233 relations: A. E. Waite, Academic study of Western esotericism, Academy, Adjective, Adolf Hitler, Age of Aquarius, Age of Enlightenment, Alchemy, Aleister Crowley, Alfred Percy Sinnett, Alfred Rosenberg, Allan Kardec, Amand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis of Puységur, American Academy of Religion, Amsterdam, Ancient Greek, Andrew Jackson Davis, Animal magnetism, Annie Besant, Anthroposophical Society, Antoine Faivre, Archon (Gnosticism), Aries (journal), Art of Europe, Arthur Versluis, Asclepius, Avatar (2009 film), École pratique des hautes études, Éliphas Lévi, Behaviorism, Biblical canon, Buddhism, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Byzantine Greeks, Carl Jung, Carlos Castaneda, Catholic Church, Causality, Chaldean Oracles, Chaos magic, Charles Webster Leadbeater, Christian, Christian Kabbalah, Christian Rosenkreuz, Christianity, Church of Satan, Classical antiquity, Common Era, Cosimo de' Medici, Counterculture of the 1960s, ..., Daniel Pinchbeck, De Arte Cabbalistica, Demiurge, Dietrich Eckart, Disenchantment, Druidry (modern), Early modern period, Eastern Mediterranean, Edgar Wind, Emanuel Swedenborg, Emma Hardinge Britten, English studies, Enlightenment (spiritual), Ernst Cassirer, Eugen Grosche, European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism, Extreme metal, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Family resemblance, Folk religion, Frances Yates, Franz Mesmer, Fraternitas Saturni, Freemasonry, French language, French Revolution, Frithjof Schuon, Galen, Gérard Encausse, Gemistus Pletho, George Gurdjieff, Gerald Gardner (Wiccan), German Workers' Party, Giordano Bruno, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Globalization, Gnosis, Gnosticism, God, Goddess movement, Grimoire, Guido von List, Heathenry (new religious movement), Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Heinrich Himmler, Helena Blavatsky, Hellblazer, Henry Corbin, Heresy, Hermes Trismegistus, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Hermetica, Hermeticism, Hinduism, His Dark Materials, History of ideas, Iamblichus, Illuminates of Thanateros, Imagination, Initiation, Isaac Newton, Isis Unveiled, Jakob Böhme, Jane Leade, Jesus, Jews, Jiddu Krishnamurti, Johann Georg Gichtel, Johann Reuchlin, Johannes Valentinus Andreae, John Pordage, Joseph Goebbels, Judeo-Christian, Julius Evola, Kabbalah, Karl Harrer, Karl Maria Wiligut, Late antiquity, Libertine, Lodovico Lazzarelli, Lucian, Lutheranism, Macrocosm and microcosm, Magic (supernatural), Manifesto, Marsilio Ficino, Martinism, Master's degree, Middle Ages, Mind over matter, Mircea Eliade, Modern Paganism, Modernity, Multiculturalism, Muslim, Nature (philosophy), Naturphilosophie, Nazi Party, Nazism, Neoplatonism, Neoshamanism, New Age, New religious movement, New Thought, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Nicolaus Copernicus, Noun, Occult, Ordo Templi Orientis, P. D. Ouspensky, Pagan studies, Paganism, Paracelsianism, Paracelsus, Parapsychology, Paschal Beverly Randolph, Perennial philosophy, Philadelphians, Philosophy, Phineas Quimby, Plato, Platonism, Plotinus, Pope Innocent VIII, Popular culture, Porphyry (philosopher), Positivism, Problem of evil, Proclus, Pseudoscience, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychology, Rationalism, Religious studies, Renaissance, René Descartes, René Guénon, Robert A. McDermott, Roel van den Broek, Roman Empire, Rosicrucianism, Rudolf Hess, Rudolf Steiner, Salvation, Satanism, Séance, Scientific Revolution, Secularism, Sicily, Sleepwalking, Social science, Sorbonne, Spain in the Middle Ages, Spiritualism, Starhawk, Superstition, Temple of Set, Terence McKenna, Thaumaturgy, The Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth, The New Church (Swedenborgian), The Secret Doctrine, Thelema, Theosophical Society, Theosophy (Boehmian), Theurgy, Three Books of Occult Philosophy, Thule Society, Traditional witchcraft, Traditionalist School, University of Amsterdam, University of Exeter, Urbanization, Warburg Institute, Western literature, Western philosophy, Western religions, Western world, Wicca, World War II, Wouter Hanegraaff. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Arthur Edward Waite (2 October 1857 – 19 May 1942), commonly known as A. E. Waite, was an American-born British poet and scholarly mystic who wrote extensively on occult and esoteric matters, and was the co-creator of the Rider-Waite Tarot deck.
Western Esotericism is an academic field of research, scholarship, and education that focuses on the history of European and Western esotericism.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
"Age of Aquarius" is an astrological term denoting either the current or forthcoming astrological age, depending on the method of calculation.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Aleister Crowley (born Edward Alexander Crowley; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer.
Alfred Percy Sinnett (18 January 1840, in London – 26 June 1921) was an English author and theosophist.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Allan Kardec is the pen name of the French educator, translator and author Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail (3 October 1804 – 31 March 1869).
Although Amand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis de Puységur (1751–1825) was a French magnetizer aristocrat from one of the most illustrious families of the French nobility, he is now remembered as one of the pre-scientific founders of hypnotism (a branch of animal magnetism, or Mesmerism).
The American Academy of Religion (AAR) is the world's largest association of scholars in the field of religious studies and related topics.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andrew Jackson Davis (August 11, 1826January 13, 1910) was an American Spiritualist, born in Blooming Grove, New York.
Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.
Annie Besant, née Wood (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
The General Anthroposophical Society is an "association of people whose will it is to nurture the life of the soul, both in the individual and in human society, on the basis of a true knowledge of the spiritual world." As an organization, it is dedicated to supporting the community of those interested in the inner path of schooling known as anthroposophy, developed by Rudolf Steiner.
Antoine Faivre (born in Reims June 5, 1934) is a prominent French scholar of Western esotericism.
An archon, in the Gnosticism of late antiquity, was any of several servants of the Demiurge, the "creator god" that stood between the human race and a transcendent God that could only be reached through gnosis.
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the historical study of western esotericism.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
Arthur Versluis (born 1959) is a professor and Department Chair of Religious Studies in the College of Arts & Letters at Michigan State University.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Avatar, marketed as James Cameron's Avatar, is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, written, produced, and co-edited by James Cameron, and stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, and Sigourney Weaver.
The École pratique des hautes études, abbreviated EPHE, is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France, and a constituent college of PSL Research University.
Éliphas Lévi Zahed, born Alphonse Louis Constant (February 8, 1810 – May 31, 1875), was a French occult author and ceremonial magician.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with later co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, and David Solomon.
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
Carlos Castaneda (December 25, 1925April 27, 1998) was an American author with a Ph.D. in anthropology.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The Chaldean Oracles are a set of spiritual and philosophical texts widely used by Neoplatonist philosophers around the 4th century C.E. While the original texts have been lost, they have survived in the form of fragments consisting mainly of quotes and commentary by late Platonist writers.
Chaos magic, also spelled chaos magick, is a contemporary magical practice.
Charles Webster Leadbeater (16 February 1854 – 1 March 1934) was a member of the Theosophical Society, author on occult subjects and co-initiator with J. I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Renaissance saw the birth of Christian Kabbalah/Cabala (from the Hebrew קַבָּלָה "reception", often transliterated with a 'C' to distinguish it from Jewish Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabalah), also spelled Cabbala.
Christian Rosenkreuz (also spelled Rosenkreutz and Christian Rose Cross) is the legendary, possibly allegorical, founder of the Rosicrucian Order (Order of the Rose Cross).
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of Satan is a religious organization dedicated to Satanism as codified in The Satanic Bible.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.
The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
Daniel Pinchbeck (born 15 June 1966) is an American author living in New York's East Village.
De Arte Cabbalistica (Latin for On the Art of Kabbalah) is a 1517 text by the German Renaissance humanist scholar Johann Reuchlin, which deals with his thoughts on Kabbalah.
In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.
Dietrich Eckart (23 March 1868 – 26 December 1923) was a German journalist, playwright, poet, and politician who was one of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party - DAP), which later evolved into the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
In social science, disenchantment (Entzauberung) is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society.
Druidry, sometimes termed Druidism, is a modern spiritual or religious movement that generally promotes harmony, connection, and reverence for the natural world.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Edgar Wind (14 May 1900 – 12 September 1971) was a German-born British interdisciplinary art historian, specializing in iconology in the Renaissance era.
Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.
Emma Hardinge Britten (2 May 1823 – 2 October 1899) was an English advocate for the early Modern Spiritualist Movement.
English studies (usually called simply English) is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline.
Enlightenment is the "full comprehension of a situation".
Ernst Alfred Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher.
Eugen Grosche (11 March 1888, in Leipzig – 5 January 1964), also known as Gregor A. Gregorius, was a German occultist and author.
The European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) is Europe's only scholarly society for the study of Western esotericism.
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Family resemblance (Familienähnlichkeit) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book Philosophical Investigations (1953).
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
Dame Frances Amelia Yates, (28 November 1899 – 29 September 1981) was an English historian who focused on the study of the Renaissance.
Franz Friedrich Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) was a German physician with an interest in astronomy who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism.
Fraternitas Saturni (lat.: "Brotherhood of Saturn") is a German magical order, founded in 1926 by Eugen Grosche a.k.a. Gregor A. Gregorius and four others.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998), also known as Īsā Nūr al-Dīn, was an author of German ancestry born in Basel, Switzerland.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse (July 13, 1865 – 25 October 1916), whose esoteric pseudonym was Papus, was the Spanish-born French physician, hypnotist, and popularizer of occultism, who founded the modern Martinist Order.
Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (31 March 1866/ 14 January 1872/ 28 November 1877 – 29 October 1949) commonly known as G. I. Gurdjieff, was a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapol (now Gyumri), Armenia.
Gerald Brosseau Gardner (1884 – 1964), also known by the craft name Scire, was an English Wiccan, as well as an author and an amateur anthropologist and archaeologist.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition is a 1964 non-fiction book by British historian Frances A. Yates.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (24 February 1463 – 17 November 1494) was an Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, gnôsis, f.). The term is used in various Hellenistic religions and philosophies.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
The Goddess movement includes spiritual beliefs or practices (chiefly neopagan) which has emerged predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand in the 1970s.
A grimoire is a textbook of magic, typically including instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells, charms and divination, and how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels, spirits, and demons.
Guido Karl Anton List, better known as Guido von List (5 October 1848 – 17 May 1919), was an Austrian occultist, journalist, playwright, and novelist.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (14 September 1486 – 18 February 1535) was a German polymath, physician, legal scholar, soldier, theologian, and occult writer.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.
Hellblazer (also known as John Constantine, Hellblazer) is an American contemporary horror comic book series, originally published by DC Comics, and subsequently by the Vertigo imprint since March 1993 when the imprint was introduced.
Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 – 7 October 1978) was a philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies at the École pratique des hautes études in Paris, France.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hermes Trismegistus (Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Mercurius ter Maximus; חרם תלת מחזות) is the purported author of the ''Hermetic Corpus'', a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.
The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Ordo Hermeticus Aurorae Aureae; or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn (Aurora Aurea)) was an organization devoted to the study and practice of the occult, metaphysics, and paranormal activities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Hermetica are Egyptian-Greek wisdom texts from the 2nd century AD and later, which are mostly presented as dialogues in which a teacher, generally identified as Hermes Trismegistus ("thrice-greatest Hermes"), enlightens a disciple.
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
His Dark Materials is an epic trilogy of fantasy novels by Philip Pullman consisting of Northern Lights (1995) (published as The Golden Compass in North America), The Subtle Knife (1997), and The Amber Spyglass (2000).
The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time.
Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.
The Illuminates of Thanateros (pronounced ĭ-'lū-mə-,nĭts ŭv,thăn-ə-'târ-ōs) is an international magical organization that focuses on practical group work in chaos magic.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isis Unveiled: A Master-Key to the Mysteries of Ancient and Modern Science and Theology, published in 1877, is a book of esoteric philosophy and Helena Petrovna Blavatsky's first major work and a key text in her Theosophical movement.
Jakob Böhme (1575 – 17 November 1624) was a German philosopher, Christian mystic, and Lutheran Protestant theologian.
Jane Ward Leade (March 1624 – 19 August 1704) was a Christian mystic born in Norfolk, England.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jiddu Krishnamurti (11 May 1895 – 17 February 1986) was a philosopher, speaker and writer.
Johann Georg Gichtel (March 14, 1638 – January 21, 1710) was a German mystic and religious leader who was a critic of Lutheranism.
Johann Reuchlin (sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 – 30 June 1522) was a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day Austria, Switzerland, and Italy and France.
Johannes Valentinus Andreae (17 August 1586 – 27 June 1654), a.k.a. Johannes Valentinus Andreä or Johann Valentin Andreae, was a German theologian, who claimed to be the author of an ancient text known as the Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreutz anno 1459 (published in 1616, Strasbourg, as the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz).
John Pordage (1607–1681) was an Anglican priest, astrologer, alchemist and Christian mystic.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
Baron Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola (19 May 1898–11 June 1974), better known as Julius Evola, was an Italian philosopher, painter, and esotericist.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Karl Harrer (8 October 1890 – 5 September 1926) was a German journalist and politician, one of the founding members of the "Deutsche Arbeiterpartei" (German Workers' Party, DAP) in January 1919, the predecessor to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party – NSDAP); more commonly known as the Nazi Party.
Karl Maria Wiligut (alias Weisthor, Jarl Widar, Lobesam; 10 December 1866 – 3 January 1946) was an Austrian Occultist and SS-Brigadeführer.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
A libertine is one devoid of most moral or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.
Ludovico Lazzarelli (4 February 1447 – 23 June 1500) was an Italian poet, philosopher, courtier, hermeticist and (likely) magician and diviner of the early Renaissance.
Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Macrocosm and microcosm refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.
Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.
Martinism is a form of Christian mysticism and esoteric Christianity concerned with the fall of the first man, his state of material privation from his divine source, and the process of his return, called 'Reintegration' or illumination.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mind over matter is a phrase that has been used in several contexts, such as mind-centric spiritual doctrines, parapsychology, and philosophy.
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.
Naturphilosophie ("philosophy of nature" or "nature-philosophy" in German) is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Neoshamanism refers to "new"' forms of shamanism, or methods of seeking visions or healing.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
The New Thought movement (also "Higher Thought") is a religious movement which developed in the United States in the 19th century, considered by many to have been derived from the unpublished writings of Phineas Quimby.
Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (15 January 195329 August 2012) was a British historian and professor of Western Esotericism at University of Exeter, best known for his authorship of several scholarly books on esoteric traditions.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) ('Order of the Temple of the East' or 'Order of Oriental Templars') is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century by Carl Kellner and Theodor Reuss.
Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii (known in English as Peter D. Ouspensky, Пётр Демья́нович Успе́нский; 5 March 1878 – 2 October 1947), was a Russian esotericist known for his expositions of the early work of the Greek-Armenian teacher of esoteric doctrine George Gurdjieff, whom he met in Moscow in 1915.
Pagan studies is the multidisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of contemporary Paganism, a broad assortment of modern religious movements, which are typically influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various pagan beliefs of premodern Europe.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Paracelsianism (also Paracelsism; German Paracelsismus) was an early modern medical movement based on the theories and therapies of Paracelsus.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
Paschal Beverly Randolph (October 8, 1825 – July 29, 1875) was an African American medical doctor, occultist, spiritualist, trance medium, and writer.
Perennial philosophy (philosophia perennis), also referred to as Perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in modern spirituality that views each of the world's religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has grown.
The Philadelphians, or the Philadelphian Society, were a 17th century English dissenter group.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (February 16, 1802 – January 16, 1866) was an American spiritual teacher, magnetizer, mesmerist, and inventor.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Pope Innocent VIII (Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; فرفوريوس, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
René-Jean-Marie-Joseph Guénon (15 November 1886 – 7 January 1951), also known as ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyá, was a French author and intellectual who remains an influential figure in the domain of metaphysics, having written on topics ranging from sacred science and traditional studies, to symbolism and initiation.
Robert McDermott is professor of Philosophy and Religion at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco.
Roelof "Roel" van den Broek (born 20 December 1931) is a Dutch religious scholar.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rosicrucianism is a spiritual and cultural movement which arose in Europe in the early 17th century after the publication of several texts which purported to announce the existence of a hitherto unknown esoteric order to the world and made seeking its knowledge attractive to many.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on Satan.
A séance or seance is an attempt to communicate with spirits.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula.
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
Starhawk (born Miriam Simos on June 17, 1951) is an American writer, teacher and activist.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
The Temple of Set is an occult initiatory order founded in 1975.
Terence Kemp McKenna (November 16, 1946 – April 3, 2000) was an American ethnobotanist, mystic, psychonaut, lecturer, author, and an advocate for the responsible use of naturally occurring psychedelic plants.
Thaumaturgy (from Greek θαῦμα thaûma, meaning "miracle" or "marvel" and ἔργον érgon, meaning "work" is the capability of a magician or a saint to work magic or miracles. Isaac Bonewits defined thaumaturgy as "the use of magic for nonreligious purposes; the art and science of 'wonder working;' using magic to actually change things in the physical world". It is sometimes translated into English as wonderworking. A practitioner of thaumaturgy is a thaumaturgus, thaumaturge, thaumaturgist or miracle worker.
The Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth refers to an ancient document, one of three Hermetic texts of the mostly Gnostic Nag Hammadi findings.
The New Church (or Swedenborgianism) is the name for several historically related Christian denominations that developed as a new religious movement, informed by the writings of scientist and Swedish Lutheran theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772).
The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888 written by Helena Blavatsky.
Thelema is a social or spiritual philosophy derived from Western esotericism.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
Theosophy, also known as Christian theosophy and Boehmian theosophy, refers to a range of positions within Christianity which focus on the attainment of direct, unmediated knowledge of the nature of divinity and the origin and purpose of the universe.
Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.
Three Books of Occult Philosophy (De Occulta Philosophia libri III) is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's study of occult philosophy, acknowledged as a significant contribution to the Renaissance philosophical discussion concerning the powers of ritual magic, and its relationship with religion.
The Thule Society (Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum ("Study Group for Germanic Antiquity"), was a German occultist and völkisch group founded in Munich right after World War I, named after a mythical northern country in Greek legend.
Traditional witchcraft is a term used to refer to a variety of contemporary forms of witchcraft.
The Traditionalist School is a group of 20th- and 21st-century thinkers concerned with what they consider to be the demise of traditional forms of knowledge, both aesthetic and spiritual, within Western society.
The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Warburg Institute is a research institution associated with the University of London in central London, England.
Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Western religions refer to religions that originated within Western culture, and are thus historically, culturally, and theologically distinct from the Eastern religions.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wouter Jacobus Hanegraaff (born April 10, 1961) is full professor of History of Hermetic Philosophy and related currents at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Arcane, Arcanes, Esoteric, Esoteric knowledge, Esotericism, Esotericist, Esoterics, Esoterism, Esoterology, Involution (Sri Aurobindo), Mason Word, Mason word, No wife, no horse, no mustache, Western Esoteric Tradition, Western Esotericism, Western Mystery Tradition, Western Mysticism, Western Occult Tradition, Western esoteric tradition, Western magic, Western mystery tradition, Western mysticism, Western occult tradition, Western occultism.