230 relations: Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture, Alcoholic drink, Allele, Ancient history, Anthesis, Apamea sordens, Archaeological record, Assiros, Ataxia, Axel Springer SE, Çatalhöyük, Çayönü, B vitamins, Bacteria, Baking, Baking powder, Barley yellow dwarf, Basidiomycota, Beer, Biofortification, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Biscuit, Blight, Boza, Bran, Bread, Bread roll, Breakfast cereal, Bulgur, Bushel, Butterfly, Cake, Calorie, Cancer, Canola, Carbohydrate, Carbon-14, Carl Linnaeus, Carotenoid, Caryopsis, Cash crop, Cephalosporium gramineum, Cereal, Cereal growth staging scales, Chaff, Chicago Board of Trade, China, ..., Chromosome, Coeliac disease, Combine harvester, Commodity market, Common bunt, Common wheat, Cookie, CORDIS, Cracker (food), CRC Press, Crop rotation, Crop yield, Cytoplasmic male sterility, Damascus, Dermatitis herpetiformis, Developed country, Dietary fiber, Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score, Domestication, Dough, Doughnut, Durum, Economic surplus, Einkorn wheat, Elsevier, Emmer, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, Endosperm, Essential amino acid, European Food Safety Authority, Eyespot (wheat), F1 hybrid, Fat, Fertile Crescent, Fertilizer, Flame (moth), Flour, Food and Agriculture Organization, France, Fruit, Fungicide, Fungus, Fusarium, Fusarium ear blight, Futures contract, Genetically modified crops, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Gluten-related disorders, Grain, Gravy, Green Revolution, Groat (grain), Growing season, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Haber process, Haworth Press, Health claim, Hectare, Herbicide, Heterosis, Hybrid (biology), India, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, Iraq ed-Dubb, Iron, Isotope, Jared Diamond, Kansas City Board of Trade, Karaca Dağ, Khorasan wheat, Landrace, Larva, Least Developed Countries, Legume, Lepidoptera, Levant, Long-tailed widowbird, Loose smut, Lutein, Lysine, Maize, Malt, Manganese, Mendelian inheritance, Mennonites, Mineral (nutrient), Minneapolis Grain Exchange, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Moth, Mount Hermon, Muesli, Muffin, Mutation breeding, Mycosphaerella graminicola, National Institute of Agricultural Botany, Neolithic, Niacin, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Norin 10 wheat, Norman Borlaug, Nutrient, Oat, Pakistan, Pancake, Pasta, Pastry, Phaeosphaeria nodorum, Phosphorus, Pie, Plant breeding, Plant hormone, Ploidy, PLOS One, Poaceae, Polyploid, Porridge, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Protein (nutrient), Protein quality, Punjab, Purdue University, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Rachis, Reference Daily Intake, Root rot, Rye, Seed, Seed drill, Self-pollination, Semolina, Setaceous Hebrew character, Shattering (agriculture), Spelt, Spot blotch (wheat), Stagonospora, Staple food, Stem rust, Stoma, Syria, Take-all, Taxonomy of wheat, Tell Abu Hureyra, Tell Aswad, Temperate climate, Ton, Tonne, Tractor, Transpiration, Triticum aethiopicum, Triticum araraticum, Triticum carthlicum, Triticum compactum, Triticum polonicum, Triticum timopheevii, Triticum urartu, Triticum zhukovskyi, Turnip moth, Ug99, United States, Virus, Viscoelasticity, Vodka, Western pattern diet, Wheat, Wheat allergy, Wheat berry, Wheat flour, Wheat germ oil, Wheat leaf rust, Wheat middlings, Wheat production in the United States, Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, Wheat yellow rust, Whole grain, Whole-wheat flour, Willem van Zeist, Winter wheat, 21st century. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
Aegilops speltoides (syn. Sitopsis speltoides (Tausch) Á.Löve) is an edible plant in the Poaceae family native to Southeastern Europe and Western Asia, which is often used for animal feed, and it has grown in cultivated beds.
Aegilops tauschii, also known as Tausch's goatgrass and rough-spike hard grass, is an annual grass species.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Anthesis is the period during which a flower is fully open and functional.
Apamea sordens, the rustic shoulder-knot or bordered apamea, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
Assiros (Άσσηρος, before 1926: Γιουβέσνα - Giouvesna, Gvozdovo) is a village and a former municipality in the Thessaloniki regional unit, Greece.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Axel Springer SE is the largest digital publishing house in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as Bild, Die Welt, and Fakt and more than 15,000 employees.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
Çayönü is a Neolithic settlement in southeastern Turkey inhabited around 7200 to 6600 BC.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.
Barley yellow dwarf is a plant disease caused by the barley yellow dwarf virus, and is the most widely distributed viral disease of cereals.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Biofortification is the idea of breeding crops to increase their nutritional value.
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is a UK Research Council and NDPB and is the largest UK public funder of non-medical bioscience.
Biscuit is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products.
Blight refers to a specific sign affecting plants in response to infection by a pathogenic organism.
Boza, also bosa (from boza), is a popular fermented beverage in Kazakhstan, Turkey, Kyrgyzstan, Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Azerbaijan and other parts of the Caucasus, Uzbekistan and Romania, Serbia.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
A roll is a small, often round loaf of bread served as a meal accompaniment (eaten plain or with butter).
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
Bulgur (from bulgur; also burghul, from برغل burghul, "groats") is a cereal food made from the parboiled groats of several different wheat species, most often from ''durum'' wheat.
A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
In botany, a caryopsis (plural caryopses) is a type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Cephalosporium gramineum or Hymenula cerealis is a plant pathogen that causes cephalosporium stripe of wheat and other grasses.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Cereal growth staging scales attempt to objectively measure the growth of cereals.
Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw.
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
Common bunt, also known as stinking smut and covered smut, is a disease of both spring and winter wheats.
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.
A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet.
CORDIS is the Community Research and Development Information Service.
A cracker is a baked food typically made from flour.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a chronic blistering skin condition, characterised by blisters filled with a watery fluid.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) is a new protein quality method, proposed in March 2013 by the Food and Agriculture Organization to replace the current protein ranking standard, Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS).
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops.
A doughnut or donut (both: or; see etymology section) is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food.
Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.
In mainstream economics, economic surplus, also known as total welfare or Marshallian surplus (after Alfred Marshall), refers to two related quantities.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.
The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) is an encyclopedia on the science of sustainable development and conservation of life support systems on earth.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Eyespot is an important fungal disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungus Tapesia yallundae (syn: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides; W-type; Oculimacula yallundae) and Tapesia acuformis (syn: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides; R-type; Oculimacula acuformis).
An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The flame (Axylia putris) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Fusarium ear blight (FEB) (also called Fusarium head blight, FHB, or scab), is a fungal disease of cereals, including wheat, barley, oats, rye and triticale.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
Gravy is a sauce often made from the juices of meats that run naturally during cooking and thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
Groats (or in some cases, "berries") are the hulled kernels of various cereal grains such as oat, wheat, rye, and barley.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Haworth Press was a publisher of scholarly, academic and trade books, and approximately 200 peer-reviewed academic journals.
Health claims on food labels and in food marketing are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.
Iraq ed-Dubb, or the Cave of the Bear, is an early Neolithic archeological site northwest of Ajlun in the Jordan Valley, in modern-day Jordan.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
The Kansas City Board of Trade (KCBT), was an American commodity futures and options exchange regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
Karaca (Qerejdax) is a shield volcano located in eastern Turkey.
Khorasan wheat or Oriental wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum also called Triticum turanicum), commercially known as kamut, is a tetraploid wheat species.
A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of a species of animal or plant that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture and pastoralism, and due to isolation from other populations of the species.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The long-tailed widowbird (Euplectes progne), also known as the "Sakabula", is a species of bird in the family Ploceidae.
Loose smut of barley is caused by Ustilago nuda.
Lutein (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The Minneapolis Grain Exchange (MGEX) was formed in 1881 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, as a regional cash marketplace to promote fair trade and to prevent trade abuses in wheat, oats and corn.
Molecular Biology and Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
Mount Hermon (جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: Jabal al-Shaykh ("Mountain of the Sheikh") or Jabal Haramun; הר חרמון, Har Hermon) is a mountain cluster constituting the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.
Muesli; Swiss German: Müesli, non-Swiss Standard German: Müsli) is a breakfast and brunch dish based on raw rolled oats and other ingredients like grains, fresh or dried fruits, seeds and nuts, that may be mixed with cow's milk, soy milk, almond milk, other plant milks, yogurt, or fruit juice. Developed around 1900 by Swiss physician Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital, muesli is available ready-made in a packaged dry form, or it can be made fresh. In Switzerland and Germany, it is also eaten as a light evening dish called Birchermüesli complet, or muesli with butterbrot and coffee with milk.
A muffin is an individual-sized, baked product.
Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars.
The National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) is a plant science research company based in Cambridge, UK.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
is a semi-dwarf wheat cultivar with very large ears that was bred by Gonjiro Inazuka at an experimental station in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.
Norman Ernest Borlaug (March 25, 1914September 12, 2009) was an American agronomist and humanitarian who led initiatives worldwide that contributed to the extensive increases in agricultural production termed the Green Revolution.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often frying with oil or butter.
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
Phaeosphaeria nodorum (synonym and correct taxonomic name: Parastagonospora nodorum) is a major fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a member of the Dothideomycetes, a large fungal taxon that includes many important plant pathogens affecting all major crop plant families.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
Protein quality is the digestibility and quantity of essential amino acids for providing the proteins in correct ratios for human consumption.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (telomorph) and Drechslera tritici-repentis (anamorph) is a necrotrophic plant pathogen of fungal origin, phylum Ascomycota.
Rachis is a biological term for a main axis or "shaft" (from the Greek ράχις, backbone, spine).
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Root rot is a condition found in both indoor and outdoor plants, although more common in indoor plants with poor drainage.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat mainly used in making pasta and couscous.
The setaceous Hebrew character (Xestia c-nigrum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crop's seeds upon their becoming ripe.
Spelt (Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC.
Spot blotch is a leaf disease of wheat caused by Cochliobolus sativus.
Stagonospora is a genus of fungi clustering in the Phaeosphaeriaceae (Quaedvlieg).
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
The stem, black, and cereal rusts are caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis and are a significant disease affecting cereal crops.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Take-all is a plant disease affecting the roots of grass and cereal plants in temperate climates caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.
During 10,000 years of cultivation, numerous forms of wheat, many of them hybrids, have developed under a combination of artificial and natural selection.
Tell Abu Hureyra (تل أبو هريرة) is an archaeological site in the Euphrates valley in modern Syria.
Tell Aswad (تل أسود, "Black hill"), Su-uk-su or Shuksa, is a large prehistoric, neolithic tell, about in size, located around from Damascus in Syria, on a tributary of the Barada River at the eastern end of the village of Jdeidet el Khass.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The ton is a unit of measure.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver at a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
Triticum aethiopicum, commonly known as Ethiopian wheat, is a variety of wheat closely related to Triticum durum.
Triticum araraticum (Araratian wild emmer or Armenian wild emmer) is a wild tetraploid species of wheat.
Triticum carthlicum Nevski, 1934, the Persian wheat, is a tetraploid wheat.
Triticum compactum or club wheat is a species of wheat adapted to low-humidity growing conditions.
Triticum polonicum, also known as the Polish wheat, is an ordinary variant of wheat.
Triticum timopheevii, Timopheev's wheat or Zanduri wheat, is a tetraploid wheat that has both cultivated and wild forms.
Triticum urartu, also known as red wild einkorn wheat, is a grass species related to wheat, and native to western Asia.
Triticum zhukovskyi, or Zhukovsky's wheat, is a hexaploid wheat, very closely resembling the Triticum timopheevii, a tetraploid variety of wheat.
The turnip moth (Agrotis segetum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
Ug99 is a lineage of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), which is present in wheat fields in several countries in Africa and the Middle East and is predicted to spread rapidly through these regions and possibly further afield, potentially causing a wheat production disaster that would affect food security worldwide.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
The Western pattern diet or Standard American Diet (SAD) is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of red and processed meat, butter, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, potatoes, and high-sugar drinks.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure.
A wheat berry, or wheatberry, is a whole wheat kernel (except for the hull/husk), composed of the bran, germ, and endosperm.
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption.
Wheat germ oil is extracted from the germ of the wheat kernel, which makes up only 2.5% by weight of the kernel Wheat germ oil is particularly high in octacosanol - a 28-carbon long-chain saturated primary alcohol found in a number of different vegetable waxes.
Wheat leaf rust is a fungal disease that affects wheat, barley and rye stems, leaves and grains.
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.
Wheat is produced in almost every state in the United States, and is the principal cereal grain grown in the country.
Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae.
Wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici), also known as stripe rust, is one of the three wheat rust diseases principally found in wheat grown in cooler environments.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
Whole-wheat flour (in the US) or wholemeal flour (in the UK) is a powdery substance, a basic food ingredient, derived by grinding or mashing the whole grain of wheat, also known as the wheatberry.
Willem van Zeist (March 12, 1924 – October 7, 2016) was a Dutch archaeobotanist and palynologist.
Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring.
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.