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White dwarf

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A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. [1]

244 relations: Absolute magnitude, Accretion (astrophysics), Accretion disk, Adriaan van Maanen, Age of the universe, Alvan Graham Clark, Angular momentum, AR Scorpii, Arthur Eddington, Asteroseismology, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomical unit, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Asymptotic giant branch, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Évry Schatzman, Billion years, Binary star, Black body, Black dwarf, Black hole, Blackett effect, Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage), BPM 37093, Brown dwarf, Carbon, Carbon detonation, Carbon planet, Carbon-burning process, Carnegie Institution for Science, Cataclysmic variable star, Centrifugal force, Chandrasekhar limit, Chandrasekhar's white dwarf equation, Chemical bond, Christian August Friedrich Peters, Circular polarization, Circumbinary planet, Circumstellar habitable zone, Color temperature, Compact star, Composite fermion, Compression (physics), Cornell University, Cosmic background radiation, Cosmic distance ladder, Covalent bond, ..., CRC Press, Crystallization, Cubic crystal system, Degenerate matter, Density, DePaul University, Dover Publications, Dwarf nova, Dynamics (mechanics), Earth, Eclipse, Edmund Clifton Stoner, Edward Charles Pickering, Edward M. Sion, Effective temperature, Electron, Electron degeneracy pressure, Elliptical galaxy, Equation of state, Ernst Öpik, Fermi gas, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fred Hoyle, Friedrich Bessel, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, G 240-72, G 29-38, Galactic Disc, Galaxy, Gauss (unit), General Catalogue of Variable Stars, General relativity, Georgia State University, Gerard Kuiper, GJ 3991, Gram per cubic centimetre, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitational collapse, Gravitational constant, Gravitational energy, Gravitational redshift, Gravitational wave, Gravity, Gravity wave, Greenhouse effect, Ground state, GRW +70 8247, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Heat, Helium, Helium planet, Helium-4, Helix Nebula, Henry Norris Russell, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, HL Tau 76, Hydrogen, Hydrostatics, HyperPhysics, Intermediate polar, Interstellar medium, Ionic bonding, IOP Publishing, Iron, Isothermal process, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Leon Mestel, Light-year, List of white dwarfs, LP 145-141, LP 658-2, Luleå University of Technology, Luminosity, Luminosity function (astronomy), Magnesium, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Main sequence, Metal, Milky Way, Molecules in stars, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Nature Publishing Group, Neon, Neon-burning process, Neutrino, Neutron star, New Scientist, NN Serpentis, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nova, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reaction, Ohio State University, Opacity (optics), Osmium, Otto Wilhelm von Struve, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Patrick Blackett, Pauli exclusion principle, PG 1159 star, Philosophical Magazine, Planck constant, Planet, Planetary nebula, Planetary system, Plasma (physics), Polar (star), Potential energy, Procyon, Proper motion, Proton, Proton decay, PSR B1620-26, Pulsar, Pulsating white dwarf, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quark star, Ralph H. Fowler, Red dwarf, Red giant, Research Consortium On Nearby Stars, Robust associations of massive baryonic objects, Rochester Institute of Technology, Room temperature, Rotating reference frame, Selection bias, Sirius, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SN 1006, Solar mass, Solar radius, Spectral line, Spectroscopic notation, Spectroscopy, Speed of light, Spitzer Space Telescope, Standard atomic weight, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Star, Star system, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Stein 2051, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar kinematics, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stephanie Snedden, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Sun, Super soft X-ray source, Supernova, Surface gravity, Terrestrial planet, Tesla (unit), Thermal conductivity, Thermal radiation, Thermal runaway, Thermonuclear fusion, Tidal force, Tidal locking, Time (magazine), Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae, Tonne, Transit (astronomy), Triple-alpha process, Type Ia supernova, Ultraviolet astronomy, Uncertainty principle, Universe, University of Chicago Press, Urca process, Van Maanen 2, Variable star, Virtual black hole, Viscosity, VizieR, Walter Sydney Adams, WD 0346+246, WD 1145+017, Wilhelm Anderson, Willem Jacob Luyten, William Alfred Fowler, William Herschel, Williamina Fleming, X-ray, X-ray astronomy, Zombie star, 40 Eridani. Expand index (194 more) »

Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.

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Accretion (astrophysics)

In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.

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Accretion disk

An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.

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Adriaan van Maanen

Adriaan van Maanen (March 31, 1884, Sneek – January 26, 1946, Pasadena) was a Dutch–American astronomer.

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Age of the universe

In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.

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Alvan Graham Clark

Alvan Graham Clark (July 10, 1832 – June 9, 1897) was an American astronomer and telescope-maker.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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AR Scorpii

AR Scorpii (AR Sco) is a binary pulsar that consists of white dwarf and a red dwarf.

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Arthur Eddington

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.

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Asteroseismology

Asteroseismology or astroseismology is the study of oscillations in stars.

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Astronomical spectroscopy

Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Astronomy Picture of the Day

Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) is a website provided by NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU).

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Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Évry Schatzman

Évry Léon Schatzman (16 September 1920 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine – 25 April 2010) was a Jewish French astrophysicist.

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Billion years

A billion years (109 years) is a unit of time on the petasecond scale, more precisely equal to seconds.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Black dwarf

A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Blackett effect

The Blackett effect, also called gravitational magnetism, is the hypothetical generation of a magnetic field by an uncharged, rotating body.

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Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage)

A blue dwarf is a predicted class of star that develops from a red dwarf after it has exhausted much of its hydrogen fuel supply.

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BPM 37093

BPM 37093 (V886 Centauri) is a variable white dwarf star of the DAV, or ZZ Ceti, type, with a hydrogen atmosphere and an unusually high mass of approximately 1.1 times the Sun's.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon detonation

Carbon detonation or Carbon deflagration is the violent reignition of thermonuclear fusion in a white dwarf star that was previously slowly cooling.

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Carbon planet

A carbon planet is a theoretical type of planet that contains more carbon (''Z''.

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Carbon-burning process

The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.

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Carnegie Institution for Science

The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.

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Cataclysmic variable star

Cataclysmic variable stars (CV) are stars which irregularly increase in brightness by a large factor, then drop back down to a quiescent state.

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Centrifugal force

In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.

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Chandrasekhar limit

The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.

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Chandrasekhar's white dwarf equation

In astrophysics, Chandrasekhar's white dwarf equation is an initial value ordinary differential equation introduced by the Indian American astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, in his study of gravitational potential of a completely degenerate white dwarf stars.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Christian August Friedrich Peters

Christian August Friedrich Peters (September 7, 1806 – May 8, 1880) was a German astronomer.

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Circular polarization

In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

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Circumbinary planet

A circumbinary planet is a planet that orbits two stars instead of one.

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Circumstellar habitable zone

In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.

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Color temperature

The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.

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Compact star

In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.

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Composite fermion

A composite fermion is the topological bound state of an electron and an even number of quantized vortices, sometimes visually pictured as the bound state of an electron and, attached, an even number of magnetic flux quanta.

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Compression (physics)

In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Cosmic background radiation

Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang.

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Cosmic distance ladder

The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Crystallization

Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Degenerate matter

Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.

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Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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DePaul University

DePaul University is a private university in Chicago, Illinois.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Dwarf nova

A U Geminorum-type variable star, or dwarf nova (pl. novae) is a type of cataclysmic variable star consisting of a close binary star system in which one of the components is a white dwarf that accretes matter from its companion.

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Dynamics (mechanics)

Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eclipse

An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.

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Edmund Clifton Stoner

Edmund Clifton Stoner FRS (2 October 1899 – 27 December 1968) was a British theoretical physicist.

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Edward Charles Pickering

Prof Edward Charles Pickering FRS(For) HFRSE (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist and the older brother to William Henry Pickering.

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Edward M. Sion

Edward M Sion (born January 18, 1946) is an American astrophysicist who is Professor in the Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science at Villanova University.

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Effective temperature

The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron degeneracy pressure

Electron degeneracy pressure is a particular manifestation of the more general phenomenon of quantum degeneracy pressure.

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Elliptical galaxy

An elliptical galaxy is a type of galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless image.

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Equation of state

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.

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Ernst Öpik

Ernst Julius Öpik (– 10 September 1985) was an Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist who spent the second half of his career (1948–1981) at the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland.

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Fermi gas

A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.

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Fermi–Dirac statistics

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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Fred Hoyle

Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

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Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

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Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Василий Яковлевич Струве, trans. Vasily Yakovlevich Struve; 15 April 1793 –) was a German-Russian astronomer and geodesist from the famous Struve family.

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G 240-72

G 240-72 (or WD 1748+708, or LHS 455, or GJ 1221) is a nearby degenerate star (white dwarf) of spectral class DQP9.0, located in constellation Draco.

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G 29-38

--> Giclas 29-38, also known as ZZ Piscium, is a variable white dwarf star of the DAV, or ZZ Ceti, whose variability is due to large-amplitude, non-radial pulsations, known as gravity waves.

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Galactic Disc

The Galactic Disc is a component of disc galaxies, such as spiral galaxies and lenticular galaxies.

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Galaxy

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Gauss (unit)

The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).

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General Catalogue of Variable Stars

The General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) is a list of variable stars.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Georgia State University

Georgia State University (commonly referred to as Georgia State, State, or GSU) is a public research university in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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Gerard Kuiper

Gerard Peter Kuiper (born Gerrit Pieter Kuiper; December 7, 1905 – December 23, 1973) was a Dutch–American astronomer, planetary scientist, selenographer, author and professor.

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GJ 3991

GJ 3991 (also known as Gliese 3991 and G 203-47) is a binary star system located 24.2 light-years away in the constellation Hercules.

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Gram per cubic centimetre

Gram per cubic centimetre is a unit of density in the CGS system, commonly used in chemistry, defined as mass in grams divided by volume in cubic centimetres.

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Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Gravitational collapse

Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.

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Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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Gravitational energy

Gravitational energy is the potential energy a body with mass has in relation to another massive object due to gravity.

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Gravitational redshift

In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.

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Gravitational wave

Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gravity wave

In fluid dynamics, gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two media when the force of gravity or buoyancy tries to restore equilibrium.

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Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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GRW +70 8247

GRW +70 8247 is a white dwarf located about 43 light-years from Earth in the constellation Draco.

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Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.

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Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium planet

A helium planet is a planet with a helium-dominated atmosphere.

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Helium-4

Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.

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Helix Nebula

The Helix Nebula, also known as The Helix, NGC 7293, is a large planetary nebula (PN) located in the constellation Aquarius.

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Henry Norris Russell

Prof Henry Norris Russell FRS(For) HFRSE FRAS (October 25, 1877 – February 18, 1957) was an American astronomer who, along with Ejnar Hertzsprung, developed the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (1910).

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Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.

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HL Tau 76

HL Tau 76 is a variable white dwarf star of the DAV (or ZZ Ceti) type.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrostatics

Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.

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HyperPhysics

HyperPhysics is an educational website about physics topics.

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Intermediate polar

An Intermediate Polar (also called a DQ Herculis Star) is a type of cataclysmic variable binary star system with a white dwarf and a cool main-sequence secondary star.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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IOP Publishing

IOP Publishing (previously named Institute of Physics Publishing) is the publishing company of the Institute of Physics.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isothermal process

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Leon Mestel

Leon Mestel (5 August 1927 – 15 September 2017) was a British astronomer and astrophysicist and Emeritus Professor at the University of Sussex.

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Light-year

The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.

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List of white dwarfs

This is a list of exceptional white dwarfs.

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LP 145-141

LP 145-141 is a white dwarf located 15 light years from the Solar System.

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LP 658-2

LP 658-2 is a degenerate (white dwarf) star in the constellation of Orion, the single known object in its system.

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Luleå University of Technology

Luleå University of Technology (Luleå tekniska universitet) of Sweden is Scandinavia's northernmost university of technology.

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Luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.

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Luminosity function (astronomy)

In astronomy, the luminosity function gives the number of stars or galaxies per luminosity interval.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic flux

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Molecules in stars

Stellar molecules are molecules that exist or form in or around stars.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Nature Publishing Group

Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neon-burning process

The neon-burning process (nuclear decay) is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).

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Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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NN Serpentis

NN Serpentis (abbreviated NN Ser) is an eclipsing post-common envelope binary system approximately 1670 light-years away.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nova

A nova (plural novae or novas) or classical nova (CN, plural CNe) is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright, apparently "new" star, that slowly fades over several weeks or many months.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.

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Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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Osmium

Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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Otto Wilhelm von Struve

Otto Wilhelm von Struve (May 7, 1819 (Julian calendar: April 25) – April 14, 1905) was a Russian astronomer.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Patrick Blackett

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett (18 November 1897 – 13 July 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism, winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1948.

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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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PG 1159 star

A PG 1159 star, often also called a pre-degenerate, is a star with a hydrogen-deficient atmosphere that is in transition between being the central star of a planetary nebula and being a hot white dwarf.

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Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary nebula

A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.

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Planetary system

A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Polar (star)

A Polar is a highly magnetic type of cataclysmic variable binary star system, originally known as an AM Herculis star after the prototype member AM Herculis.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Procyon

Procyon, also designated Alpha Canis Minoris (α Canis Minoris, abbreviated Alpha CMi, α CMi), is the brightest star in the constellation of Canis Minor.

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Proper motion

Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

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PSR B1620-26

PSR B1620-26 is a binary star system located at a distance of 3,800 parsecs (12,400 light-years) in the globular cluster of Messier 4 (M4, NGC 6121) in the constellation of Scorpius.

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Pulsar

A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.

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Pulsating white dwarf

A pulsating white dwarf is a white dwarf star whose luminosity varies due to non-radial gravity wave pulsations within itself.

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Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

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Quark star

A quark star is a hypothetical type of compact exotic star, where extremely high temperature and pressure has forced nuclear particles to form a continuous state of matter that consists primarily of free quarks, which can be modeled using the Calabi–Yau manifold.

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Ralph H. Fowler

Sir Ralph Howard Fowler OBE FRS (17 January 1889 – 28 July 1944) was a British physicist and astronomer.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.

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Red giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Research Consortium On Nearby Stars

The REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) is an international group of astronomers founded in 1994 to investigate the stars nearest to the Solar System - with a focus on those within 10 parsecs (32.6 light years), but as of 2012 stretching the horizon to 25 parsecs.

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Robust associations of massive baryonic objects

In astronomy, a RAMBO or robust association of massive baryonic objects is a dark cluster made of brown dwarfs or white dwarfs.

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Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Rotating reference frame

A rotating frame of reference is a special case of a non-inertial reference frame that is rotating relative to an inertial reference frame.

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Selection bias

Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.

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Sirius

Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.

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Sloan Digital Sky Survey

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.

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SN 1006

SN 1006 was a supernova that is likely the brightest observed stellar event in recorded history, reaching an estimated −7.5 visual magnitude, and exceeding roughly sixteen times the brightness of Venus.

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Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.

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Solar radius

Solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spectroscopic notation

Spectroscopic notation provides a way to specify atomic ionization states, as well as atomic and molecular orbitals.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spitzer Space Telescope

The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.

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Standard atomic weight

The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Star

A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star system

A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.

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Stefan–Boltzmann law

The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.

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Stein 2051

Stein 2051 (Gliese 169.1, G 175-034, LHS 26/27) is a nearby binary star system, containing a red dwarf (component A) and a degenerate star (white dwarf) (component B), located in constellation Camelopardalis at about 18 ly from Earth.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.

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Stellar kinematics

In astronomy, stellar kinematics is the observational study or measurement of the kinematics or motions of stars through space.

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Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.

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Stephanie Snedden

Stephanie A. Snedden is a researcher in space science at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico State University in the US.

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Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Super soft X-ray source

A luminous supersoft X-ray source (SSXS, or SSS) is an astronomical source that emits only low energy (i.e., soft) X-rays.

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Supernova

A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Surface gravity

The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface.

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.

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Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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Thermal runaway

Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result.

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Thermonuclear fusion

Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.

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Tidal force

The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.

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Tidal locking

Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Timeline of neutron stars, pulsars, supernovae, and white dwarfs Note that this list is mainly about the development of knowledge, but also about some supernovae taking place.

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Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Transit (astronomy)

In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.

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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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Type Ia supernova

A type Ia supernova (read "type one-a") is a type of supernova that occurs in binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars is a white dwarf.

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Ultraviolet astronomy

Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Urca process

In astroparticle physics, an Urca process is a reaction which emits a neutrino and which is assumed to take part in cooling processes in neutron stars and white dwarfs.

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Van Maanen 2

Van Maanen 2 (van Maanen's Star) is a white dwarf.

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Variable star

A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.

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Virtual black hole

In quantum gravity, a virtual black hole is a black hole that exists temporarily as a result of a quantum fluctuation of spacetime.

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Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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VizieR

The VizieR Catalogue Service is an astronomical catalog service provided by Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg.

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Walter Sydney Adams

Walter Sydney Adams (December 20, 1876 – May 11, 1956) was an American astronomer.

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WD 0346+246

WD 0346+246 is a white dwarf in the ecliptic constellation of Taurus.

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WD 1145+017

WD 1145+017 (also known as EPIC 201563164) is a white dwarf star located approximately from Earth in the constellation of Virgo.

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Wilhelm Anderson

Wilhelm Robert Karl Anderson (Вільгельм Роберт Карл Андэрсан; – 26 March 1940) was a German-Estonian astrophysicist who studied the physical structure of the stars.

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Willem Jacob Luyten

Willem Jacob Luyten (March 7, 1899 – November 21, 1994) was a Dutch-American astronomer.

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William Alfred Fowler

William Alfred "Willy" Fowler (August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American nuclear physicist, later astrophysicist, who, with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics.

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William Herschel

Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.

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Williamina Fleming

Williamina Paton Stevens Fleming (May 15, 1857 – May 21, 1911) was a Scottish-American astronomer.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray astronomy

X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.

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Zombie star

A zombie star is a hypothetical result of a Type Iax supernova which leaves behind a remnant star, rather than completely dispersing the stellar mass.

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40 Eridani

40 Eridani (abbreviated 40 Eri), also designated Omicron² Eridani (ο² Eridani, abbreviated Omicron² Eri, ο² Eri), is a triple star system in the constellation of Eridanus.

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D star (astronomy), Degenerate dwarf, Planets orbiting white dwarfs, White Dwarf Star, White Dwarves, White dwarf branch stars, White dwarf spectroscopy, White dwarf star, White dwarf stars, White dwarfs.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_dwarf

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