198 relations: Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Alan Cunningham, Alexandria, Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Auto-Saharan Company, Axis powers, Babini Group, Baggush Box, Ballantine Books, Bardia, Battle of Alam el Halfa, Battle of Crete, Battle of Gazala, Battle of Greece, Beda Fomm, Bedouin, Benghazi, Benito Mussolini, Bernard Montgomery, Bizerte, Blackshirts, Bonner Fellers, Brega, Buerat, Cairo, Cambridge University Press, Cape of Good Hope, Claude Auchinleck, Coldstream Guards, Combeforce, Commander-in-chief, Commonwealth of Nations, Cruiser tank, Cyrenaica, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Defeat in detail, Derna, Libya, Desert Air Force, Eastern Front (World War II), Egypt, Egypt during World War II, Egypt–Libya Campaign, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Erg (landform), Erwin Rommel, ..., Ettore Bastico, Far East, Fifth Army (Italy), First Army (United Kingdom), First Battle of El Alamein, Flying column, Fort Capuzzo, French North Africa, Gabès, Gale & Polden, Gazala, General officer commanding, Generalleutnant, Generaloberst, Georg Stumme, Germany, Governor-general, Greco-Italian War, Greek government-in-exile, Halfaya Pass, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Hendrik Klopper, Hinterland, History of modern Egypt, Infantry tank, Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian Libya, Italian Libyan Colonial Division, Italo Balbo, Italo Gariboldi, Italo-Turkish War, Jaghbub, Libya, Jebel Akhdar, Libya, John Frederick Boyce Combe, Junkers Ju 52, Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer), Liberty ship, Libya, Libyan Coastal Highway, List of Adolf Hitler's directives, List of World War II battles, Long Range Desert Group, Luftwaffe, Major general, Maletti Group, Malta convoys, Marinefährprahm, Mario Berti, Martin van Creveld, Matilda II, Maximilian von Herff, Mechili, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Fleet, Mersa Matruh, Messerschmitt Me 321, Michael Gambier-Parry, Michael O'Moore Creagh, Middle East Command, Military history of Italy during World War II, Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II, Msus, Nazi Germany, Neil Ritchie, Nile, Noel Beresford-Peirse, North African Campaign, North African Campaign timeline, Oberkommando des Heeres, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Acrobat, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Compass, Operation Crusader, Operation Herkules, Operation Lustre, Operation Torch, Organization of the Luftwaffe (1933–45), Oxford University Press, Pan Books, Panzer Army Africa, Panzer Battles, Percy Hobart, Philip Neame, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Prisoner of war, Qattara Depression, Raid (military), Richard O'Connor, Rodolfo Graziani, Royal Army Service Corps, Royal Navy, Royal New Zealand Corps of Transport, Sahara, Sallum, School of Advanced Military Studies, Second Battle of El Alamein, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Sidi Barrani, Siebel ferry, Siege of Giarabub, Siege of Tobruk, Sirocco, Sirte, Siwa Oasis, Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, Soviet Union, Suez Canal, Tenth Army (Italy), Theater (warfare), Timimi, Tobruk, Tripoli, Tripolitania, Tunisia, Tunisian Campaign, Ultra, United States Army Command and General Staff College, Vichy France, Western Desert (Egypt), Western Desert Force, William Gott, World War II, XIII Corps (United Kingdom), 10th Indian Infantry Brigade, 11th Indian Infantry Brigade, 15th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 1st (United Kingdom) Division, 1st Libyan Division Sibille, 22nd Guards Brigade, 2nd Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom), 2nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 2nd Infantry Division (South Africa), 32nd Army Tank Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (India), 5 cm Pak 38, 51st (Highland) Division, 6th Division (Australia), 6th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 7th Division (Australia), 7th Royal Tank Regiment, 7th Support Group (United Kingdom), 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41, 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, 9th Division (Australia), 9th Indian Infantry Brigade. Expand index (148 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
General Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1 May 1887 – 30 January 1983) was a senior officer of the British Army noted for his victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
General Sir Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen (17 April 1889 – 20 March 1963) was a British Army officer who served during World War I and World War II.
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Auto-Saharan Companies (Compagnie Auto-Avio-Sahariane) were Italian military units specialised in long range patrols of the Sahara Desert.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Special Armoured Brigade (Brigata Corazzata Speciale), also known as the Raggruppamento Babini (Babini Group) was an ad hoc armoured unit formed by the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito Italia) in Italian North Africa, at the start of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II.
The Baggush Box was a British Army field fortification built in the Western Desert near Maaten Baggush, east of Mersa Matruh during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
Bardia, or El Burdi (البردية or البردي) is a Mediterranean seaport in the Butnan District of eastern Libya.
The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
Beda Fomm is a small coastal town in southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Bonner Frank Fellers (February 7, 1896 – October 7, 1973) was a U.S. Army officer who served during World War II as military attaché and psychological warfare director.
Brega, also known as Mersa Brega or Marsa al-Brega (مرسى البريقة, i.e. "Brega Seaport"), is a complex of several smaller towns, industry installations and education establishments situated in Libya on the Gulf of Sidra, the most southerly point of the Mediterranean Sea.
Buerat, or Buerat el Hussoun (بويرات الحسون), is a village in western Libya, some west of Sirte.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
The Coldstream Guards (COLDM GDS) is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.
Combeforce or Combe Force (Lieutenant-Colonel J. F. B. Combe), was an ad hoc flying column formed from parts of the 7th Armoured Division (Major-General Sir Michael O'Moore Creagh) of the Western Desert Force.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The cruiser tank (also called cavalry tank or fast tank) was a British tank concept of the interwar period for tanks designed to function as modernised armoured and mechanised cavalry.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
Defeat in detail, or divide and conquer, is a military tactic of bringing a large portion of one's own force to bear on small enemy units in sequence, rather than engaging the bulk of the enemy force all at once.
Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.
The Desert Air Force (DAF), also known chronologically as Air Headquarters Western Desert, Air Headquarters Libya, the Western Desert Air Force, and the First Tactical Air Force (1TAF), was an Allied tactical air force created from No. 204 Group under RAF Middle East Command in North Africa in 1941 to provide close air support to the British Eighth Army.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In 1882, Egypt was occupied by the United Kingdom, following the Orabi Revolt against the Egyptian khedive.
The Egypt–Libya Campaign is the name used by the United States military for the US contribution to the Allied Western Desert Campaign, during World War II.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The Italian Fifth Army was an Italian Army which was formed in World War I and World War II.
The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
A flying column is a small, independent, military land unit capable of rapid mobility and usually composed of all arms.
Fort Capuzzo (Ridotta Capuzzo) was a fort in the colony of Italian Libya, near the Libyan-Egyptian border and next to the Italian Frontier Wire.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
Gabès (قابس), also spelled Cabès, Cabes, Kabes, Gabbs and Gaps, is the capital city of the Gabès Governorate in Tunisia.
Gale and Polden was a British printer and publisher.
Gazala, or Ain el Gazala (عين الغزالة), is a small Libyan village near the coast in the northeastern portion of the country.
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal.
Georg Stumme (29 July 1886 – 24 October 1942) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who briefly commanded of the Axis forces at the beginning of the Second Battle of El Alamein.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
The Greek government-in-exile was the government in exile of Greece formed in the aftermath of the Battle of Greece, and the subsequent occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy.
Halfaya Pass (مَمَرّ حَلْفَيَا translit., known colloquially as Hellfire Pass) is located in Egypt, near the border with Libya.
Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 – 1 September 1962) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
General Hendrik Balzazar Klopper (25 September 190331 December 1977) was a South African military commander.
Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
According to most scholars the history of modern Egypt dates from the emergence of Muhammad Ali's rule in the early 19th century and his launching of Egypt's modernization project that involved building a new army and suggesting a new map for Egypt.
The infantry tank was a concept developed by the United Kingdom and France in the years leading up to World War II.
The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
The Libyan Division was a formation of colonial troops raised by the Italians in their colony in Libya.
Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
Italo Gariboldi (20 April 1879 – 3 February 1970) was a senior officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) before and during World War II.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Jaghbub (الجغبوب, Giarabub) is a remote desert village in the Al Jaghbub Oasis in the eastern Libyan Desert.
The Jebel Akhdar (الجبل الأخضر, The Green Mountain) is a heavily forested, fertile upland area in northeastern Libya.
Major General John Frederick Boyce Combe, (1 August 1895 – 12 July 1967) was a British Army officer before and during the Second World War.
The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952.
General Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson, (25 December 1891 – 29 April 1959) was a senior British Army officer who saw service in both world wars.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The Libyan Coastal Highway (الطريق الساحلي الليبي), formerly the Litoranea Balbo, is a highway that is the only major road that runs along the entire east-west length of the Libyan Mediterranean coastline.
Adolf Hitler's directives or Führer's directives (Führerbefehle) were instructions and strategic plans issued by Adolf Hitler himself.
This is a list of World War II battles.
The Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) was a reconnaissance and raiding unit of the British Army during the Second World War.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The Raggruppamento Maletti was an ad hoc mechanised unit formed by the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) in Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana or ASI), during the initial stages of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II.
The Malta convoys were Allied supply convoys of the Second World War.
The Marinefährprahm (MFP), "naval ferry barge", was the largest landing craft operated by Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
Mario Berti (1881–1964) was an Italian officer during World War I and a general in the Spanish Civil War and World War II.
Martin Levi van Creveld (מרטין ון קרפלד; born 5 March 1946) is an Israeli military historian and theorist.
The Infantry Tank Mark II, best known as the Matilda, was a British infantry tank of the Second World War.
Maximilian von Herff (17 April 1893 – 6 September 1945) was a high-ranking commander in the SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Mechili (المخيلي) is a small village in Cyrenaica, Libya and the site of a former Turkish fort.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.
The Messerschmitt Me 321 Gigant was a large German cargo glider developed and used during World War II.
Major-General Michael Denman Gambier-Parry MC DL (21 August 1891 – 30 April 1976) was a senior British Army officer who commanded the 2nd Armoured Division during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II.
Major General Sir Michael O'Moore Creagh KBE, MC (16 May 1892 – 1970) was a British Army who served in both the world wars.
Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.
The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.
The United Kingdom, along with most of its Dominions and Crown colonies declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939, after the German invasion of Poland.
Msus or Zawiyat Msus (زاوية مسوس), also Masous is a village in eastern Libya.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
General Sir Neil Methuen Ritchie, (29 July 1897 – 11 December 1983) was a British Army officer who saw service during both the world wars.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Lieutenant-General Sir Noel Monson de la Poer Beresford-Peirse KBE, CB, DSO (22 December 1887 – 14 January 1953) was a British Army officer.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
Timeline of the North African Campaign.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Operation Acrobat was a proposed British attack on Tripoli in 1942.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941.
Operation Herkules (Unternehmen Herkules/Operazione C3) was the German code-name given to an abortive plan for the invasion of Malta during World War II.
Operation Lustre was an action during World War II: the movement of British and other Allied troops (Australian, New Zealand and Polish) from Egypt to Greece in March and April 1941, in response to the failed Italian invasion and the looming threat of German intervention.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Between 1933 and 1945, the organization of the Luftwaffe underwent several changes.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pan Books is a publishing imprint that first became active in the 1940s and is now part of the British-based Macmillan Publishers, owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group of Germany.
As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the enlarged Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command and a succession of commands were created to manage Axis forces in Africa.
Panzer Battles (Panzerschlachten) is the English language title of Friedrich von Mellenthin's memoirs of his service as a staff officer in the Panzerwaffe of the German Army during World War II.
Major General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885 – 19 February 1957), also known as "Hobo", was a British military engineer noted for his command of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II.
Lieutenant General Sir Philip Neame, (12 December 1888 – 28 April 1978) was a senior British Army officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces, and the winner of an Olympic Gold medal; he is the only person to achieve both distinctions.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Qattara Depression (منخفض القطارة Munḫafaḍ al-Qaṭṭārah) is a depression in northwestern Egypt, specifically in the Matruh Governorate.
Raiding, also known as depredation, is a military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose and is not normally intended to capture and hold a location but instead finish with the raiding force quickly retreating to a previous defended position prior to enemy forces being able to respond in a coordinated manner or formulate a counter-attack.
General Sir Richard Nugent O'Connor & Bar, MC (21 August 1889 – 17 June 1981) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars, and commanded the Western Desert Force in the early years of the Second World War.
Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
The Royal Army Service Corps (RASC) was a corps of the British Army responsible for land, coastal and lake transport, air despatch, barracks administration, the Army Fire Service, staffing headquarters' units, supply of food, water, fuel and domestic materials such as clothing, furniture and stationery and the supply of technical and military equipment.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal New Zealand Corps of Transport (RNZCT) was a corps within the New Zealand Army that provided logistical support to combat and combat support elements of the Army.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Sallum, As Sallum, or Sollum (السلوم "Alternative") is a village in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk.
The School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) is one of four United States Army schools that make up the United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
Sidi Barrani (سيدى برانى) is a town in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, about east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk, Libya.
The Siebel ferry (Siebelfähre) was a shallow-draft catamaran landing craft operated by Germany's Wehrmacht during World War II.
The Siege of Giarabub (now Jaghbub) in Libya, was an engagement between Commonwealth and Italian forces, during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
Sirocco, scirocco,, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Xaloc; Sciroccu; Σορόκος; Siroco; Siròc, Eisseròc; Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR) was founded in order to “promote excellence in research and teaching of American foreign relations history and to facilitate professional collaboration among scholars and students in this field around the world.” It is the preeminent organization in its field, with over 1,400 current members.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Italian Tenth Army was an Italian Army which fought in World War I and in Italian North Africa during World War II.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
Timimi, At Timimi (التميمي) or Tmimi, is a small village in Libya about 75 km east of Derna and 100 km west of Tobruk.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The Western Desert of Egypt is an area of the Sahara which lies west of the river Nile, up to the Libyan border, and south from the Mediterranean sea to the border with Sudan.
The Western Desert Force (WDF) was a British Army formation active in Egypt during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
Lieutenant-General William Henry Ewart Gott, & Bar, MC (13 August 1897 – 7 August 1942), nicknamed "Strafer", was a senior British Army officer who fought during both World War I and World War II, reaching the rank of lieutenant-general while serving with the British Eighth Army.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.
The 10th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 11th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 15th Panzer Division (15.) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1940.
The 1st (United Kingdom) Division, formerly known as the 1st Armoured Division, is a division of the British Army, currently the only British division to be stationed in Germany.
The 1st Libyan Division Sibelle was an Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 22nd Guards Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II.
The 2nd Armoured Brigade was an armoured brigade of the British Army, part of the pre-war Regular Army, during the Second World War, originally titled 2nd Light Armoured Brigade.
The 2nd Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, active during the Second World War.
The South African 2nd Infantry Division was an infantry division of the army of the Union of South Africa during World War II.
The 32nd Army Tank Brigade was an armoured brigade formation of the British Army, created during World War II.
The 4th Indian Infantry Division, also known as the Red Eagle Division, is the infantry division name the Indian Army retained after the present India adopted its entire rank and structure from its parent Army, the British Army.
The 5 cm Pak 38 (L/60) (5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 38 (L/60)) was a German anti-tank gun of 50 mm calibre.
The 51st (Highland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War from 1915 to 1918.
The 6th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army.
The 6th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was first established by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington for service in the Peninsular War as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army and was active for most of the period since, including the First World War and the Second World War.
The 7th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II, where its exploits in the Western Desert Campaign gained it the Desert Rats nickname.
The 7th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army.
The 7th Royal Tank Regiment (7th RTR) was an armoured regiment of the British Army from 1917 until disbandment in 1959.
The 7th Support Group was a brigade size formation within the British 7th Armoured Division, active during World War II.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
The 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1693.
The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II.
The 9th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
Axis desert offensive (1941), Battle of Agedabia, Battle of Marsa Matruh, Battle of the Wadi Zem-Zem, Desert Campaign, Drive to Tripoli, Libya-Egypt Campaign, Operation Aida, Operation Theseus, Second Battle of Bengahzi, Second Battle of El Agheila, Second Battle of the Coast Road, Third Battle of Halfaya Pass, Third Battle of Torbuk, Western Desert campaign.