108 relations: Aesthetics, Antipositivism, August Böckh, Auguste Comte, Austria-Hungary, Baruch Spinoza, Being and Time, Biebrich (Wiesbaden), Calvinism, Cognitive science, Consciousness, Continental philosophy, Critique of Judgment, Critique of Pure Reason, Dialectic, Doctor of Philosophy, Duchy of Nassau, Eduard Spranger, Empiricism, Epicureanism, Epistemology, Erich Rothacker, Evolution, Existentialism, Facticity, Franz Boas, Franz Brentano, Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Geistesgeschichte, Geisteswissenschaft, Georg Misch, Georg Simmel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Stout, German Confederation, German literature, German philosophy, German Romanticism, Giordano Bruno, Habilitation, Hans Lipps, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Heidelberg University, Heinrich Rickert, Henri Bergson, Herbert Spencer, Hermeneutic circle, ..., Hermeneutics, Hesse, Historian, Historism, Human science, Humanities, Humboldt University of Berlin, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, Intellectual history, Jürgen Habermas, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gustav Droysen, José Ortega y Gasset, Karl Dilthey, Karl Jaspers, Knowledge and Human Interests, Kuno Fischer, Lebensphilosophie, Leopold von Ranke, Lifeworld, Literary criticism, Literary theory, Martin Buber, Martin Heidegger, Max Weber, Mind–body dualism, Morality, Natural science, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature, Neo-Kantianism, Objective idealism, Ontology, Plato, Positivism, Positivism dispute, Privatdozent, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Psychologist, R. G. Collingwood, Rudolf Makkreel, Rudolf Steiner, Scientific method, Seis am Schlern, Sociology, Subjective idealism, The Philosophy of Freedom, Theology, Truth and Method, University of Basel, University of Kiel, University of Wrocław, Verstehen, Western philosophy, Wilhelm Windelband, World view, 19th-century philosophy. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.
August Böckh or Boeckh (24 November 1785 – 3 August 1867) was a German classical scholar and antiquarian.
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.
Biebrich is a borough of the city of Wiesbaden, Hesse, Germany.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
The Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, KdU), also translated as the Critique of the Power of Judgment, is a 1790 philosophical work by Immanuel Kant.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
The Duchy of Nassau (German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
Eduard Spranger (27 June 1882 – 17 September 1963) was a German philosopher and psychologist.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Erich Rothacker (March 12, 1888 – August 11, 1965) was a German philosopher, a leading exponent of philosophical anthropology.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
In philosophy, facticity has a multiplicity of meanings from "factuality" and "contingency" to the intractable conditions of human existence.
Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts.
Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg (30 November 1802 – 24 January 1872) was a German philosopher and philologist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Geistesgeschichte (from German Geist, "spirit", and Geschichte, "history", "science") is a concept in the history of ideas denoting the branch of study concerned with the undercurrents of cultural manifestations, within the history of a people, that are peculiar to a specific timeframe.
Geisteswissenschaften ("sciences of spirit") is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, musicology, linguistics, theater studies, literary studies, media studies, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are traditional in German universities.
Georg Misch (5 April 1878, Berlin – 10 June 1965, Göttingen) was a German philosopher.
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Frederick Stout, FBA (6 January 1860 – 18 August 1944), usually cited as G. F. Stout, was a leading English philosopher and psychologist.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.
German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
Hans Lipps (22 November 1889 – 10 September 1941) was a German phenomenological and existentialist philosopher.
Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Heinrich John Rickert (25 May 1863 – 25 July 1936) was a German philosopher, one of the leading Neo-Kantians.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
The hermeneutic circle (hermeneutischer Zirkel) describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Historism is a philosophical and historiographical theory, founded in 19th-century Germany (as Historismus) and especially influential in 19th- and 20th-century Europe.
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Gustav Bernhard Droysen (6 July 180819 June 1884) was a German historian.
José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher, and essayist.
Karl Dilthey (18 March 1839, Biebrich – 4 March 1907, Göttingen) was a German classical scholar and archaeologist.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
Knowledge and Human Interests (Erkenntnis und Interesse) is a 1968 book by the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas, in which the author gives an account of the development of the modern natural and human sciences.
Ernst Kuno Berthold Fischer (23 July 1824 – 5 July 1907) was a German philosopher, a historian of philosophy and a critic.
Lebensphilosophie ("philosophy of life") is a philosophical school of thought which emphasises the meaning, value and purpose of life as the foremost focus of philosophy.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.
Lifeworld (Lebenswelt) may be conceived as a universe of what is self-evident or given, a world that subjects may experience together.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
Objective idealism is an idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
The positivism dispute (German: Positivismusstreit) was a political-philosophical dispute between the critical rationalists (Karl Popper, Hans Albert) and the Frankfurt School (Theodor Adorno, Jürgen Habermas) in 1961, about the methodology of the social sciences.
Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level.
The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Robin George Collingwood, FBA (22 February 1889 – 9 January 1943), was an English philosopher, historian and archaeologist.
Rudolf Adam Makkreel (born 1939) is Charles Howard Candler Professor of Philosophy at Emory University.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Seis am Schlern (Siusi allo Sciliar) is an Alpine village in South Tyrol, in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region of northern Italy.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist.
The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) is a 1960 book by Hans-Georg Gadamer, his major philosophical work.
The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located in Basel, Switzerland.
Kiel University (German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany.
The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Universität Breslau; Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.
Verstehen (literally: "to understand") in the context of German philosophy and social sciences in general, has been used since the late 19th century – in English as in German – with the particular sense of the "interpretive or participatory" examination of social phenomena.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wilhelm Windelband (11 May 1848 – 22 October 1915) was a German philosopher of the Baden School.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.