226 relations: Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Albrecht von Roon, Alexander II of Russia, Angria, Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Socialist Laws, August von Bethmann-Hollweg, Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Austro-Prussian War, Bad Pyrmont, Baden, Bar-sur-Aube, Battle of Ligny, Battle of Sedan, Battle of Waterloo, Berlin, Berlin Palace, Bishopric of Cammin, Bishopric of Hildesheim, Bishopric of Minden, Bremen-Verden, Bundespräsidium, Burgrave, Burgraviate of Nuremberg, By the Grace of God, Calvinism, Carl Schurz, Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken, Chancellor of Germany, Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlottenburg Palace, Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Christian IX of Denmark, Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dachsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim, Classical liberalism, Congress of Berlin, Conservatism, Constitution of the German Confederation 1871, Count, Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg, Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg, Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken, Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach, County of Mark, County of Ravensberg, County of Tecklenburg, Deutsches Eck, Dual Alliance (1879), ..., Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchy of Berg, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchy of Cleves, Duchy of Jülich, Duchy of Magdeburg, Duchy of Nassau, Duchy of Pomerania, Duchy of Saxony, Duchy of Schleswig, Duchy of Thuringia, Duchy of Westphalia, Duke, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, East Frisia, Elisa Radziwill, Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Family tree of the German monarchs, Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Fortress of Mainz, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Franco-Prussian War, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Frederick I of Prussia, Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden, Frederick III, German Emperor, Frederick VII of Denmark, Frederick William I of Prussia, Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick William III of Prussia, Frederick William IV of Prussia, Frederick William, Elector of Hesse, Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, Free City of Frankfurt, Fulda, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, George V of Hanover, German Confederation, German Emperor, German Empire, German revolutions of 1848–49, Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, Grand Duchy of Posen, Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine, Grand duke, Grapeshot, Guelders, Hall of Mirrors, Head of state, Hesse-Nassau, Hohnstein Castle, Holstein, Holy Roman Empire, House of Henneberg, House of Hohenzollern, House of Nassau, House Order of Hohenzollern, III Corps (German Empire), Imperial and Royal Majesty, Iron Cross, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern, Karl Nobiling, Kashubians, Königsberg, Königsberg Castle, Kłodzko Land, King of Hanover, Kingdom of Prussia, Koblenz, Kroll Opera House, Kronprinzenpalais, Krosno Odrzańskie, Kyffhäuser Monument, Landgrave, Landgraviate of Hesse, Landtag of Prussia, Lauenburg and Bütow Land, Legion of Honour, List of German monarchs, List of monarchs of Prussia, List of people from Berlin, List of rulers of Hesse, List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Lower Lusatia, Ludwig Bamberger, Ludwig Order, Lutheranism, Mansfeld, Margrave, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Max Hödel, Maximilian Wolfgang Duncker, Mecklenburg, Medal of Military Valor, Military Order of Max Joseph, Military Order of St. Henry, Minister President of Prussia, Moers, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, National memory, Niederwalddenkmal, North German Confederation, Order of Leopold (Belgium), Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky, Order of Saint Januarius, Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Order of St. Andrew, Order of St. George, Order of the Black Eagle, Order of the Crown (Prussia), Order of the Crown of Italy, Order of the Garter, Order of the Golden Fleece, Order of the Polar Star, Order of the Red Eagle, Order of the Royal House of Chakri, Order of the White Eagle (Russian Empire), Otto von Bismarck, Palace of Versailles, Pig War (1859), Porta Westfalica, Pour le Mérite, Prince Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Prince Augustus William of Prussia, Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt, Prince of Orange, Prince-Bishopric of Münster, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn, Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt, Princess Louise of Prussia, Principality of Halberstadt, Principality of Rügen, Province of Hanover, Province of Westphalia, Prussia, Prussian Union of Churches, Rüdesheim am Rhein, Reactionary, Regent, Reichstag (German Empire), Rhine Province, Royal Order of Kamehameha I, Royal Order of the Seraphim, Sash of the Three Orders, Saxe-Lauenburg, Second Schleswig War, Sigmaringen, Silesia, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, Stroke, Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, Sydney, Thuringia, Treaty of Vienna (1864), Unification of Germany, United and uniting churches, Unter den Linden, Upper Lusatia, Verden (state), Victoria, Princess Royal, VII Corps (German Empire), VIII Corps (German Empire), War of the Sixth Coalition, Wends, Wilhelm II, German Emperor. 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Adolphe (Adolf Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich; 24 July 1817 – 17 November 1905) was the last sovereign Duke of Nassau, reigning from 20 August 1839 until the duchy's annexation to Kingdom of Prussia in 1866.
Adolphus Frederick II (19 October 1658 – 12 May 1708), Duke of Mecklenburg, was the first Duke of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, reigning from 1701 until his death.
Albrecht Theodor Emil Graf von Roon (30 April 180323 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and statesman.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Angria or Angaria (Engern) is a historical region in the present-day German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia.
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents.
The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws (Sozialistengesetze; officially Gesetz gegen die gemeingefährlichen Bestrebungen der Sozialdemokratie, approximately "Law against the public danger of Social Democratic endeavours") were a series of acts, the first of which was passed on October 19, 1878 by the German Reichstag lasting until March 31, 1881, and extended four times (May 1880, May 1884, April 1886 and February 1888).
Moritz August von Bethmann-Hollweg (born 8 April 1795 in Frankfurt am Main, died 14 July 1877 on Rheineck castle near Niederbreisig on the Rhine) was a German jurist and Prussian politician.
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Augusta Marie Luise Katharina; 30 September 1811 – 7 January 1890) was the Queen of Prussia and the first German Empress as the consort of William I, German Emperor.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Bad Pyrmont is a town in the district of Hamelin-Pyrmont, in Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany, with a population close to 19,000.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Bar-sur-Aube is a French commune and a sub-prefecture in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of France.
The Battle of Ligny (16 June 1815) was the last victory of the military career of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Palace (Berliner Schloss or Stadtschloss), also known as the Berlin City Palace, is a building in the centre of Berlin, located on the Museum Island at Schlossplatz, opposite the Lustgarten park.
The Bishopric of Cammin (also Kammin, Kamień Pomorski) was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544, and a secular territory of the Holy Roman Empire (Prince-Bishopric) in the Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) area from 1248 to 1650.
The Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim (Hochstift Hildesheim) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the Middle Ages until 1803.
The Bishopric of Minden was a Roman Catholic diocese (Bistum Minden) and a state, Prince-bishopric of Minden (Hochstift Minden), of the Holy Roman Empire.
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.
Präsidium des Bundes or Bundespräsidium (German; in English Presidium of the Federation or Federal Presidium) was a function in the German constitutional history.
Burgrave also rendered as Burggrave (from Burggraf, praefectus), was since the medieval period in Europe (mainly Germany) the official title for the ruler of a castle, especially a royal or episcopal castle, and its territory called a Burgraviate or Burgravate (German Burggrafschaft also Burggrafthum, Latin praefectura).
The Burgraviate of Nuremberg (Burggrafschaft Nürnberg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the early 12th to the late 15th centuries.
By the Grace of God (Latin Dei Gratia, abbreviated D.G.) is an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch historically considered to be ruling by divine right, not a title in its own right.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carl Christian Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer.
Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken (12 August 1704 – 25 March 1774) was Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken by marriage.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Charles Frederick (Karl Friedrich; 2 February 1783 – 8 July 1853) was the reigning Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Charles II (10 October 1741 – 6 November 1816) was ruler of the state of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1794 until his death.
Charlottenburg Palace (German: Schloss Charlottenburg) is the largest palace in Berlin, Germany.
Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (Strassburg, 7 November 1674 – Zweibrücken, 3 February 1735) was a German nobleman.
Christian IX (8 April 181829 January 1906) was King of Denmark from 1863 to 1906.
Count Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dachsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim (17 July 1695, Mülheim an der Ruhr – 17 November 1766, Heidesheim) was a German nobleman.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Constitution of the German Confederation (German: Verfassung des Deutschen Bundes, or Novemberverfassung) was the constitution of the German federal state at the beginning of the year 1871.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Charlotte, Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg, full name: Countess Charlotte Christine Magdalene Johanna of Hanau-Lichtenberg (2 May 1700, Bouxwiller – 1 July 1726, Darmstadt) was the wife of landgrave Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg (16 March 1729 – 11 March 1818); also known as Princess George, was heiress to the barony of Broich and by marriage Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise; 9 March 1721 – 30 March 1774) was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Sophia Albertine, Countess of Erbach-Erbach (30 July 1683, in Erbach – 4 September 1742, in Eisfeld), was Countess of Erbach-Erbach by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
The County of Mark (Grafschaft Mark, Comté de La Marck colloquially known as Die Mark) was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle.
The County of Ravensberg (Grafschaft Ravensberg) was a historical county of the Holy Roman Empire.
The County of Tecklenburg (Grafschaft Tecklenburg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Lower Saxony.
Deutsches Eck ("German Corner") is the name of a headland in Koblenz, Germany, where the Mosel river joins the Rhine.
The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on 7 October 1879 as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent or limit war.
Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Luise Amalie; 29 January 1722 – 13 January 1780) was daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve; Hertogdom Kleef) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau (de).
The Duchy of Jülich (Herzogtum Jülich; Hertogdom Gulik; Duché de Juliers) comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries.
The Duchy of Magdeburg (Herzogtum Magdeburg) was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia from 1680 to 1701 and a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia from 1701 to 1807.
The Duchy of Nassau (German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
The Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum Pommern, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.
The Duchy of Thuringia was an eastern frontier march of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia, established about 631 by King Dagobert I after his troops had been defeated by the forces of the Slavic confederation of Samo at the Battle of Wogastisburg.
The Duchy of Westphalia (Herzogtum Westfalen) was a historic territory in the Holy Roman Empire, which existed from 1180.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow (Herzog Carl Ludwig Friedrich zu Mecklenburg, Prinz von Mirow; 23 February 1708 – 5 June 1752) was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the father of Charlotte, Queen of the United Kingdom and Hanover.
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
Princess Elisa Radziwill (Elisa Friederike Luise Martha; Eliza Fryderyka Luiza Marta Radziwiłł; 28 October 1803, Berlin – 27 August 1834, Bad Freienwalde) was a member of Polish high nobility of royal ancestry.
Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (Gotha, 21 August 1681 – Hildburghausen, 9 March 1724), was a duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Ferdinand Albert (German Ferdinand Albrecht; 29 May 1680 – 2 September 1735, Salzdahlum), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was an officer in the army of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Fortress of Mainz was a fortressed garrison town between 1620 and 1918.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
Frederick I (Frederick Wilhelm Ludwig) (9 September 1826 – 28 September 1907) was the sovereign Grand Duke of Baden reigning from 1856 to 1907.
Frederick III (Friedrich; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors.
Frederick VII (Frederik Carl Christian) (6 October 1808 – 15 November 1863) was King of Denmark from 1848 to 1863.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
Frederick William I (20 August 1802 – 6 January 1875) was, between 1847 and 1866, the last Prince-elector of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel).
Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (Friederike Luise; 16 October 1751 – 25 February 1805) was Queen consort of Prussia as the second spouse of King Frederick William II.
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt was a city-state within two major Germanic entities.
Fulda (historically in English called Fuld) is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis).
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt (16 December 1742 – 12 September 1819), Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst (sovereign prince) von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal).
George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was a decoration intended for victorious generals of the Prussian Army and its allies.
The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen; Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
The Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine (Großherzogtum Niederrhein), or simply known as the Lower Rhine Province (Provinz Niederrhein), was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and existed from 1815 to 1822.
The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke.
In artillery, grapeshot is a type of shot that is not one solid element, but a mass of small metal balls or slugs packed tightly into a canvas bag.
Guelders or Gueldres (Gelre, Geldern) is a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.
The Hall of Mirrors (Grande Galerie or Galerie des Glaces) is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Province of Hesse-Nassau was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1868 to 1918, then a province of the Free State of Prussia until 1944.
Hohnstein Castle (Burg Hohnstein) is one of the largest and best-preserved castle ruins in Germany and is located near Neustadt in the vicinity of Nordhausen in Thuringia.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Henneberg was a medieval German comital family (Grafen) which from the 11th century onwards held large territories in the Duchy of Franconia.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe.
The House Order of Hohenzollern (Hausorden von Hohenzollern or Hohenzollernscher Hausorden) was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status.
The III Army Corps / III AK (III.) was a corps level command of the Prussian and then the Imperial German Armies from the 19th century to World War I. It was established in 1814 as the General Headquarters in Berlin (Generalkommando in Berlin) and became the III Army Corps on 3 April 1820.
Imperial and Royal Majesty (His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty, abbreviated as HI&RM) was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts as heads of imperial dynasties that were simultaneously royal.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Karl Anton Joachim Zephyrinus Friedrich Meinrad Fürst von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) (7 September 1811 – 2 June 1885) was head of the Princely House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Hohenzollern from 1869 and Prime Minister of Prussia.
Karl Eduard Nobiling (10 April 1848 – 10 September 1878) was a German assassin, who in 1878 made an attempt on the life of Emperor Wilhelm I. Nobiling was born in Kolno near Birnbaum (Międzychód) in the Prussian Province of Posen, where his father was the tenant of the local manor.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
The Königsberg Castle (Königsberger Schloss, Кёнигсбергский замок) was a castle in Königsberg, Germany (since 1946 Kaliningrad, Russia), and was one of the landmarks of the East Prussian capital Königsberg.
Kłodzko Land (Kladsko; Glatzer Land; Ziemia kłodzka) is a historical region in southwestern Poland.
The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
The Kroll Opera House (Krolloper, Kroll-Oper) was an opera building in Berlin, Germany, located in the central Tiergarten district on the western edge of the Königsplatz square (today Platz der Republik), facing the Reichstag building.
The Kronprinzenpalais (Crown Prince's Palace) is a landmark late Neoclassical-style building at one end of Unter den Linden in Berlin.
Krosno Odrzańskie (Crossen an der Oder) is a city on the east bank of Oder River, at the confluence with the Bóbr.
The Kyffhäuser Monument (Kyffhäuserdenkmal), also known as Barbarossa Monument (Barbarossadenkmal), is an Emperor William monument within the Kyffhäuser mountain range in the German state of Thuringia.
Landgrave (landgraaf, Landgraf; lantgreve, landgrave; comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire, and later on in its former territories.
The Landgraviate of Hesse (Landgrafschaft Hessen) was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Landtag of Prussia (German: Preußischer Landtag) was the representative assembly of the Kingdom of Prussia implemented in 1849, a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper House of Lords (Herrenhaus) and the lower House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus).
Lauenburg and Bütow Land (Länder or italic, Lãbòrskò-bëtowskô Zemia, Ziemia lęborsko-bytowska) formed a historical region in eastern Pomerania.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
The following is a list of notable people who were born in Berlin, Germany.
This is a list of rulers of Hesse (Hessen) during the history of Hesse on west-central Germany.
The following is a list of rulers, usually dukes, who ruled both Schleswig and Holstein, starting from the first Holstein count who received Schleswig, until both provinces were annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia; and afterwards, titular dukes.
Louis IX of Hesse-Darmstadt (Ludwig) (15 December 1719 – 6 April 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 - 1790.
Louis VIII (German: Ludwig) (5 April 1691 – 17 October 1768) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1739 to 1768.
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie; 10 March 1776 – 19 July 1810) was Queen of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III.
Lower Lusatia is a historical region in Central Europe, stretching from the southeast of the German state of Brandenburg to the southwest of Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland.
Ludwig Bamberger (22 July 1823 – 14 March 1899) was a German economist, politician, revolutionary and writer.
The Ludwig Order (German:"Ludwigsorden"), was an order of the Grand Duchy of Hesse which was awarded to meritorious soldiers and civilians from 1807 to 1918.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Mansfeld (cognate with English Mansfield), sometimes also unofficially Mansfeld-Lutherstadt, is a town in the district of Mansfeld-Südharz, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Margrave was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Emil Max Hödel (27 May 1857 – 16 August 1878) was a plumber from Leipzig, Germany and a propaganda of the deed anarchist, who became known for a failed assassination.
Maximilian Wolfgang Duncker (15 October 1811 – 21 July 1886) was a German historian and politician.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Medal of Military Valor (Italian language: Medaglia al valor militare) is an Italian medal.
The Military Order of Max Joseph (Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) was the highest military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
The Military Order of St.
The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.
Moers (older form: Mörs; archaic Dutch: Murse, Murs or Meurs) is a German city on the western bank of the Rhine.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National memory is a form of collective memory defined by shared experiences and culture.
The Niederwalddenkmal is a monument located in the Niederwald, near Rüdesheim am Rhein in Hesse, Germany.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
The Order of Leopold (Leopoldsorde, Ordre de Léopold) is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.
The Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was an order of chivalry of the Russian Empire first awarded on by Empress Catherine I of Russia.
The Illustrious Royal Order of Saint Januarius (Italian: Insigne Reale Ordine di San Gennaro) is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood founded by Charles VII of Naples in 1738.
The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem (Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem), commonly known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order (German: Johanniterorden), is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, which generally is considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD.
The Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen (Magyar Királyi Szent István Iovagrend; Königlich Ungarischer Sankt-Stephans-Orden) was an order of knighthood founded by Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa in 1764.
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor.
The Order of St.
The Order of Saint George (Орден «Святого Георгия») is today the highest purely military decoration of the Russian Federation.
The Order of the Black Eagle (Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler) was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Royal Order of the Crown (Königlicher Kronen-Orden) was a Prussian order of chivalry.
The Order of the Crown of Italy, italic, was founded as a national order in 1868 by King Vittorio Emanuele II, to commemorate the unification of Italy in 1861.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.
The Order of the Polar Star (Swedish: Nordstjärneorden) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.
The Order of the Red Eagle (Roter Adlerorden) was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri (เครื่องขัตติยราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันมีเกียรติคุณรุ่งเรืองยิ่งมหาจักรีบรมราชวงศ์) was established in 1882 by King Rama V of the Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) to commemorate the Bangkok Centennial.
The Order of the White Eagle (О́рден Бе́лого Орла́) was an Imperial Russian Order based on the Polish honor.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
The Pig War was a confrontation in 1859 between the United States and United Kingdom over the British–U.S. border in the San Juan Islands, between Vancouver Island and the mainland.
Porta Westfalica is a town in the district of Minden-Lübbecke, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.
Adolf Karl Friedrich Ludwig (29 January 1797, in Breslau, Prussia – 24 April 1873, in Koschentin, Prussia) was a Prussian nobleman, soldier, and politician.
Augustus William of Prussia (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722 – 12 June 1758) was Prince of Prussia and a younger brother and general of Frederick II.
Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt (11 July 1722 – 21 June 1782) was a Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France.
The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
The Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn (Fürstbistum Paderborn) was a principality (Hochstift) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1281 to 1802.
Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Antoinette Amalie; 14 April 1696 – 6 March 1762) was a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by marriage to Ferdinand Albert II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Duchess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen (4 August 1713 – 29 June 1761) was a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Friederike Caroline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt (20 August 1752 – 22 May 1782) was a member of the House of Hesse and by marriage a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Louise of Prussia (3 December 1838 – 23 April 1923) was the second child and only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm I and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
The Principality of Halberstadt (Fürstentum Halberstadt) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by Brandenburg-Prussia.
The Principality of Rügen (Fürstentum Rügen) was a Danish principality consisting of the island of Rügen and the adjacent mainland from 1168 until 1325.
The Province of Hanover (Provinz Hannover) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946.
The Province of Westphalia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.
Rüdesheim am Rhein is a German winemaking town in the Rhine Gorge, and part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site in this region.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Reichstag (Diet of the Realm or Imperial Diet) was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918.
The Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (Rheinpreußen) or synonymous with the Rhineland (Rheinland), was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822 to 1946.
The Royal Order of Kamehameha I is an order of knighthood established by His Majesty, Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuaiwa Kalanikapuapaikalaninui Ali`iolani Kalanimakua) in 1865, to promote and defend the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai.
The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.
The Sash of the Three Orders is the insignia of the Portuguese presidential magistracy, therefore it cannot be used outside the exercise of office of the President of the Portuguese Republic.
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein.
The Second Schleswig War (2., Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century.
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (– 28 June 1757) was a Queen consort in Prussia as spouse of Frederick William I.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (French: Ordre suprême de la Très Sainte Annonciade, Italian: Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata) is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood, originating in Savoy.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
The Treaty of Vienna was a peace treaty signed on 30 October 1864 in Vienna between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Kingdom of Denmark.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
Unter den Linden ("under the linden trees") is a boulevard in the central Mitte district of Berlin, the capital of Germany.
Upper Lusatia (Oberlausitz; Hornja Łužica; Górna Łužyca; Łużyce Górne or Milsko; Horní Lužice) is a historical region in Germany and Poland.
The historic territory of Verden emerged from the Monarchs of the Frankish Diocese of Verden in the area of present-day central and northeastern Lower Saxony and existed as such until 1648.
Victoria, Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa; 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was German empress and queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III.
The VII Army Corps / VII AK (VII.) was a corps level command of the Prussian and then the Imperial German Armies from the 19th Century to World War I. Originating in 1815 as the General Command for the Province of Westphalia, the headquarters was in Münster and its catchment area was the Province of Westphalia and the Principalities of Lippe and Schaumburg-Lippe.
The VIII Army Corps / VIII AK (VIII.) was a corps level command of the Prussian and then the Imperial German Armies from the 19th Century to World War I. Originating on 21 June 1815 as the General Command for the Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine and established on 3 April 1820 as VIII Corps.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Emperor Wilhelm I, Emperor William I, German Emperor William I, German King William, Kaiser Wilhelm I, Kartätschenprinz, King Wilhelm I, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig, Wilhelm I, Wilhelm I of Germany, Wilhelm I of Prussia, Wilhelm I, German Emperor, Wilhelm I, King of Prussia, Wilhelm the Great, William Frederick Louis, William I (German Emperor), William I (German Empire), William I (German emperor), William I (of Germany and Prussia), William I of Germany, William I of Prussia, William I, King of Prussia, William of Prussia.