175 relations: A. J. Ayer, Abraham Fraenkel, Abstract and concrete, Ad hoc, Akron, Ohio, Alfred North Whitehead, Alfred Tarski, American philosophy, Analytic philosophy, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Axiom of choice, Axiom of extensionality, Azriel Lévy, B. F. Skinner, Behaviorism, Boolean algebra, Boston, Bracket, Cambridge University Press, Carus Lectures, Censorship, Circular definition, Clarence Irving Lewis, Class (set theory), Cognitive synonymy, Coherentism, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Completeness (logic), Computer program, Confirmation holism, Czesław Lejewski, Dagfinn Føllesdal, Daniel Dennett, David Lewis (philosopher), Definition, Doctrine, Domain of discourse, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Douglas Hofstadter, Duhem–Quine thesis, Edward J. McCluskey, Electrical engineering, Empirical evidence, Empty name, Epistemology, Existential Comics, Falsifiability, First-order logic, Frank Thompson, ..., Free logic, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Gdańsk, Gilbert Harman, Hao Wang (academic), Harvard Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Harvard University Press, Hierarchy, Higher-order logic, Hilary Putnam, Hold come what may, Holism, Homer, Honorary degree, Implicant, Indeterminacy of translation, Inscrutability of reference, Instrumentalism, Intension, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, J. Barkley Rosser, Jaegwon Kim, Johann Gottfried Herder, Kripke semantics, Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy, List of American philosophers, List of Kyoto Prize winners, Logic, Logical conjunction, Logical disjunction, Logical positivism, Logical possibility, Logical truth, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Material conditional, Mathematical logic, Meaning (philosophy of language), Metalogic, Method of analytic tableaux, Military intelligence, Modal logic, Model theory, Moderate realism, Modus ponens, Morse–Kelley set theory, Natural kind, Natural science, Naturalism (philosophy), Naturalized epistemology, Nazi Germany, Nelson Goodman, New Foundations, Nominalism, Normative, Oberlin College, Ontology, P. F. Strawson, Paul Gochet, Paul Grice, Peano axioms, Pegasus, Penelope Maddy, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Philosophical analysis, Philosophy Now, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of science, Physics, Pierre Duhem, Plato's beard, Predicate (mathematical logic), Predicate functor logic, Principia Mathematica, Proposition, Quantifier (logic), Quine (computing), Quine's paradox, Quine–McCluskey algorithm, Radical translation, Raymond Smullyan, Relativism, Richard Rorty, Robert Quine, Roger Gibson, Rolf Schock Prizes, Rudolf Carnap, Saul Kripke, Semantic holism, Set theory, Set-builder notation, Sheffer stroke, Skeptical movement, Soundness, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanisław Leśniewski, Subset, Synonym, Tarski's undefinability theorem, The Roots of Reference, The Wall Street Journal, Thesis, Two Dogmas of Empiricism, Type theory, Type–token distinction, Unity of science, Universal quantification, University of South Florida, Uppsala University, Urelement, Verbal Behavior, Verificationism, Vienna Circle, Vivid designator, Von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory, Wesleyan University, Western philosophy, Wiley-Blackwell, Word and Object, Yehoshua Bar-Hillel, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (125 more) » « Shrink index
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Abraham Halevi (Adolf) Fraenkel (אברהם הלוי (אדולף) פרנקל; February 17, 1891 – October 15, 1965), known as Abraham Fraenkel, was a German-born Israeli mathematician.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Akron is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Summit County.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
American philosophy is the activity, corpus, and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.
Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. was a division of the Meredith Publishing Company.
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.
In axiomatic set theory and the branches of logic, mathematics, and computer science that use it, the axiom of extensionality, or axiom of extension, is one of the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory.
Azriel Lévy (Hebrew: עזריאל לוי; born c. 1934) is an Israeli mathematician, logician, and a professor emeritus at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Carus Lectures are a prestigious series of three lectures presented over three consecutive days in plenary sessions at a divisional meeting of the American Philosophical Association.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
A circular definition is one that uses the term(s) being defined as a part of the definition or assumes a prior understanding of the term being defined.
Clarence Irving Lewis (April 12, 1883 – February 3, 1964), usually cited as C. I. Lewis, was an American academic philosopher and the founder of conceptual pragmatism.
In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share.
Cognitive synonymy is a type of synonymy in which synonyms are so similar in meaning that they cannot be differentiated either denotatively or connotatively, that is, not even by mental associations, connotations, emotive responses, and poetic value.
Coherentism is the name given to a few philosophical theories in modern epistemology.
The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), is a program within the transnational American non-profit educational organization Center for Inquiry (CFI), which seeks to "promote scientific inquiry, critical investigation, and the use of reason in examining controversial and extraordinary claims." Paul Kurtz proposed the establishment of CSICOP in 1976 as an independent non-profit organization (before merging with CFI as one of its programs in 2015), to counter what he regarded as an uncritical acceptance of, and support for, paranormal claims by both the media and society in general.
In mathematical logic and metalogic, a formal system is called complete with respect to a particular property if every formula having the property can be derived using that system, i.e. is one of its theorems; otherwise the system is said to be incomplete.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).
Czesław Lejewski (1913–2001) was a Polish philosopher and logician, and a member of the Lwow-Warsaw School of Logic.
Dagfinn Føllesdal (born 22 June 1932) is a Norwegian-American philosopher.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
In the formal sciences, the domain of discourse, also called the universe of discourse, universal set, or simply universe, is the set of entities over which certain variables of interest in some formal treatment may range.
Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
The Duhem–Quine thesis, also called the Duhem–Quine problem, after Pierre Duhem and Willard Van Orman Quine, is that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation, because an empirical test of the hypothesis requires one or more background assumptions (also called auxiliary assumptions or auxiliary hypotheses).
Edward J. McCluskey (October 16, 1929 – February 13, 2016) was a Professor at Stanford University.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In the philosophy of language, an empty name is a proper name that has no referent.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Existential Comics is a webcomic about philosophy created by Corey Mohler, a software engineer in Portland, Oregon.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
Frank Thompson Jr. (July 26, 1918 – July 22, 1989) was a Democratic Party politician from New Jersey.
A free logic is a logic with fewer existential presuppositions than classical logic.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, also known as GEB, is a 1979 book by Douglas Hofstadter.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gilbert Harman (born 1938) is an American philosopher, who taught at Princeton University from 1963 until his retirement in 2017.
Hao Wang (20 May 1921 – 13 May 1995) was a logician, philosopher, mathematician, and commentator on Kurt Gödel.
The Harvard Society of Fellows is a group of scholars selected at the beginning of their careers by Harvard University for extraordinary scholarly potential, upon whom distinctive academic and intellectual opportunities are bestowed in order to foster their individual growth and intellectual collaboration.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
In mathematics and logic, a higher-order logic is a form of predicate logic that is distinguished from first-order logic by additional quantifiers and, sometimes, stronger semantics.
Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.
Hold come what may is a phrase popularized by logician Willard Van Orman Quine.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
In Boolean logic, an implicant is a "covering" (sum term or product term) of one or more minterms in a sum of products (or maxterms in product of sums) of a Boolean function.
The indeterminacy of translation is a thesis propounded by 20th-century American analytic philosopher W. V. Quine.
The inscrutability or indeterminacy of reference (also referential inscrutability) is a thesis propounded by 20th century analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine in his book Word and Object.
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
In linguistics, logic, philosophy, and other fields, an intension is any property or quality connoted by a word, phrase, or another symbol.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and logic.
John Barkley Rosser Sr. (December 6, 1907 – September 5, 1989) was an American logician, a student of Alonzo Church, and known for his part in the Church–Rosser theorem, in lambda calculus.
Jaegwon Kim (born September 12, 1934) is a Korean-American philosopher who is now an emeritus professor at Brown University, but who also taught at several other leading American universities.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Kripke semantics (also known as relational semantics or frame semantics, and often confused with possible world semantics) is a formal semantics for non-classical logic systems created in the late 1950s and early 1960s by Saul Kripke and André Joyal.
The Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy is awarded once a year by the Inamori Foundation for lifetime achievements in the arts and philosophy.
This is a list of American philosophers; of philosophers who are either from, or spent many productive years of their lives in the United States.
This is a list of Kyoto Prize winners, awarded annually by the Inamori Foundation.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (∧) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logically possible refers to a proposition which can be the logical consequence of another, based on the axioms of a given system of logic.
Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
The material conditional (also known as material implication, material consequence, or simply implication, implies, or conditional) is a logical connective (or a binary operator) that is often symbolized by a forward arrow "→".
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
The nature of meaning, its definition, elements, and types, was discussed by philosophers Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.
Metalogic is the study of the metatheory of logic.
In proof theory, the semantic tableau (plural: tableaux, also called 'truth tree') is a decision procedure for sentential and related logics, and a proof procedure for formulae of first-order logic.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.
Moderate realism is a position in the debate on the metaphysics of universals that holds that there is no realm in which universals exist (in opposition to Platonic realism), nor do they really exist within the individuals as universals, but rather universals really exist within the particulars as individualised, and multiplied.
In propositional logic, modus ponens (MP; also modus ponendo ponens (Latin for "mode that affirms by affirming") or implication elimination) is a rule of inference.
In the foundations of mathematics, Morse–Kelley set theory (MK), Kelley–Morse set theory (KM), Morse–Tarski set theory (MT), Quine–Morse set theory (QM) or the system of Quine and Morse is a first order axiomatic set theory that is closely related to von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory (NBG).
In analytic philosophy, the term natural kind identifies a grouping of singular objects that always share particular qualities, whether or not humans know either the objects or qualities.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Naturalized epistemology, coined by W. V. O. Quine, is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Henry Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906 – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, irrealism, and aesthetics.
In mathematical logic, New Foundations (NF) is an axiomatic set theory, conceived by Willard Van Orman Quine as a simplification of the theory of types of Principia Mathematica.
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher.
Paul Gochet (21 March 1932 – 21 June 2011) was a Belgian logician, philosopher, and emeritus professor of the University of Liège.
Herbert Paul Grice (13 March 1913 – 28 August 1988), usually publishing under the name H. P. Grice, H. Paul Grice, or Paul Grice, was a British philosopher of language, whose work on meaning has influenced the philosophical study of semantics.
In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano.
Pegasus (Πήγασος, Pḗgasos; Pegasus, Pegasos) is a mythical winged divine stallion, and one of the most recognized creatures in Greek mythology.
Penelope Maddy (born 4 July 1950 in Tulsa, Oklahoma) is a UCI Distinguished Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science and of Mathematics at the University of California, Irvine.
Peter Godfrey-Smith is Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Sydney.
Philosophical analysis (from Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues.
Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem (9 June 1861 – 14 September 1916) was a French physicist, mathematician, historian and philosopher of science.
Plato's beard refers to a paradoxical argument dubbed by Willard Van Orman Quine in his 1948 paper On What There Is in which he stated that: This is the old Platonic riddle of nonbeing.
In mathematical logic, a predicate is commonly understood to be a Boolean-valued function P: X→, called the predicate on X. However, predicates have many different uses and interpretations in mathematics and logic, and their precise definition, meaning and use will vary from theory to theory.
In mathematical logic, predicate functor logic (PFL) is one of several ways to express first-order logic (also known as predicate logic) by purely algebraic means, i.e., without quantified variables.
The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
In logic, quantification specifies the quantity of specimens in the domain of discourse that satisfy an open formula.
A quine is a non-empty computer program which takes no input and produces a copy of its own source code as its only output.
Quine's paradox is a paradox concerning truth values, attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine.
The Quine–McCluskey algorithm (or the method of prime implicants) is a method used for minimization of Boolean functions that was developed by Willard V. Quine and extended by Edward J. McCluskey.
Radical translation is a thought experiment in Word and Object, a major philosophical work from American philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine.
Raymond Merrill Smullyan (May 25, 1919 – February 6, 2017) was an American mathematician, magician, concert pianist, logician, Taoist, and philosopher.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Robert Wolfe Quine (December 30, 1942 – May 31, 2004) was an American guitarist, known for his innovative guitar solos.
Roger Fletcher Gibson, Jr. (February 21, 1944 – September 30, 2015) was an American philosopher specializing in epistemology and the philosophy of language.
The Rolf Schock Prizes were established and endowed by bequest of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933–1986).
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.
Semantic holism is a theory in the philosophy of language to the effect that a certain part of language, be it a term or a complete sentence, can only be understood through its relations to a (previously understood) larger segment of language.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
In set theory and its applications to logic, mathematics, and computer science, set-builder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements or stating the properties that its members must satisfy.
In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke, named after Henry M. Sheffer, written ↑, also written | (not to be confused with "||", which is often used to represent disjunction), or Dpq (in Bocheński notation), denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both".
The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).
In mathematical logic, a logical system has the soundness property if and only if every formula that can be proved in the system is logically valid with respect to the semantics of the system.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanisław Leśniewski (March 30, 1886 – May 13, 1939) was a Polish mathematician, philosopher and logician.
In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Tarski's undefinability theorem, stated and proved by Alfred Tarski in 1936, is an important limitative result in mathematical logic, the foundations of mathematics, and in formal semantics.
The Roots of Reference is a 1974 book by philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine, in which the author expands on his earlier concepts about the inscrutability of reference and examines problems with traditional empiricism, arguing for a naturalized epistemology based on holism.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
"Two Dogmas of Empiricism" is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.
The type–token distinction is used in disciplines such as logic, linguistics, metalogic, typography, and computer programming to clarify what words mean.
The unity of science is a thesis in philosophy of science that says that all the sciences form a unified whole.
In predicate logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all".
The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is an American metropolitan public research university in Tampa, Florida, United States.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
In set theory, a branch of mathematics, an urelement or ur-element (from the German prefix ur-, 'primordial') is an object (concrete or abstract) that is not a set, but that may be an element of a set.
Verbal Behavior is a 1957 book by psychologist B. F. Skinner, in which he inspects human behavior, describing what is traditionally called linguistics.
Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).
The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.
In modal logic and the philosophy of language, a vivid designator is a term which is believed to designate the same thing in all possible worldsQuine, W.V.O., Quintessence: Reference and Modality, 2004, pp.
In the foundations of mathematics, von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory (NBG) is an axiomatic set theory that is a conservative extension of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZFC).
Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut, founded in 1831.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Word and Object is a 1960 work by philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine, in which the author expands upon the line of thought of his earlier writings in From a Logical Point of View (1953), and reformulates some of his earlier arguments, such as his attack in "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" on the analytic-synthetic distinction.
Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (יהושע בר-הלל; 8 September 1915, Vienna – 25 September 1975, Jerusalem) was an Israeli philosopher, mathematician, and linguist.
In mathematics, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, named after mathematicians Ernst Zermelo and Abraham Fraenkel, is an axiomatic system that was proposed in the early twentieth century in order to formulate a theory of sets free of paradoxes such as Russell's paradox.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.
From a Logical Point of View, Quinean, Quinian, The Web of Belief, V.W. Quine, Van Orman Quine, Van Quine, W Quine, W. V. O. Quine, W. V. Quine, W.V. Quine, W.V. Quine., W.V.O. Quine, WV Quine, WVO Quine, Willard Quine, Willard V. O. Quine, Willard Van Ormand Quine, Willard Van Quine, Willard van Orman Quine, William Van Orman Quine.