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Western Front (World War II)

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The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945. [1]

318 relations: Aachen, Adolf Hitler, Air supremacy, Airborne forces, Aktion T4, Albert Kesselring, Alexander Patch, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Allied Force Headquarters, Allies of World War II, Alsace, Amphibious warfare, Anglo-Polish military alliance, Anti-aircraft warfare, Antwerp, Ardennes, Army Group B, Army Group G, Arnhem, Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, Atlantic Wall, Austria, Avignon, Axis powers, Baden, Battle honour, Battle of Aachen, Battle of Arnhem, Battle of Britain, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of France, Battle of Hürtgen Forest, Battle of Heilbronn (1945), Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Scheldt, Bavaria, Bay of Biscay, Beachhead, Belfort, Belgium, Benelux, Berchtesgaden, Berghof (residence), Bernard Montgomery, Bertram Ramsay, Black Forest, Blitzkrieg, Bordeaux, ..., Bouches-du-Rhône, Bremen, Breskens Pocket, Bridgehead, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), Caen, Cannes, Case Anton, Charles de Gaulle, Churchill tank, Cold War, Colmar, Colmar Pocket, Comet (tank), Commando, Commando Order, Continental Europe, Courtney Hodges, Cromwell tank, Cruiser Mk VIII Challenger, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, David Glantz, Declaration of war, Defence of the Reich, Denmark, Dieppe, Dieppe Raid, Dietrich von Choltitz, Disarmed Enemy Forces, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East African Campaign (World War II), Eastern Front (World War II), Edgard de Larminat, Eighth Air Force, Eindhoven, Elbe, End of World War II in Europe, English Channel, Ernest Hemingway, Erwin Rommel, European theatre of World War II, Facts on the ground, Falaise Pocket, Fedor von Bock, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Fifteenth United States Army, First Canadian Army, Flemish Region, Foggia Airfield Complex, Fortification, France, Frankfurt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franz Böhme, Free Norwegian forces, French Alps, French Forces of the Interior, French Resistance, French Riviera, French Third Republic, Günther von Kluge, General (United States), George S. 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Aachen

Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Air supremacy

Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.

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Airborne forces

Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.

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Aktion T4

Aktion T4 (German) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.

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Albert Kesselring

Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.

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Alexander Patch

General Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch (November 23, 1889 – November 21, 1945) was a senior United States Army officer, who fought in both World War I and World War II.

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Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine

The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.

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Allied Force Headquarters

Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alsace

Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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Anglo-Polish military alliance

The military alliance between the United Kingdom and Poland was formalised by the Anglo-Polish Agreement in 1939 and subsequent addenda of 1940 and 1944, for mutual assistance in case of military invasion from Germany, as specified in a secret protocol.

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Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Ardennes

The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.

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Army Group B

Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.

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Army Group G

The German Army Group G (Heeresgruppe G) fought on the Western Front of World War II and was a component of OB West.

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Arnhem

Arnhem (or; Arnheim, Frisian: Arnhim, South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.

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Atlantic Wall

The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Avignon

Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Baden

Baden is a historical German territory.

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Battle honour

A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.

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Battle of Aachen

The Battle of Aachen was a major combat action of World War II, fought by American and German forces in and around Aachen, Germany, between 2-21 October 1944.

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Battle of Arnhem

The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.

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Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.

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Battle of Dunkirk

The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Hürtgen Forest

The Battle of Hürtgen Forest (Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) was a series of fierce battles fought from 19 September to 16 December 1944 between American and German forces on the Western Front during World War II in the Hürtgen Forest about east of the Belgian–German border.

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Battle of Heilbronn (1945)

The Battle of Heilbronn was a nine-day struggle in April 1945 during World War II between the United States Army and the German Army for the control of Heilbronn, a mid-sized city on the Neckar River located between Stuttgart and Heidelberg.

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Battle of Passchendaele

The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.

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Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.

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Battle of the Bulge

The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.

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Battle of the Scheldt

The Battle of the Scheldt in World War II was a series of military operations by Canadian, British and Polish formations to open up the shipping route to Antwerp so that its port could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bay of Biscay

The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.

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Beachhead

A beachhead is a temporary line created when a military unit reaches a landing beach by sea and begins to defend the area while other reinforcements help out until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived.

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Belfort

Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Benelux

The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

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Berchtesgaden

Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps of southeastern Germany.

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Berghof (residence)

The Berghof was Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany.

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Bernard Montgomery

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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Bertram Ramsay

Admiral Sir Bertram Home Ramsay, KCB, KBE, MVO (20 January 1883 – 2 January 1945) was a Royal Navy officer.

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Black Forest

The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.

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Blitzkrieg

Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.

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Bordeaux

Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

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Bouches-du-Rhône

Bouches-du-Rhône (Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Breskens Pocket

The Breskens Pocket was a pocket of fortified German resistance against the Canadian First Army in the Battle of the Scheldt during the Second World War.

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Bridgehead

A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.

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British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.

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Caen

Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.

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Cannes

Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.

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Case Anton

Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Churchill tank

The Tank, Infantry, Mk IV (A22) Churchill was a British heavy infantry tank used in the Second World War, best known for its heavy armour, large longitudinal chassis with all-around tracks with multiple bogies, its ability to climb steep slopes, and its use as the basis of many specialist vehicles.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colmar

Colmar (Alsatian: Colmer; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France.

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Colmar Pocket

The Colmar Pocket (Poche de Colmar; Brückenkopf Elsass) was the area held in central Alsace, France, by the German Nineteenth Army from November 1944 to February 1945, against the U.S. 6th Army Group (6th AG) during World War II.

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Comet (tank)

The Comet tank or Tank, Cruiser, Comet I (A34) was a British cruiser tank that first saw use near the end of the Second World War.

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Commando

A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.

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Commando Order

The Commando Order was issued by the OKW, the High Command of the German armed forces, on 18 October 1942 stating that all Allied commandos encountered in Europe and Africa should be killed immediately without trial, even if in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Courtney Hodges

General Courtney Hicks Hodges (January 5, 1887 – January 16, 1966) was a decorated senior officer of the United States Army, most prominent for his role in World War II, in which he commanded the U.S. First Army in the Western Europe Campaign.

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Cromwell tank

The Cromwell tank, officially Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M), was one of the series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War.

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Cruiser Mk VIII Challenger

The Tank, Cruiser, Challenger (A30) was a British tank of World War II.

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Czechoslovak government-in-exile

The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.

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David Glantz

David M. Glantz (born January 11, 1942 in Port Chester, New York) is an American military historian known for his books on the Red Army during World War II, and the chief editor of the Journal of Slavic Military Studies. Glantz received degrees in history from the Virginia Military Institute and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Defense Language Institute, Institute for Russian and Eastern European Studies, and U.S. Army War College. Glantz had a 30 year career in the United States Army, and served in the Vietnam War.

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.

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Defence of the Reich

The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dieppe

Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.

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Dieppe Raid

The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.

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Dietrich von Choltitz

Dietrich Hugo Hermann von Choltitz (9 November 1894 – 4 November 1966) was a German General who served in the Royal Saxon Army during World War I and the German Army during World War II.

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Disarmed Enemy Forces

Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF), less commonly, Surrendered Enemy Forces, was a US designation for soldiers who surrendered to an adversary after hostilities ended and for those who had already surrendered POWs and held in camps in occupied German territory at that time.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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East African Campaign (World War II)

The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Edgard de Larminat

Edgard de Larminat (29 November 1895 – 1 July 1962) was a French general, who fought in two World Wars.

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Eighth Air Force

The Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).

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Eindhoven

Eindhoven is a municipality and city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.

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Elbe

The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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End of World War II in Europe

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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European theatre of World War II

The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).

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Facts on the ground

Facts on the ground is a diplomatic and geopolitical term that means the situation in reality as opposed to in the abstract.

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Falaise Pocket

The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.

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Fedor von Bock

Fedor von Bock (3 December 1880 – 4 May 1945) was a German field marshal who served in the German army during the Second World War.

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Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.

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Fifteenth United States Army

The Fifteenth United States Army was the last field army to see service in northwest Europe during World War II and was the final command of General George S. Patton.

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First Canadian Army

The First Canadian Army (1reArmée canadienne) was a field army and the senior formation of the Canadian Army that served on the Western Front from July 1944 until May 1945 during the Second World War.

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Flemish Region

The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest,; Région flamande) is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.

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Foggia Airfield Complex

The Foggia Airfield Complex was a series of World War II military airfields located within a radius of Foggia, in the Province of Foggia, Italy.

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Fortification

A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frankfurt

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Franz Böhme

Franz Friedrich Böhme (15 April 1885 – 29 May 1947) was an Austrian general in the Wehrmacht during World War II, serving as Commander of the XVIII Mountain Corps, Hitler's Plenipotentiary Commanding General (Bevollmächtigter Kommandierender General) in the Balkans, and commander-in-chief in German-occupied Norway during World War II.

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Free Norwegian forces

The Norwegian armed forces in exile (Utefronten, "Forces Abroad") were remnants of the armed forces of Norway that continued to fight the Axis powers from Allied countries, such as Britain and Canada, after they had escaped the German conquest of Norway during World War II.

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French Alps

The French Alps are the portions of the Alps mountain range that stand within France, located in the Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur regions.

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French Forces of the Interior

The French Forces of the Interior (Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur) refers to French resistance fighters in the later stages of World War II.

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French Resistance

The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.

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French Riviera

The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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Günther von Kluge

Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.

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General (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.

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George S. Patton

General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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Georgy Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.

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Gerd von Rundstedt

Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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German casualties in World War II

Statistics for German World War II military casualties are divergent and contradictory.

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German Instrument of Surrender

The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.

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Gironde

Gironde (in Occitan Gironda) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France.

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Government of National Unity (Hungary)

The Government of National Unity (Hungarian: Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Guy Simonds

Lieutenant-General Guy Granville Simonds (April 23, 1903 – May 15, 1974) was a senior Canadian Army officer who served with distinction during World War II, where he commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and II Canadian Corps.

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Halle (Saale)

Halle (Saale) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

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Hamburg

Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hanover

Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Harry Crerar

General Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar (April 28, 1888 – April 1, 1965) was a senior officer of the Canadian Army, and became the country's "leading field commander" in the Second World War, where he commanded the First Canadian Army.

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Hürtgen Forest

The Hürtgen forest (also: Huertgen Forest; Hürtgenwald) is located along the border between Belgium and Germany in the southwest corner of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Heinkel He 111

The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.

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Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.

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Heinz Guderian

Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.

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Henri Winkelman

Henri Gerard Winkelman (17 August 1876 – 27 December 1952) was a Dutch military officer who served as Commander-in-chief of the Armed forces of the Netherlands during the German invasion of the Netherlands.

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Hermann Balck

Hermann Balck (7 December 1893 – 29 November 1982) was a highly decorated officer of the German Army who served in both World War I and World War II, rising to the rank of General der Panzertruppe.

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Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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History of Germany (1945–90)

As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Invasion of Poland

The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.

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Investment (military)

Investment is the military process of surrounding an enemy fort (or town) with armed forces to prevent entry or escape.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jacob L. Devers

Jacob Loucks Devers (8 September 1887 – 15 October 1979) was a general in the United States Army who commanded the 6th Army Group in the European Theater during World War II.

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Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC (2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a French military commander in World War II and the First Indochina War.

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Johannes Blaskowitz

Johannes Blaskowitz (10 July 1883 – 5 February 1948) was a German general during World War II and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords.

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John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort

Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, (10 July 1886 – 31 March 1946) was a senior British Army officer.

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Karl Dönitz

Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.

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Karlshorst

Karlshorst (literally meaning Karl's nest) is a locality in the borough of Lichtenberg in Berlin.

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Kassel

Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.

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Kirill Meretskov

Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov (Кири́лл Афана́сьевич Мерецко́в; June 7, 1897 – December 30, 1968) was a Soviet military commander.

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Kriegsmarine

The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.

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L'Histoire

L'Histoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specific university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines).

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Lüneburg Heath

Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath, geest, and woodland in the northeastern part of the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany.

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Le Mans

Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.

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Leipzig

Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Leopold III of Belgium

Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) reigned as the fourth King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin.

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Liberation of Finnmark

The Liberation of Finnmark was a military operation, lasting from 23 October 1944 until 26 April 1945, in which Soviet and Norwegian forces wrestled away control of Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway, from Germany.

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Liberation of Paris

The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.

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Lodgement

A lodgement is an enclave taken by and defended by force of arms against determined opposition made by increasing the size of a bridgehead, beachhead or airhead into a substantial defended area, at least the rear parts of which are out of direct line of fire.

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Loire

The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Ludendorff Bridge

The Ludendorff Bridge (sometimes referred to as the Bridge at Remagen) was in early March 1945 one of two remaining bridges across the river Rhine in Germany when it was captured during the Battle of Remagen by United States Army forces during the closing weeks of World War II.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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M10 tank destroyer

The M10 tank destroyer was an American tank destroyer of World War II.

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M18 Hellcat

The M18 Hellcat (officially designated the 76 mm Gun Motor Carriage M18 or M18 GMC) was an American tank destroyer of World War II, used in the Italian, European, and Pacific theatres, and in the Korean War.

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M24 Chaffee

The M24 Chaffee (officially Light Tank, M24) is an American light tank used during the later part of World War II; it was also used in post–World War II conflicts including the Korean War, and by the French in the War in Algeria and the First Indochina War.

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M3 Stuart

The M3 Stuart, officially Light Tank, M3, was an American light tank of World War II.

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M36 tank destroyer

The M36 tank destroyer, formally 90 mm Gun Motor Carriage, M36, was an American tank destroyer used during World War II.

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M4 Sherman

The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.

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Magdeburg

Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Maginot Line

The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.

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Mainz

Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Mannheim

Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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Maurice Gamelin

Maurice Gustave Gamelin (20 September 1872 – 18 April 1958) was a senior French Army general.

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Maxime Weygand

Maxime Weygand (21 January 1867 – 28 January 1965) was a French military commander in World War I and World War II.

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Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II

The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.

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Metz

Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.

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Meuse

The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.

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Miles Dempsey

General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey, (15 December 1896 – 5 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served in both world wars.

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Montauban

Montauban (Montalban) is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

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Moselle

The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.

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Mulde

The Mulde is a river in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Mulhouse

Mulhouse (Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse,;; i.e. mill house) is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders.

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Munich

Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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Nijmegen

Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.

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Nikolaus von Falkenhorst

Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (17 January 1885 – 18 June 1968) was a German general and a war criminal during World War II.

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Ninth United States Army

The Ninth Army is a field army of the United States Army, garrisoned at Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy.

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Non-belligerent

A non-belligerent is a person, a state, or other organization that does not fight in a given conflict.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian Campaign

The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.

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Nuremberg

Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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OB West

The German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West (German: initials OB West) was the overall command of the Westheer, the German Armed Forces on the Western Front during World War II. It was directly subordinate to German Armed Forces High Command. The area under the command of the OB West varied as the war progressed. At its farthest extent it reached the French Atlantic coast. By the end of World War II in Europe it was reduced to commanding troops in Bavaria.

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Oberkommando der Wehrmacht

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Office of Strategic Services

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Omar Bradley

General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.

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Operation Abercrombie

During World War II, Operation Abercrombie was an Anglo-Canadian reconnaissance raid on the area around the French coastal village of Hardelot, located south of Boulogne-sur-Mer, in the Pas-de-Calais.

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Operation Ambassador

Operation Ambassador was an operation carried out by British Commandos on 14–15 July 1940 within the context of the Second World War.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Basalt

Operation Basalt was a small British raid conducted during World War II on Sark during the German occupation of the Channel Islands.

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Operation Biting

Operation Biting, also known as the Bruneval Raid, was the code name given to a British Combined Operations raid on a German coastal radar installation at Bruneval in northern France, which took place on the night of 27–28 February 1942 during World War II.

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Operation Blackcock

Operation Blackcock was an operation to clear German troops from the Roer Triangle, formed by the towns of Roermond and Sittard in the Netherlands and Heinsberg in Germany during the fighting on the Western Front in the Second World War.

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Operation Bodyguard

Operation Bodyguard was the code name for a World War II deception plan employed by the Allied states before the 1944 invasion of north-west Europe.

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Operation Cobra

Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army (Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II.

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Operation Collar (commando raid)

Operation Collar was the codeword for the first commando raid, conducted by the British forces, during the Second World War.

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Operation Dragoon

Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.

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Operation Fortitude

For the Australian immigration checking operation, see Australian Border Force#Operation Fortitude Operation Fortitude was the code name for a World War II military deception employed by the Allied nations as part of an overall deception strategy (code named Bodyguard) during the build-up to the 1944 Normandy landings.

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Operation Frankton

Operation Frankton was a commando raid on shipping in the German occupied French port of Bordeaux in southwest France during the Second World War.

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Operation Goodwood

Operation Goodwood was a British offensive in the Second World War, that took place between 18 and 20 July 1944 as part of the battle for Caen in Normandy, France.

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Operation Grenade

During World War II, Operation Grenade was the crossing of the Roer river between Roermond and Düren by the U.S. Ninth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General William Hood Simpson, in February 1945, which marked the beginning of the Allied invasion of Germany.

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Operation Market Garden

Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.

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Operation Myrmidon

Operation Myrmidon was the planned raid during the Second World War by No. 1 Commando and No. 6 Commando in April 1942.

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Operation Nordwind

Operation North Wind (Unternehmen Nordwind) was the last major German offensive of World War II on the Western Front.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.

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Operation Plunder

Beginning on the night of March 23, 1945 the 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery launched Operation Plunder, as a part of a coordinated set of Rhine crossings.

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Operation Queen

Operation Queen was an Anglo-American operation during World War II at the Western Front at the German Siegfried Line.

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Operation Sea Lion

Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.

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Operation Torch

Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.

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Operation Varsity

Operation Varsity (24 March 1945) was a successful airborne forces operation launched by Allied troops that took place toward the end of World War II.

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Operation Veritable

Operation Veritable (also known as the Battle of the Reichswald) was the northern part of an Allied pincer movement that took place between 8 February and 11 March 1945 during the final stages of the Second World War.

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Operation Weserübung

Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.

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Oppenheim

Oppenheim is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Otto Ruge

Otto Ruge (9 January 1882 – 15 August 1961) was a Norwegian general.

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Palatinate (region)

The Palatinate (die Pfalz, Pfälzer dialect: Palz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany.

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Panzer Lehr Division

The Panzer Lehr Division was an elite German armoured division during World War II.

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Pas-de-Calais

Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).

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Paul Hausser

Paul Hausser (7 October 1880 – 21 December 1972) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II who played a key role in the post-war efforts by former members of the Waffen-SS to achieve historical and legal rehabilitation.

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Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque

Philippe François Marie Leclerc de Hauteclocque (22 November 1902 – 28 November 1947) was a French general during the Second World War.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish Armed Forces in the West

The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.

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Power (international relations)

Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.

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President of Germany (1919–1945)

The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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RAF Bomber Command

RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Ball Express

The Red Ball Express was a famed truck convoy system that supplied Allied forces moving quickly through Europe after breaking out from the D-Day beaches in Normandy in 1944.

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Rees, Germany

Rees is a town in the district of Cleves in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Reims

Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.

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Remagen

Remagen is a town in Germany in the Land Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler.

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Resistance movement

A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

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Rhine

--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Ruhr

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ruhr Pocket

The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in April 1945, on the Western Front near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Germany.

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Rur

The Rur (German; in Dutch Roer and French: la Roer) is a major river that flows through portions of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

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Scheldt

The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.

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Seine

The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Seventh United States Army

The Seventh Army was a United States army created during World War II that evolved into the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Siegfried Line

The term Siegfried Line refers to two different German defensive lines, one during the First World War and the other during the Second World War.

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Sixth United States Army Group

The Sixth United States Army Group was an Allied Army Group that fought in the European Theater of Operations during World War II.

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Special Operations Executive

The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.

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Speyer

Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.

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St Nazaire Raid

The St Nazaire Raid or Operation Chariot was a successful British amphibious attack on the heavily defended Normandie dry dock at St Nazaire in German-occupied France during the Second World War.

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Stendal

Hansestadt Stendal is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Strasbourg

Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.

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Supreme Allied Commander

Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances.

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The London Gazette

The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published.

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Toulon

Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.

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Tourcoing

Tourcoing is a city in northern France.

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Trafford Leigh-Mallory

Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, (11 July 1892 – 14 November 1944) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force.

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Twelfth United States Army Group

The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful United States Army formation ever to take to the field, commanding four field armies at its peak in 1945: First United States Army, Third United States Army, Ninth United States Army and Fifteenth United States Army.

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Ultimatum

An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.

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Umberto II of Italy

Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Army Central

The United States Army Central, formerly the Third United States Army, commonly referred to as the Third Army and as ARCENT is a military formation of the United States Army, which saw service in World War I and World War II, in the 1991 Gulf War, and in the coalition occupation of Iraq.

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V-1 flying bomb

The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.

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V-2 rocket

The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Victory Day (9 May)

Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.

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Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.

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Volkssturm

The Volkssturm ("people's storm") was a national militia established by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II.

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Vosges

The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.

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Walcheren

Walcheren is a region and former island in the Dutch province of Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary.

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Walter Model

Walter Model (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II.

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Walther von Brauchitsch

Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.

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Władysław Sikorski

Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (20 May 1881 – 4 July 1943) was a Polish military and political leader.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Wesel

Wesel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Western Allied invasion of Germany

The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.

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Western Front (World War II)

The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.

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Wilhelm Keitel

Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb

Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (5 September 1876 – 29 April 1956) was a German field marshal and World War II war criminal.

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William Boyle, 12th Earl of Cork and Orrery

Admiral of the Fleet William Henry Dudley Boyle, 12th Earl of Cork, 12th Earl of Orrery, (30 November 1873 – 19 April 1967) was a Royal Navy officer.

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William Hood Simpson

General William Hood Simpson (May 18, 1888 – August 15, 1980) was a senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in both World War I and World War II.

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William Wain Prior

William Wain Prior (July 18, 1876 – March 9, 1946) was a Danish generalløjtnant (lieutenant general) and the commander-in-chief of the Royal Danish Army from 1939 to 1941.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Wismar

Wismar is a port and Hanseatic city in Northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Worms, Germany

Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.

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XXX Corps (United Kingdom)

XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.

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101st Airborne Division

The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.

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116th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 116th Panzer Division, also known as the "Windhund (Greyhound) Division", was a German armoured formation that saw combat during World War II.

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11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

The 11th Armoured Division, also known as The Black Bull, was an armoured division of the British Army which was created in March 1941 during the Second World War.

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11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 11th Panzer Division (11th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1940.

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12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend

12th SS Panzer Division "Hitlerjugend" (12.) was a German armoured division of the Waffen-SS during World War II.

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15th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 15th Army (German: 15. Armee) was a World War II field army.

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17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen

The 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division "Götz von Berlichingen" (17.) was a German Waffen-SS division that saw action on the Western Front during World War II.

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19th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 19th Army (German: 19. Armee) was a World War II field army of the German Army.

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1st Airborne Division (United Kingdom)

The 1st Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.

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1st Army (France)

The First Army (1re Armée) was a field army of France that fought during World War I and World War II.

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1st Army (Wehrmacht)

The 1st Army (1.) was a World War II field army.

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1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler

The 1st SS Panzer Division "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler", short LSSAH, (1.) began as Adolf Hitler's personal bodyguard, responsible for guarding the Führer's person, offices, and residences.

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21st Army Group

The 21st Army Group was a World War II British headquarters formation, in command of two field armies and other supporting units, consisting primarily of the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army.

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21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the battles of the North African Campaign from 1941–1943 during World War II when it was one of the two armoured divisions making up the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK).

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2nd Armored Division (France)

The French 2nd Armored Division (2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Philippe Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front.

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2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 2nd Panzer Division (2nd Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.

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2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich

The 2nd SS Panzer Division "Das Reich" (2. SS-Panzerdivision "Das Reich".) was one of 38 divisions of the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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3rd Infantry Division (United States)

The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.

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7th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 7th Army was a World War II field army of the German land forces.

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82nd Airborne Division

The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas.

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9th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 9th Panzer Division was a panzer division of the Wehrmacht Army during World War II.

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Redirects here:

North-West Europe, 1942, 1944-1945, North-West Europe, 1942, 1944–1945, Second Front, West European Campaign (1944-1945), Western European Campaign, Western Front (Second World War), Western Front (WW2), Western Front (WWII), Western Front in World War II, Western Front of World War II, Western front of World War II.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Front_(World_War_II)

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