384 relations: Acid, Age of Enlightenment, Aging of wine, Airén, Akkadian language, Alcohol by volume, Alps, Alsace, Alsace wine, American wine, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anjou, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant, Apéritif and digestif, Appellation d'origine contrôlée, Arabinose, Argentine wine, Armagnac (brandy), Aroma of wine, Assyriology, Asthma, Astringent, Australian wine, Autolysis (biology), Émile Peynaud, Époisses de Bourgogne, Baden, Baeckeoffe, Bag-in-box, Barsac, Gironde, Béarnaise sauce, Beaumes de Venise AOC, Beer, Belle Époque, Bentonite, Bergerac wine, Beverage can, Blanquette de veau, Bocksbeutel, Bordeaux, Bordeaux wine, Boris Vian, Botrytis cinerea, Bottling line, Breast, Burgundy wine, Byzantine Greece, ..., Cabaret, Cabbage, Calcium, Canton of Valais, Capitulare de villis, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carboxylic acid, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Casein, Castilla–La Mancha, Catalonia, Catarratto, Catholic Church, Cava (Spanish wine), Cellulose, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chablis wine, Champagne, Champagne (wine region), Chaptalization, Chardonnay, Charente (river), Charlemagne, Charles Heidsieck (Champagne), Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Chassagne-Montrachet, Château d'Yquem, Château La Tour Blanche, Château-Chalon AOC, Cheese, Chenin blanc, Chilean wine, Circulatory system, Cirrhosis, Citric acid, Classification of Champagne vineyards, Classification of wine, Cognac, Colloid, Colombard, Comics, Comté cheese, Congress of Vienna, Constantinople, Continental climate, Coq au vin, Cornelis de Heem, Coumaric acid, Cross-flow filtration, Cru (wine), Crusades, D-Galacturonic acid, Danube, Dessert wine, Destroyer, Diatomaceous earth, Diot, Dom Pérignon (monk), Douro, Electrodialysis, Enzyme, Epigraphy, Epoxy, Ester, Ethanol fermentation, Fehling's solution, Filtration, Finings, First French Empire, Flint, Floc de Gascogne, Flocculation, Flounder, Foie gras, Fondue, Fortified wine, François Rabelais, Franconia, Franks, French wine, Fructose, Fumaric acid, Gaillac AOC, Garonne, Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute, Gelatin, German wine, Gewürztraminer, Ghazi (warrior), Giacomo Casanova, Glossary of wine terms, Glucose, Goat cheese, Gold (color), Gourmet, Grape, Grape juice, Grape seed oil, Green, Grenache, Grenache blanc, Guinguette, Gulf of Naples, Hattusa, Hippocrates, Hittite language, House of Habsburg, Hugh Johnson (wine writer), Hungarian wine, Huns, Hydrogen peroxide, Ice wine, Infrared spectroscopy, Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité, Institut national de la recherche agronomique, Isinglass, Italian wine, Jacob Jordaens, Jacques Higelin, Jean Dréjac, Juice vesicles, Jules Chauvet, Jura (department), Jura wine, Jurançon (grape), Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), La Rochelle, Laccase, Lactic acid, Lake Geneva, Languedoc, Languedoc-Roussillon, Languedoc-Roussillon wine, Late harvest wine, Lees (fermentation), Limestone, Limoux wine, List of grape varieties, List of VDQS wines, List of wine-producing countries, Little Ice Age, Loire, Loire Valley, Loire Valley (wine), Lophius, Loupiac, Gironde, Luxembourg, Lychee, Macabeo, Maceration (wine), Madame Clicquot Ponsardin, Madame de Pompadour, Madeira, Madeira wine, Magnesium, Malic acid, Malolactic fermentation, Malvasia, Manchego, Marcel Pagnol, Marinara sauce, Marination, Marne (river), Maroilles cheese, Marsala wine, Mass in the Catholic Church, Málaga and Sierras de Málaga, Müller-Thurgau, Mead, Mediterranean Basin, Melon de Bourgogne, Membrane, Mesopotamia, Metamorphic rock, Mexican wine, Michel Onfray, Monbazillac, Monemvasia, Montpellier, Moscato d'Asti, Moselle, Mulled wine, Munster cheese, Muscadet, Muscat (grape), Muscat de Rivesaltes AOC, Muscat Rose à Petits Grains, Muselet, Must, Nantes, New Zealand wine, Noble rot, Odor, Oenology, Olfaction, Organic acid, Organoleptic, Ossau-Iraty, Ossobuco, Ottoman Empire, Outline of wine, Patrician (ancient Rome), Pecorino Romano, Pectin, Peder Severin Krøyer, Pedro Ximénez, Penicillium roqueforti, Persian wine, Peruvian wine, Petite Arvine, Phenolic content in wine, Photosynthesis, Phylloxera, Pierre Desproges, Pierre Galet, Pieter Claesz, Pieter de Hooch, Pineau des Charentes, Pinot gris, Pinot Meunier, Pinot noir, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyphenol, Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Port wine, Pot-au-feu, Potassium, Potassium bitartrate, Precipitation (chemistry), Premature oxidation, Pressing (wine), Propagation of grapevines, Protein, Provence, Provence wine, Pruinescence, Qingdao, Rabbit, Reconquista, Red wine, Reductase, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Rhône wine, Rhine, Riesling, Risotto, Rivesaltes AOC, Rocky Mountains, Roman legion, Roquefort, Rueda (DO), Salt (chemistry), Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Saracen, Sauternes (wine), Sauvignon blanc, Sauvignon gris, Savagnin, Savennières wine, Sélection de Grains Nobles, Sémillon, Seed, Seine, Settling, Sherry, Silvaner, Slovakia, Slovenian wine, Sodium, South African wine, South West France (wine region), Spanish Armada, Spanish Empire, Spanish wine, Sparkling wine, Sparkling wine production, Steel, Stellenbosch, Still life, Stockholm, Straw wine, Sucrose, Sulfite, Sulfur dioxide, Sultana (grape), Sumerian language, Sweetness of wine, Swiss wine, Tacuinum Sanitatis, Tannic acid, Tarija Department, Tartaric acid, Teinturier, Tetra Pak, The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec, The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec (film), Thiamine, Thiol, Tokaj, Tokaj (Slovakia), Tokaji, Trebbiano, Tripe, Trockenbeerenauslese, Types of cheese, Tyrosinase, USS Wainwright (DD-62), Varietal, Venice, Verdejo, Verjuice, Vikings, Vin de pays, Vin jaune, Vinegar, Vinho Verde, Viognier, Vitamin C, Voltaire, Washington (state), Western Roman Empire, Whey, Wine, Wine bottle, Wine color, Wine press, Winemaking, Winery, Wort, Xylose, Yellow, Yvette Guilbert. 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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The aging of wine (American spelling) or ageing of wine (British spelling) is potentially able to improve the quality of wine.
Airén is a variety of Vitis vinifera, a white grape commonly used in winemaking.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Alsace wine or Alsatian wine (in French: Vin d'Alsace) (German: Weinbau in Elsass) is produced in the Alsace region in France and is primarily white wine.
American wine has been produced for over 300 years.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Apéritifs and digestifs are drinks, typically alcoholic, that are normally served before (apéritif) or after (digestif) a meal.
The appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC;; "protected designation of origin") is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO).
Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group.
Argentina is the fifth largest producer of wine in the world.
Armagnac is a distinctive kind of brandy produced in the Armagnac region in Gascony, southwest France.
The aromas of wine are more diverse than its flavors.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.
The Australian wine industry is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine with approximately 750 million litres a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production consumed domestically.
In biology, autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own enzymes.
Émile Peynaud (June 29, 1912 – July 18, 2004) was a French oenologist and researcher who has been credited with revolutionizing winemaking in the latter half of the 20th century, and has been called "the forefather of modern oenology".
Époisses de Bourgogne is a legally demarcated cheese made in the village Époisses and its environs, in the département of Côte-d'Or, about halfway between Dijon and Auxerre, in the former duchy of Burgundy, France, from agricultural processes and resources traditionally found in that region.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Baeckeoffe (English: "bake oven") is a casserole dish that is typical in the French region of Alsace, situated on the border with Germany.
A bag-in-box or BiB is a type of container for the storage and transportation of liquids.
Barsac is a commune on the left bank of the Garonne river in the Gironde department in southwestern France.
Béarnaise sauce is a sauce made of clarified butter emulsified in egg yolks and white wine vinegar and flavored with herbs.
Beaumes de Venise is an appellation of wines from the eastern central region of the southern half of the Rhône Valley.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
Bentonite (/ˈbɛntənʌɪt/) is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.
The Bergerac wine-growing region, a subregion of South West France around the town of Bergerac in the Dordogne department, comprises 93 communes.
A beverage can is a metal container designed to hold a fixed portion of liquid such as carbonated soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, teas, herbal teas, energy drinks, etc.
Blanquette de veau is a French veal ragout in which neither the veal nor the butter is browned in the cooking process.
The Bocksbeutel is a type of wine bottle with the form of a flattened ellipsoid.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of southwest France, centred on the city of Bordeaux on the Garonne River, to the north of the city the Dordogne River joins the Garonne forming the broad estuary called the Gironde and covering the whole area of the Gironde department,with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France.
Boris Vian (10 March 1920 – 23 June 1959) was a French polymath: writer, poet, musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor and engineer.
Botrytis cinerea ("botrytis" from Ancient Greek botrys (βότρυς) meaning "grapes" plus the New Latin suffix -itis for disease) is a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species, although its most notable hosts may be wine grapes.
Bottling lines are production lines that fill a product, generally a beverage, into bottles on a large scale.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Burgundy wine (Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône.
The history of Byzantine Greece mainly coincides with the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The Capitulare de villis is a text composed in c. 771–800 that guided the governance of the royal estates during the later years of the reign of Charlemagne (c. 768–814).
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum or tylose powder is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
Castilla–La Mancha (or Castile–La Mancha) is an autonomous community of Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Catarratto is a white Italian wine grape planted primarily in Sicily where it is the most widely planted grape.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cava (plural caves) is a sparkling wine of Denominación de Origen (DO) status from Spain.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
The Chablis region is the northernmost wine district of the Burgundy region in France.
Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.
The Champagne wine region (archaic Champany) is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France.
Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content after fermentation.
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.
The Charente (Charanta) is a long river in southwestern France.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Heidsieck is the smallest of the Grandes Marques champagne Houses.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Chassagne-Montrachet is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Château d'Yquem is a Premier Cru Supérieur (Fr: "Superior First Growth") wine from the Sauternes, Gironde region in the southern part of the Bordeaux vineyards known as Graves.
Château La Tour Blanche, or La Tour-Blanche, is a sweet white wine ranked as Premier Cru Classé (French, “First Growth”) in the original Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855.
Château-Chalon is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Jura wine region of France, around the village of Château-Chalon.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Chenin blanc (known also as Pineau de la Loire among other names) is a White wine grape variety from the Loire Valley of France.
Chilean wine has a long history for a New World wine region, as it was the 16th century when the Spanish conquistadors brought Vitis vinifera vines with them as they colonized the region.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The classification of Champagne vineyards developed in the mid-20th century as a means of setting the price of grapes grown through the villages of the Champagne wine region.
The classification of wine can be done according to various methods including place of origin or appellation, vinification methods and style, sweetness and vintage,J.
Cognac is a variety of brandy named after the town of Cognac, France.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Colombard (also known as French Colombard in North America) is a white French wine grape variety that is the offspring of Chenin blanc and Gouais blanc.
a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information.
Comté (or Gruyère de Comté) is a French cheese made from unpasteurized cow's milk in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Coq au vin ("rooster/cock with wine") is a French dish of chicken braised with wine, lardons, mushrooms, and optionally garlic.
Cornelis de Heem (8 April 1631 (baptized) – 17 May 1695 (buried)) was a still-life painter associated with both Flemish Baroque and Dutch Golden Age painting.
Coumaric acid (molecular formula C9H8O3, molar mass: 164.16 g/mol, exact mass: 164.047344 u) may refer to.
In chemical engineering, biochemical engineering and protein purification, crossflow filtration (also known as tangential flow filtration) is a type of filtration (a particular unit operation).
Cru is "a vineyard or group of vineyards, especially one of recognized quality".
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
D-Galacturonic acid is a sugar acid, an oxidized form of D-galactose.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Dessert wines, sometimes called pudding wines, are sweet wines typically served with dessert.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
A diot is a sausage from the French region of Savoy (La Savoie) which comes in several varieties.
Dom Pierre Pérignon, O.S.B., (December 163814 September 1715) was a French Benedictine monk who made important contributions to the production and quality of champagne wine in an era when the region's wines were predominantly still red.
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
Electrodialysis (ED) is used to transport salt ions from one solution through ion-exchange membranes to another solution under the influence of an applied electric potential difference.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
Fehling's solution is a chemical reagent used to differentiate between water-soluble carbohydrate and ketone functional groups, and as a test for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, supplementary to the Tollens' reagent test.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
FiningsThe term is a mass noun rather than a plural.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
The Floc de Gascogne is a regional apéritif from the Côtes de Gascogne and Armagnac regions of Sud-Ouest wine region of France.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.
Fondue is a Swiss dish of melted cheese served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.
Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.
Gaillac AOC is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in South West France in the département of Tarn, just north of Toulouse.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
The Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute was founded in 1872 and is located in the town of Geisenheim, in Germany's Rheingau region.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
German wine is primarily produced in the west of Germany, along the river Rhine and its tributaries, with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman era.
Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety, used in white wines, and performs best in cooler climates.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (or; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice.
The glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many general terms used within the wine industry.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Goat cheese, goats' cheese, or chèvre (or; from the French word for goat), is cheese made from goat's milk.
Gold, also called golden, is a color.
Gourmet is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, which is characterised by refined, even elaborate preparations and presentations of aesthetically balanced meals of several contrasting, often quite rich courses.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid.
Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
Grenache or Garnacha is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world.
Grenache blanc (also known as garnatxa blanca in Catalonia) is a variety of white wine grape that is related to the red grape Grenache.
Guinguettes were popular drinking establishments located in the suburbs of Paris and other cities in France.
The Gulf of Naples, also called the Bay of Naples, is a roughly 15-kilometer-wide (9.3 mi) gulf located along the south-western coast of Italy (province of Naples, Campania region).
Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Hugh Eric Allan Johnson OBE (born London, 10 March 1939) is a British author and expert on wine.
Hungarian wine has a history dating back to the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Ice wine (or icewine; Eiswein) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
The Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (previously Institut National des Appellations d'Origine) (INAO) is the French organization charged with regulating French agricultural products with Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs).
The Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA, pronounced; English: National Institute of Agricultural Research) is a French public research institute dedicated to agricultural science.
Isinglass is a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish.
Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, and Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety.
Jacob (Jacques) Jordaens (19 May 1593 – 18 October 1678) was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits.
Jacques Joseph Victor Higelin (18 October 1940 – 6 April 2018) was a French pop singer who rose to prominence in the early 1970s.
Jean Dréjac, stage name of Jean André Jacques Brun (born in Grenoble on 3 June 1921 and died in Paris on 11 August 2003) is a French singer and composer.
The juice vesicles (or pulp) of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit’s endocarp.
Jules Chauvet (1907-1989) was a wine négociant.
Jura is a department in the east of France named after the Jura mountains.
Jura wine is French wine produced in the Jura département.
Jurançon is the name attributed to a red (Jurançon noir) and white (Jurançon blanc) French wine grape variety that is grown predominantly in Southwest France.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Laccases are copper-containing oxidase enzymes found in many plants, fungi, and microorganisms.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.
Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
Languedoc-Roussillon (Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is a former administrative region of France.
Languedoc-Roussillon wine, including the vin de pays labeled Vin de Pays d'Oc, is produced in southern France.
Late harvest wine is wine made from grapes left on the vine longer than usual.
Lees are deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of "fining", to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Limoux wine is produced around the city of Limoux in Languedoc in southwestern France.
This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).
The following is a list of French wines that were entitled to use the designation Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) on their label, which was the second highest category out of four.
The following is a list of the top wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2014 in metric tonnes, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an agency of the United Nations; this is the latest information available from the FAO.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
The Loire Valley wine region includes the French wine regions situated along the Loire River from the Muscadet region near the city of Nantes on the Atlantic coast to the region of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France.
Members of the genus Lophius, also sometimes called monkfish, fishing-frogs, frog-fish, and sea-devils, are various species of lophiid anglerfishes found in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
Loupiac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Lychee (variously spelled litchi, liechee, liche, lizhi or li zhi, or lichee) (Litchi chinensis) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.
Macabeo, also called Viura or Macabeu is a white variety of wine grape.
Maceration is the winemaking process where the phenolic materials of the grape—tannins, coloring agents (anthocyanins) and flavor compounds—are leached from the grape skins, seeds and stems into the must.
Madame Clicquot, née Ponsardin, Widow Clicquot or Veuve Clicquot (16 December 1777 – 29 July 1866), known as the "Grande Dame of Champagne", was a French businesswoman who took on her husband's wine business when widowed at 27.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Portuguese Madeira Islands, off the coast of Africa.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Malolactic fermentation (also known as malolactic conversion or MLF) is a process in winemaking in which tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid.
Malvasia (also known as Malvazia) is a group of wine grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean region, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and the island of Madeira, but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world.
Manchego (officially queso manchego) is a cheese made in the La Mancha region of Spain from the milk of sheep of the manchega breed.
Marcel Pagnol (28 February 1895 – 18 April 1974) was a French novelist, playwright, and filmmaker.
Marinara (English: "mariner's") sauce is an Italian tomato sauce, usually made with tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and onions.
Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking.
The Marne (la Marne) is a river in France, an eastern tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris.
Maroilles (pronounced mar wahl, also known as Marolles) is a cow's-milk cheese made in the regions of Picardy and Nord-Pas-de-Calais in northern France.
Marsala is a wine, dry or sweet, produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily.
The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated.
Málaga and Sierras de Málaga are two different Spanish Denominaciones de Origen (DO) for wines in the province of Málaga (Andalusia, Spain).
Müller-Thurgau is a white grape variety (sp. Vitis vinifera) which was created by Hermann Müller from the Swiss Canton of Thurgau in 1882.
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Melon de Bourgogne or Melon is a variety of white grape grown primarily in the Loire Valley region of France.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas.
Michel Onfray (born 1 January 1959) is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who promotes hedonism, atheism, and anarchism.
Monbazillac is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Monemvasia (Μονεμβασία) is a town and a municipality in Laconia, Greece.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Moscato d'Asti is a DOCG sparkling white wine produced mainly in the province of Asti, northwest Italy, and in smaller nearby regions in the provinces of Alessandria and Cuneo.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Mulled wine is a beverage usually made with red wine along with various mulling spices and sometimes raisins.
Muenster, Muenster-géromé, or (Alsatian) Menschterkaas, is a strong smelling, soft cheese with a subtle taste, made mainly from milk from the Vosges, between Alsace, Lorraine and Franche-Comté in France.
Muscadet is a French white wine.
The Muscat family of grapes include over 200 grape varieties belonging to the Vitis vinifera species that have been used in wine production and as raisin and table grapes around the globe for many centuries.
Muscat de Rivesaltes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for fortified wines (of the type vin doux naturel) made in the Roussillon wine region of France.
Muscat Rose à Petits Grains is a wine grape for white wine that is a member of the Muscat family of Vitis vinifera.
A muselet is a wire cage that fits over the cork of a bottle of champagne, sparkling wine or beer to prevent the cork from emerging under the pressure of the carbonated contents.
Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
New Zealand wine is produced in several mostly maritime, cool climate wine growing regions of New Zealand, an island country in the South Pacific Ocean.
Noble rot (pourriture noble; Edelfäule; Muffa nobile; Aszúsodás) is the beneficial form of a grey fungus, Botrytis cinerea, affecting wine grapes.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Oenology (enology) is the science and study of wine and winemaking; distinct from viticulture, the agricultural endeavours of vine-growing and of grape-harvesting.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
Organoleptic properties are the aspects of food, water or other substances that an individual experiences via the senses—including taste, sight, smell, and touch.
Ossau-Iraty is a Franco-Basque cheese made from sheep milk.
Ossobuco (Milanese) is a Milanese speciality of cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to wine: Wine – alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Pecorino Romano is a hard, salty Italian cheese, often used for grating, made out of sheep's milk (the Italian word pecora, from which the name derives, means sheep).
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Peder Severin Krøyer (23 July 1851 – 21 November 1909), professionally known as P. S. Krøyer, was a Danish painter.
Pedro Ximénez (also known as PX and many other variations) is the name of a white Spanish wine grape variety grown in several Spanish wine regions but most notably in the Denominación de Origen (DO) of Montilla-Moriles.
Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus from the family Trichocomaceae.
Persian wine, also called Mey (fa) and Badeh (fa), is a cultural symbol and tradition in Iran (Persia), and has a significant presence in Persian mythology, Persian poetry and Persian miniatures.
Peruvian wine dates back to the Spanish colonization of the region in the 16th century.
Petite Arvine is a white wine grape, Vitis International Variety Catalogue, accessed on June 19, 2010 planted in the Valais region of Switzerland.
The phenolic content in wine refers to the phenolic compounds—natural phenol and polyphenols—in wine, which include a large group of several hundred chemical compounds that affect the taste, color and mouthfeel of wine.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch 1855); family Phylloxeridae, within the order Hemiptera, bugs); originally described in France as Phylloxera vastatrix; equated to the previously described Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Phylloxera vitifoliae; commonly just called phylloxera (from φύλλον, leaf, and ξηρός, dry) is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America.
Pierre Desproges (May 9, 1939 – April 18, 1988) was a French humorist.
Pierre Galet (born January 28, 1921) is a French ampelographer and author who was an influential figure within ampelography in the 20th century and before DNA typing was widely introduced.
Pieter Claesz (c. 1597–1 January 1660) was a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes.
Pieter de Hooch (also spelled "Hoogh" or "Hooghe"; 20 December 1629 (baptized) – 24 March 1684 (buried)) was a Dutch Golden Age painter famous for his genre works of quiet domestic scenes with an open doorway.
Pineau des Charentes, (Pineau Charentais, or simply Pineau) is a regional French aperitif, made in the départements of Charente, Charente-Maritime and, to a much lesser extent, Dordogne in western France.
Pinot gris, pinot grigio or Grauburgunder is a white wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera.
Pinot Meunier,, also known as Meunier or Schwarzriesling, is a variety of black wine grape most noted for being one of the three main varieties used in the production of Champagne (the other two are the black variety Pinot noir and the white Chardonnay).
Pinot noir is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP, crospovidone, crospolividone or E1202) is a highly cross-linked modification of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto,, Porto, and usually simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal.
Pot-au-feu ("pot on the fire") is a French beef stew.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4 H5 O6, is a byproduct of winemaking.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Premature oxidation, (sometimes shortened to premox, or POx) is a flaw that occurs in white wines, when the presumably ageworthy wine is expected to be in good condition yet is found to be oxidised and often undrinkable.
Pressing in winemaking is the process where the juice is extracted from the grapes with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or even by the weight of the grape berries and clusters.
The propagation of grapevines is an important consideration in commercial viticulture and winemaking.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Provence (Provençal) wine comes from the French wine-producing region of Provence in southeast France.
Pruinescence, or pruinosity, is a "frosted" or dusty looking coating on top of a surface.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Rhône wine region in Southern France is situated in the Rhône valley and produces numerous wines under various Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) designations.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Riesling is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region.
Risotto is a northern Italian rice dish cooked in a broth to a creamy consistency.
Rivesaltes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for naturally sweet, fortified wines (vin doux naturel) made in the Languedoc-Roussillon wine region of France.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Roquefort (or;; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a sheep milk cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton, and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue cheeses.
Rueda is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the Community of Castile and León.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sanlúcar de Barrameda, or simply Sanlúcar, is a city in the northwest of Cádiz province, part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Sauternes is a French sweet wine from the Sauternais region of the Graves section in Bordeaux.
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France.
Sauvignon gris is pink color wine grape that is a clonal mutation of Sauvignon blanc.
Savagnin or Savagnin blanc (not to be confused with Sauvignon blanc) is a variety of white wine grape with green-skinned berries.
Savennières wine is a white wine, usually dry, produced from Chenin blanc around Savennières in the Loire Valley.
Sélection de Grains Nobles (SGN) is French for "selection of noble berries" and refers to wines made from grapes affected by noble rot.
Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, mostly in France and Australia.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Settling is the process by which particulates settle to the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment.
Sherry (Jerez or) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.
Sylvaner or Silvaner is a variety of white wine grape grown primarily in Alsace and Germany, where its official name is Grüner Silvaner.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenian wine is wine from Slovenia.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, with the first bottle produced in Cape Town by its founder Jan van Riebeeck.
South West France, or in French Sud-Ouest, is a wine region in France covering several wine-producing areas situated respectively inland from, and south of, the wine region of Bordeaux.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish wines are wines produced in Spain.
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.
Sparkling wine is a wine (usually white) that becomes carbonated, either through fermentation or by addition of carbon dioxide.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stellenbosch Thomas Baldwin, 1852.
A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greco-Roman art, still-life painting emerged as a distinct genre and professional specialization in Western painting by the late 16th century, and has remained significant since then.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Straw wine, or raisin wine, is a wine made from grapes that have been dried to concentrate their juice.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The sultana is a "white" (pale green), oval seedless grape variety also called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless (United States), Lady de Coverly (England), and oval-fruited Kishmish (Iran, Turkey, Israel, Palestine).
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
The subjective sweetness of a wine is determined by the interaction of several factors, including the amount of sugar in the wine, but also the relative levels of alcohol, acids, and tannins.
Swiss wine is produced from nearly 15 000 hectares of vineyards, and the wines are mainly produced in the west and in the south of Switzerland, in the cantons of Geneva, Neuchâtel, Ticino, Valais and Vaud.
The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook mainly on health, based on the Taqwīm as‑siḥḥah تقويم الصحة ("Maintenance of Health"), an eleventh-century Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan of Baghdad.
Tannic acid is a specific form of tannin, a type of polyphenol.
Tarija is a department in Bolivia.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
Teinturier (French: to dye or to stain) is a wine term applied to grapes whose flesh and juice is red in colour due to anthocyanin pigments accumulating within the pulp of the grape berry itself.
Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging and processing sub-company of Tetra Laval, with head offices in Lund, Sweden, and Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec (Les Aventures extraordinaires d'Adèle Blanc-Sec) is a historical fantasy comic book series first appearing in 1976 written and illustrated by French comics artist Jacques Tardi and published in ''album'' format by Belgian publisher Casterman, sometimes preceded by serialisation in various periodicals, intermittently since then.
The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec (Les Aventures extraordinaires d'Adèle Blanc-Sec), released as Adèle: Rise of the Mummy in Malaysia and Singapore, is a 2010 French fantasy adventure feature film written and directed by Luc Besson.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Tokaj, is a historical town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 54 kilometers from county capital Miskolc.
Tokaj wine region (Vinohradnícka oblasť Tokaj) is a wine-growing region located in south-eastern Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary.
Tokaji (of Tokaj) or Tokay is the name of the wines from the Tokaj wine region (also Tokaj-Hegyalja wine region or Tokaj-Hegyalja) in Hungary or the adjoining Tokaj wine region in Slovakia.
Trebbiano is an Italian wine grape, one of the most widely planted grape varieties in the world.
Tripe is a type of edible lining from the stomachs of various farm animals.
Trockenbeerenauslese (literal meaning: "dried berries selection") is a German language wine term for a medium to full body dessert wine.
Types of cheese are grouped or classified according to criteria such as length of fermentating, texture, methods of making, fat content, animal milk, country or region of origin, etc.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
USS Wainwright (Destroyer No. 62/DD-62) was a built for the United States Navy prior to the American entry into World War I. The ship was the first U.S. Navy vessel named in honor of U.S. Navy officers Jonathan Wainwright, his cousin, Commander Richard Wainwright, and his son, Jonathan Wainwright, Jr..
A varietal wine is a wine made primarily from a single named grape variety, and which typically displays the name of that variety on the wine label.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Verdejo is a variety of wine grape that has long been grown in the Rueda region of Spain.
Verjuice (from Middle French vertjus "green juice") is a highly acidic juice made by pressing unripe grapes, crab-apples or other sour fruit.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vin de pays is a French term meaning "country wine." Vins de pays are a step in the French wine classification that is above the table wine (Vin de table) classification, but below Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and formerly below VDQS classifications.
Vin jaune (French for "yellow wine") is a special and characteristic type of white wine made in the Jura region in eastern France.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Vinho Verde (literally 'green wine') is a Portuguese wine that originated in the historic Minho province in the far north of the country.
Viognier is a white wine grape variety.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A wine bottle is a bottle, generally made of glass, that used for holding wine.
The color of wine is one of the most easily recognizable characteristics of wines.
A wine press is a device used to extract juice from crushed grapes during wine making.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company.
Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.
Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
Yvette Guilbert (20 January 1865 – 3 February 1944) was a French cabaret singer and actress of the Belle Époque.