water overnight.
Paramahansa Yogananda (পরমহংস যোগানন্দ.) (5 January 18937 March 1952), born Mukunda Lal Ghosh (মুকুন্দলাল ঘোষ.), was an Indian yogi and guru who introduced millions of Indians and westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his organization Yogoda Satsanga Society of India and Self-Realization Fellowship.
Park Street (officially Mother Teresa Sarani and earlier Burial Ground Road), is a famous thoroughfare in the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), India.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Paschim Bardhaman district is a predominantly urban mining-industrial district in West Bengal.
Paschim Medinipur district or West Midnapore district (Pron: ˌmɪdnəˈpʊə) (also known as Midnapore West) is one of the districts of the state of West Bengal, India.
Pather Panchali (Song of the Little Road) is a 1955 Indian Bengali-language drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray and produced by the Government of West Bengal.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pitha (Bengali/Assamese: পিঠা piṭha, ପିଠା or ꠙꠤꠑꠣ; fiṭa) is a type of rice cake from the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, common in Bangladesh, Nepal and India, especially the eastern states of Odisha, Assam, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and the northeastern region of India.
Politics in West Bengal is dominated by the following major political parties: the Communist Party of India (Marxist), the Indian National Congress, the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Trinamool Congress.
Pollution of the Ganges (or Ganga), the largest river in India, poses significant threats to human health and the larger environment.
Port Blair is the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India situated in the Bay of Bengal.
The Port of Kolkata is a riverine port in the city of Kolkata, India, located around from the sea.
India has a coastline spanning 7516.6 kilometres, forming one of the biggest peninsulas in the world.
Acharya Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray also spelled Prafulla Chandra Rây (প্রফুল্ল চন্দ্র রায় Praphulla Chandra Rāy; 2 August 1861 – 16 June 1944) was a Bengali chemist, educator and entrepreneur.
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis OBE, FNA, FASc, FRS (29 June 1893 – 28 June 1972) was an Indian scientist and applied statistician.
Pratapaditya (প্রতাপাদিত্য) (1561–1611 CE) was a zamindar, the Hindu king of Jessore and among the most prominent of the Baro-Bhuyan of Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, who fought against the Mughal Empire.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Presidency University, Kolkata, formerly Hindu College and Presidency College, is a public state university located in College Street, Kolkata.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
Prince Vijaya (විජය කුමරු) was a legendary king of Sri Lanka, mentioned in the Pali chronicles, including Mahavamsa.
Pundravardhana (পুন্ড্রবর্ধন Punḍrôbôrdhôn, Punḍravardhana), was an ancient kingdom during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent; the territory located in North Bengal in ancient times, home of the Pundra, a group of people not speaking languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Purba Bardhaman district is in West Bengal.
Purba Medinipur (English: East Medinipur, alternative spelling Midnapore) district is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Purulia district (Pron: puruliːaː) is one of the twenty three districts of West Bengal state in Eastern India.
Rabindra Jayanti (রবীন্দ্র জয়ন্তী) is an annually celebrated cultural festival, prevalent among Bengalis around the world, in the remembrance of Rabindranath Tagore's birthday anniversary.
Rabindra Sangeet (রবীন্দ্রসঙ্গীত Robindro shonggit), also known as Tagore Songs, are songs written and composed by the Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore, winner of the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Raj Bhavan is the official residence of the Governor of West Bengal, located in the capital city Kolkata.
Raja Ganesha (রাজা গণেশ) (reigned 1415) was a Hindu ruler of Bengal, who took advantage of the weakness of the first Ilyas Shahi dynasty and seized power in Bengal.
Raja Sitaram Ray (রাজা সীতারাম রায়) (1658–1714) was an autonomous king, a vassal to the Mughal Empire, who revolted against the empire and established a short-lived sovereign Hindu dominion in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.
Rajanikanta Sen (26 July 1865 – 13 September 1910) was a Bengali poet and composer, known for his devotional (bhakti) compositions, as well as his patriotic songs.
Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor of India who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE.
Rajshahi Division (রাজশাহী বিভাগ) is one of the eight first-level administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Raksha Bandhan, also Rakshabandhan, Quote: m Hindi rakśābandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (rakhi q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (c. 1774 -- 27 September 1833) was a founder of the Brahma Sabha the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a socio-religious reform movement in India.
Ramakrishna Paramahansa; 18 February 1836 – 16 August 1886),http://belurmath.org/kids_section/birth-of-sri-ramakrishna/ born Gadadhar Chatterjee or Gadadhar Chattopadhyay, was an Indian mystic and yogi during the 19th century. Ramakrishna was given to spiritual ecstacies from a young age, and was influenced by several religious traditions, including devotion toward the goddess Kali, Tantra, Vaishnava bhakti, and Advaita Vedanta. Reverence and admiration for him amongst Bengali elites led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda. His devotees look upon him as an incarnation or Avatara of the formless Supreme Brahman while some devotees see him as an avatara of Vishnu.
Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute, formerly Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University or simply Vivekananda University, is a deemed university headquartered at Belur, West Bengal, with campuses spanning multiple states in India.
Ramkinkar Baij (26 May 1906 – 2 August 1980) was an Indian sculptor and painter, one of the pioneers of modern Indian sculpture and a key figure of Contextual Modernism.
Rangpur (রংপুর জেলা, Rongpur Jela also Rongpur Zilla) is a district in Northern Bangladesh.
Rangpur Division (রংপুর বিভাগ) was formed on 25 January 2010, as Bangladesh's 7th division.
Kamtapuri, Rangpuri or Rajbangshi is a Bengali-Assamese language spoken by the Rajbongshi people in Bangladesh and India, and Rajbanshi and Tajpuria in Nepal.
Rarh region is a toponym for an area in the Indian subcontinent that lies between the Chota Nagpur Plateau on the West and the Ganges Delta on the East.
Rasgulla is a syrupy dessert popular in the Indian subcontinent and regions with South Asian diaspora.
The Rasmancha (Bengali: রাসমঞ্চ; Raasmoncho) is a historical building located at Bishnupur, Bankura district, West Bengal, India.
Ratha Yatra, also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra or Chariot festival is any public procession in a chariot.
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China.
Reliance Communications Ltd. (stylised as RCom) is a telecommunications company headquartered in Navi Mumbai, India.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.
The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is a part of the Indian independence movement comprising the actions of the underground revolutionary factions.
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Rituparno Ghosh (31 August 1963 – 30 May 2013) was an Indian film director, actor, writer and lyricist in the Bengali cinema.
Ritwik Ghatak (4 November 19256 February 1976) was a Bengali filmmaker and script writer.
The Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) is an institution of basic research and training in physical and biophysical sciences located in Bidhannagar, Kolkata, India.
Samaresh Majumdar (born 10 March 1944) is a Bengali writer from West Bengal, India.
Samtse District (Dzongkha: བསམ་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Bsam-rtse rdzong-khag; older spelling "Samchi") is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
Sandakphu or Sandakfu or Sandakpur (3636 m; 11,930 ft) is the highest peak in the district of Ilam, Nepal and West Bengal, India.
Sandesh (সন্দেশ Shôndesh; হান্দেশ Handesh; संदेश) is a Bengali dessert created with milk and sugar.
Sangbad Pratidin (সংবাদ প্রতিদিন) (literally meaning news every day) is a daily Indian Bengali newspaper published from Kolkata, India.
Sanjib Chattopadhyay (সঞ্জীব চট্ট্যোপাধ্যায়) (born February 28, 1936 in Kolkata, India) is a Bengali novelist and writer of short stories.
The Santal, or rarely Santals (Santali:ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ,सांथाल, translit, translit), are an ethnic group, native to Nepal and the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
Santali (Ol Chiki:; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
Santiniketan (Santiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 km north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta).
Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism was an exhibition curated by R. Siva Kumar at the National Gallery of Modern Art in 1997, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of India's Independence.
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, alternatively spelt as Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 – 16 January 1938), was a prominent Bengali novelist and short story writer of the early 20th century.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Satyajit Ray (2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter, graphic artist, music composer and author, widely regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century.
Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
Scottish Church College is the oldest continuously running Christian liberal arts and sciences college in India.
The Sena Empire (সেন সাম্রাজ্য, Shen Shamrajjo) was a Hindu dynasty during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.
The serows are six species of medium-sized goat-like or antelope-like mammals of the genus Capricornis.
Shakta Rash or Shakta Rasa or Shakta Ras (শাক্তরাস) is one of the most celebrated festivals of Nabadwip.
Shakti Chattopadhyay (translit) (November 25, 1933 - March 23, 1995) was a Bengali poet and writer.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Shantipur (also known as Santipur) is a city and a municipality in Ranaghat subdivision of Nadia district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay (শরদিন্দু বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়; 30 March 1899 – 22 September 1970) was a Bengali writer.
The sharing of the Ganges waters between India and Bangladesh over the appropriate allocation and development of the water resources of the Ganges River that flows from northern India into Bangladesh.
King Shashanka (Śaśāṃka) created the first separate political entity in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, called the Gauda Kingdom and is a major figure in Bengali history.
Sherpa is one of the major ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal, as well as certain areas of China, Bhutan, India, and the Himalayas.
The Shipping Corporation of India (SCI) is a Government of India Public Sector Enterprise with its headquarters in Mumbai that operates and manages vessels that services both national and international lines.
Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay (শীর্ষেন্দু মুখোপাধ্যায়; born 2 November 1935) is a famous Bengali author from India.
Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.
Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya (শ্রীকৃষ্ণকীর্তন কাব্য) or Sri Krishna Kirtana Kabya is a pastoral Vaishnava drama in verse composed by Boru Chandidas.
Shyama Sangeet (শ্যামা সঙ্গীত) is a genre of Bengali devotional songs dedicated to the Hindu goddess Shyama or Kali which is a form of supreme universal mother-goddess Durga or parvati.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
Siliguri is a city which spans areas of the Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Siliguri Corridor, or Chicken's Neck, is a narrow stretch of land, located in the Indian state of West Bengal, that connects India's northeastern states to the rest of India, with the countries of Nepal and Bangladesh lying on either side of the corridor.
Singalila National Park is a national park of India located on the Singalila Ridge at an altitude of more than 7000 feet above sea level, in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal.
The Sinhala Kingdom or Sinhalese Kingdom refers to the successive Sinhalese kingdoms that existed in what is today Sri Lanka.
Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah (مرزا محمد سراج الدولہ, মির্জা মুহম্মদ সিরাজউদ্দৌলা; 1733 – 2 July 1757) more commonly known as Siraj ud-Daulah, was the last independent Nawab of Bengal.
Sourav Chandidas Ganguly (born 8 July 1972), affectionately known as Dada (meaning "elder brother" in Bengali), is a former Indian cricketer and captain of the Indian national team, Currently, he is appointed as the President of the Cricket Association of Bengal and President of the Editorial Board with Wisden India.
South 24 Parganas is a district in the Indian State of West Bengal, headquartered in Alipore.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Games (SAF Games, SAG, or SA games, & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games) are a biennial multi-sport event held among the athletes from South Asia.
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).
South Bengal State Transport Corporation (SBSTC) is a West Bengal state government undertaken transport corporation.
The South Eastern Railway (abbreviated SER and दपूरे) is one of the 17 railway zones in India and Part of Eastern Railways.
A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed that is usually associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow.
Srijit Mukherji (born 23 September 1977) is an Indian film director, actor, and screenwriter who predominantly works in Bengali cinema.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold by a hawker, or vendor, in a street or other public place, such as at a market or fair.
A Sub-Divisional Magistrate is a title sometimes given to the head official of a district subdivision, an administrative officer that is sometimes below the level of district, depending on a country's government structure.
A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Suhma Kingdom was an ancient state during the Late Vedic period on the eastern part of the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal and considered one of the natural wonders of the world.
The Sundarbans National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve in West Bengal, India.
Sunil Gangopadhyay or Sunil Ganguly (সুনীল গঙ্গোপাধ্যায় Shunil Gônggopaddhae) (7 September 1934 – 23 October 2012) was an Indian Bengali poet and novelist based in the Indian city of Kolkata.
Surjapuri, a language possessing similarities with Bengali and Maithili, is mainly spoken in the parts of Seemanchal subregion (Kishanganj, Katihar, Purnia, Araria districts) of Mithila region of Bihar.
(सुवर्णभूमि; Pali) is the name of a land mentioned in many ancient Buddhist sources such as the Mahavamsa, some stories of the Jataka tales, and Milinda Panha.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
The takin (Budorcas taxicolor), also called cattle chamois or gnu goat, is a goat-antelope found in the eastern Himalayas.
The Tamang (Devnagari: तामाङ; tāmāng) are the largest Tibeto-Burman ethnic group within Nepal and traditionally Buddhist by religion.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tapan Raychaudhuri (8 May 1926 – 26 November 2014) was an Indian historian specialising in British Indian history, Indian economic history and the History of Bengal.
Tapan Sinha (2 October 1924 – 15 January 2009) was one of the most prominent Indian film directors of his time forming a legendary quartet with Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen.
Tara Newz (তারা নিউজ; also known as Tara News) was a 24-hour Bengali language news channel, covering local news of West Bengal and Bangladesh as well as national and international news, operated by Broadcast Worldwide Limited, a public limited company, with other channels under its umbrella, viz.
Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay (23 July 1898 – 14 September 1971) was one of the leading Bengali novelists.
Tarun Majumdar (born 1931) (also often credited as Tarun Mazumdar) (তরুণ মজুমদার Torun Mojumdar) is a Bengali Indian film director who makes films in Bengali and is notable for his depiction of Bengali culture and society.
Tata Docomo Ltd is an Indian mobile network operator, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Teleservices, founded on November 2008.
The Teesta River (or Tista River) is a long river flowing through the Indian states of West Bengal and Sikkim through Bangladesh before emptying to the Bay of Bengal.
Telenor (India) Communications Private Limited, formerly known as Uninor, is a defunct Indian mobile network operator.
The Terai (तराई तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
A terrapin is one of several small species of testudines living in fresh or brackish water.
Thakurmar Jhuli (Grandmother's Bag Of Stories) (ঠাকুরমার ঝুলি) is a collection of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales.
The Asian Age is an English-language Indian daily newspaper with editions published in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.
The Asiatic Society was founded by civil servant Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir William Jones, Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research.
The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd..
Financial Express is an Indian English-language business newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The Statesman is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper founded in 1875 and published simultaneously in Kolkata, New Delhi, Siliguri and Bhubaneswar.
The Telegraph is an Indian English daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 7 July 1982.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
The Tipu Sultan Shahi Mosque (also known as Tipu Sultan Masjid) is a famous mosque in Kolkata, India.
Tollygunge is a locality of south Kolkata, in Kolkata district, West Bengal, India.
Torsa River (also spelt Torsha and also known as Kambu Maqu, Machu and Amo Chhu) rises from the Chumbi Valley in Tibet, China, where it is known as Machu.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
The Toto is an isolated tribal group residing only in a small enclave called Totopara in the Alipurduar district of West Bengal, India.
Tourism in West Bengal refers to West Bengal's tourism.
Tourist attractions in West Bengal refers to the tourist attractions in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The tram system in the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company (CTC), is the only tram network operating in India.
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As".
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The Indian state of West Bengal is the site of India's first modern university and 33 universities are listed under the University Grants Commission (India).
The University of Burdwan (also known as Burdwan University or B.U.) is a public university in Purba Bardhaman, West Bengal, India.
The University of Calcutta (informally known as Calcutta University or CU) is a public state university located in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
University of Gour Banga is a university established in 2008 University official website.
The University of Kalyani, established in 1960, is a state-government administered, affiliating and research university in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.
The University of North Bengal is a state university in Raja Rammohanpur, Siliguri in Darjeeling district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Untouchability is the practice of ostracising a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate.
Rai Bahadur Sir Upendranath Brahmachari (উপেন্দ্রনাথ ব্রহ্মচারী) (19 December 1873 – 6 February 1946) was an Indian scientist and a leading medical practitioner of his time.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uttar Dinajpur or North Dinajpur is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Uttarbanga Sambad (উত্তরবঙ্গ সংবাদ) is a Bengali language broadsheet published from Siliguri.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vajjabhumi was a part of Rarh in ancient times.
The Vangidae family (from vanga, Malagasy for the hook-billed vanga, Vanga curvirostris) comprises a group of often shrike-like medium-sized birds distributed from Australia to Africa, including the vangas of Madagascar to which the family owe its name.
The Vanga Kingdom was an ancient seafaring thalassocracy during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is a research and development unit of the Indian Department of Atomic Energy.
Vasant Panchami, also spelled Basant Panchami, is celebrated by people in various ways depending on the region, Vasant is a festival that marks the arrival of spring.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world.
Vidyasagar University was established by an Act of the West Bengal legislature which was notified in the Calcutta Gazette on 24 June 1981.
Vijayadashami (IAST: Vijayadaśamī) also known as Dasara, Dusshera or Dussehra is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navratri every year.
Vishwakarma Day, also known as Vishwakarma Jayanti or Vishwakarma Puja, is a day of celebration for Vishwakarma, a Hindu god, the divine architect.
Visva-Bharati (A Central University is a public central university located in Santiniketan, West Bengal. It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it Visva-Bharati, which means the communion of the world with India. Until independence it was a college. Soon after independence, in 1951, the institution was given the status of a university and was renamed Visva-Bharati University. The English daily, The Nation, notes, "Using the money he received with his Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, the school was expanded and renamed Visva-Bharati University. It grew to become one of India's most renowned places of higher learning, with a list of alumni that includes Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen, globally renowned filmmaker Satyajit Ray and the country's leading art historian, R. Siva Kumar, to name just a few.".
Vodafone India is the Indian subsidiary of UK-based Vodafone Group plc, the world's second-largest mobile phone company, and is a provider of telecommunications services in India with its operational head office in Mumbai.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The West Bengal Board of Madrasah Education is the state government administered autonomous examining authority for affiliated and recognized madrasahs in West Bengal, India.
The West Bengal Board of Secondary Education is the West Bengal state government administered autonomous examining authority for the Standard 10 examination (or secondary school level examination) of West Bengal, India.
West Bengal Civil Service (Executive), popularly known as W.B.C.S.(Exe), is the civil service of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The West Bengal Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Indian state of West Bengal.
A legislative assembly election was held in six phases between 18 April and 10 May 2011 for all the 294 seats of the ''Vidhan Sabha'' in the state of West Bengal in India.
A Legislative Assembly election was held in 2016 for the 294 seats (out of 295 seats) of the ''Vidhan Sabha'' in the state of West Bengal in India.
The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences (WBNUJS or NUJS) is an autonomous law university offering courses at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
West Bengal State University (WBSU) also known as Barasat University, is a public university situated in Berunanpukuria, 6 km off form Barasat city, North 24 Paraganas, near the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
West Bengal Surface Transport Corporation (WBSTC) is a West Bengal state government undertaken transport corporation.
The white-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) also known as the white-breasted kingfisher is a tree kingfisher, widely distributed in Asia from Turkey east through the Indian subcontinent to the Philippines.
William Carey (17 August 1761 – 9 June 1834) was a British Christian missionary, Particular Baptist minister, translator, social reformer and cultural anthropologist who founded the Serampore College and the Serampore University, the first degree-awarding university in India.
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature (e.g. encourage sustainable development).
The Writers' Building (translit), often shortened to just Writers, is the secretariat building of the State Government of West Bengal in India.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
The Yolmo people are an indigenous people of the Eastern Himalayan Region in Nepal.
The 1974 smallpox epidemic of India was one of the worst smallpox epidemics of 20th century.
The 1987 Cricket World Cup (officially the Reliance Cup 1987) was the fourth edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament.
The 2008 Indian Premier League season is the debut season of the Indian Premier League, established by the BCCI in 2007.
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration.
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2011) was the tenth Cricket World Cup.
The 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup was the 17th FIFA U-17 World Cup, a biennial international football tournament contested by men's under-17 national teams.
Zee 24 Ghanta/ জি ২৪ ঘন্টা (formerly known as 24 Ghanta/২৪ ঘন্টা), is a 24x7 Bengali news channel, covering local, national as well as international news.
Bangla (state), Bengal state, Bengal, West, Demographics of West Bengal, Flora and fauna of West Bengal, IN-WB, Indian bengal, Languages of West Bengal, Pacshimbanga, Paschim Bongo, Pashchim Banga, Pashchimbanga, Poschim Bongo, PoshchimboNGgo, Poshchimbôŋgo, Religion in West Bengal, State of West Bengal, West Bengal (India), West Bengal (State), West Bengal State, West Bengal, India, West Bengali, West bengal, Western Bengal, পশ্চিমবঙ্গ.