310 relations: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, Act of Seclusion, Act of Settlement 1701, Admiralty, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, Amsterdam Wisselbank, Anglicanism, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Anna Mackenzie, Anne of Denmark, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Archbishop of Canterbury, Argent, Arnold van Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle, Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington, Attitude (heraldry), Azure (heraldry), Balance of power (international relations), Bank of England, Baron, Battle of Dunkeld, Battle of Killiecrankie, Battle of Landen, Battle of Solebay, Battle of the Boyne, Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue, Bend (heraldry), Bill of attainder, Bill of Rights 1689, Binnenhof, Bishop of London, Breda, Brielle, Brixham, Buren, By God's Grace, Calvinism, Capitulation (surrender), Captain general, Catholic Church, Chambers of Reunion, Charleroi, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charles II of Spain, Châlons-en-Champagne, Church of England, Coat of arms of Ireland, Coat of arms of the Netherlands, College of William & Mary, ..., Commonwealth of England, Constantijn Huygens, Constantijn Huygens Jr., Convention Parliament (1689), Cornelis de Graeff, Cornelis de Witt, Council of State (Netherlands), Countess Albertine Agnes of Nassau, Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau, County of Holland, County of Nassau, County of Zeeland, Cruel and unusual punishment, Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, Darien scheme, Declaration of Indulgence, Declaration of Right, 1689, Delft, Divine providence, Divine right of kings, Drenthe, Dutch guilder, Dutch Republic, Dutch States Army, Dutch States Party, Earl of Albemarle, Earl of Athlone, Earl of Portland, Edict of Nantes, Electorate of Cologne, Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Orkney, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, English Civil War, English claims to the French throne, English general election, 1690, Escutcheon (heraldry), Excessive Bail Clause, Exclusion Crisis, Family tree of the British royal family, Fess, Fidei defensor, First Anglo-Dutch War, First Stadtholderless Period, Fleur-de-lis, Fort Amsterdam, Franciscus Gomarus, Franco-Dutch War, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Frederick I of Prussia, Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein, Frederick William I of Prussia, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, Freedom of religion, Friesland, Galway, Gaspar Fagel, Gelderland, General admiral, Generality Lands, Geneva, George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, Gisbertus Voetius, Glorious Revolution, Godert de Ginkell, 1st Earl of Athlone, Godfrey Kneller, Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), Grand pensionary, Great Seal of the Realm, Gregorian calendar, Guelders, Gules, Haarlem, Heir apparent, Hendrik Verhoeff, Henrietta Maria of France, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, Henry Compton (bishop), Henry IV of France, Highness, Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland, Holland, Hollandic Water Line, Holy Roman Empire, House of Commons of England, House of Hanover, House of Lords, House of Nassau, House of Orange-Nassau, House of Stuart, Huguenots, Invitation to William, Jacobite assassination plot 1696, Jacobite rising of 1689, Jacobitism, James Francis Edward Stuart, James II of England, James VI and I, Johan de Witt, Johan Kievit, Johan van Banchem, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of Stair, John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, John Van der Kiste, John William Friso, Prince of Orange, Jonathan Israel, Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria, Julian calendar, Katzenelnbogen, Kensington Palace, King consort, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Leiden University, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Lieutenant admiral, Limerick, List of deserters from King James II to William of Orange, List of English monarchs, List of monarchs of the Netherlands, List of Scottish monarchs, London, Long Island, Louis XIV of France, Louise de Coligny, Low Countries, Maastricht, Majesty, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Marie de' Medici, Martyr, Mary I of England, Mary II of England, Mary of Modena, Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, Massacre of Glencoe, Meeting of Parliament Act 1694, Michiel de Ruyter, Middelburg, Miscarriage, Moers, Mole (animal), Monarchy of Ireland, Namur, Nassau County, New York, Nassau, Bahamas, New World, Nieuwerbrug, Nine Years' War, Nonconformist, Nonjuring schism, Nontrinitarianism, Norman Davies, Northern Ireland, Old Style and New Style dates, Oliver Cromwell, Open letter, Or (heraldry), Orange Order, Orangism (Dutch Republic), Orle (heraldry), Overijssel, Palace of Whitehall, Pale (heraldry), Parliament of England, Parliament of Scotland, Patrilineality, Pensionary, Perpetual Edict (1667), Philip II of Spain, Philip V of Spain, Pneumonia, Predestination in Calvinism, Primogeniture, Prince of Orange, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, Prince-Bishopric of Münster, Princess Royal, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, Principality of Orange, Protestantism, Quartering (heraldry), Queen regnant, Rampjaar, Real tennis, Regent, Regenten, Restoration (England), Right to keep and bear arms, Right to petition, River Thames, Robert Fruin, Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, Royal Arms of England, Royal Arms of Scotland, Royal charter, Royal prerogative, Rump state, Sable (heraldry), Schutterij, Scottish clan, Scottish Episcopal Church, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second Stadtholderless Period, Secret Treaty of Dover, Seven Bishops, Siege of Carrickfergus (1689), Siege of Derry, Sir John Fenwick, 3rd Baronet, Smallpox, Solms-Braunfels, Sophia of Hanover, Spanish Netherlands, Stadtholder, Standing army, States General of the Netherlands, States of Holland and West Friesland, States of Zeeland, Stephen B. Baxter, Style of the British sovereign, The Hague, The Twelfth, Third Anglo-Dutch War, Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, Toleration, Toleration Act 1689, Tories (British political party), Treaty of Limerick, Treaty of London (1700), Treaty of Ryswick, Treaty of The Hague (1698), Treaty of Utrecht, Treaty of Westminster (1654), Treaty of Westminster (1674), Ulster loyalism, Utrecht, Utrecht (province), Variation of the field, Vianden, War of the Spanish Succession, Westminster Abbey, Whig Junto, Whigs (British political party), William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, William II, Prince of Orange, William IV, Prince of Orange, William Sancroft, William the Lion, William the Silent, Williamite War in Ireland, Williamsburg, Virginia, Winston Churchill, Zeeland, Zutphen, 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot. Expand index (260 more) » « Shrink index
A History of the English-Speaking Peoples is a four-volume history of Britain and its former colonies and possessions throughout the world, written by Winston Churchill, covering the period from Caesar's invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).
The Act of Seclusion was an Act of the States of Holland, required by a secret annex in the Treaty of Westminster (1654) between the United Provinces and the Commonwealth of England in which William III, Prince of Orange, was excluded from the office of Stadtholder.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (31 August 1602, Braunfels – 8 September 1675, The Hague), was Princess consort of Orange by marriage to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange.
The Bank of Amsterdam (Amsterdamsche Wisselbank or literally Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was an early bank, vouched for by the city of Amsterdam, established in 1609, the precursor to, if not the first, modern central bank.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Anna Mackenzie (1621–1707) was a Scottish countess of Balcarres and later a countess of Argyll.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arnold Joost van Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle,, and lord of De Voorst in Guelders (Gelderland) (baptized 30 January 167030 May 1718), was the son of Oswald van Keppel and his wife Anna Geertruid van Lintelo.
Admiral Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington (c. 1648 – 13 April 1716) was an English admiral and politician.
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Battle of Dunkeld (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Dhùn Chaillinn) was fought between Jacobite clans supporting the deposed king James VII of Scotland and a government regiment of covenanters supporting William of Orange, King of Scotland, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral, Dunkeld, Scotland, on 21 August 1689 and formed part of the Jacobite rising of 1689, commonly called Dundee's rising in Scotland.
The Battle of Killiecrankie (Gaelic: Blàr Choille Chnagaidh), also referred to as the Battle of Rinrory by contemporaries, took place on 27 July 1689 during the First Jacobite Rising between a Jacobite force of Scots and Irish and those of the new Williamite government.
The Battle of Landen or Neerwinden was fought in present-day Belgium on 29 July 1693 during the Nine Years' War.
The naval Battle of Solebay took place on 28 May Old Style, 7 June New Style 1672 and was the first naval battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.
The related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hougue took place between 29 May and 4 June New Style (NS), 1692 (19–24 May in the Old Style (OS) Julian calendar then in use in England).
In heraldry, a bend is a band or strap running from the upper dexter (the bearer's right side and the viewer's left) corner of the shield to the lower sinister (the bearer's left side, and the viewer's right).
A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The Binnenhof (Inner Court) is a complex of buildings in the city centre of The Hague, Netherlands, next to the Hofvijver.
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.
Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.
Brielle, also called Den Briel (Brill in English) is a town, municipality and historic seaport in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, on the north side of the island of Voorne-Putten, at the mouth of the New Maas.
Brixham is a small fishing town and civil parish in the district of Torbay in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England.
Buren is a town and municipality in the Betuwe region of the Netherlands.
By God's Grace is a 2014 American family drama film starring Cameron Deane Stewart and Savannah McReynolds.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Capitulation (capitulum, a little head or division; capitulare, to treat upon terms) is an agreement in time of war for the surrender to a hostile armed force of a particular body of troops, a town or a territory.
Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a gubernatorial title.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Chambers of Reunion (Chambres des Réunions) were French courts established by King Louis XIV in the early 1680s.
Charleroi (Tchålerwè) is a city and a municipality of Wallonia, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was originally adopted in 1815 and later modified in 1907.
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
Sir Constantijn Huygens, Lord of Zuilichem (4 September 159628 March 1687), was a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer.
Constantijn Huygens Jr., Lord of Zuilichem (10 March 1628 – October 1697) was a Dutch statesman and poet, mostly known for his work on scientific instruments (sometimes in conjunction with his younger brother Christiaan Huygens).
The English Convention (1689) was an assembly of the Parliament of England which transferred the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland from James II to William III and Mary II as co-regents.
Cornelis de Graeff, also Cornelis de Graeff van (Zuid-)Polsbroek (15 October 1599 – 4 May 1664) was the most illustrious member of the De Graeff family. He was a mayor of Amsterdam from the Dutch Golden Age and a powerful Amsterdam regent after the sudden death of stadholder William II of Orange. Like his father Jacob Dircksz de Graeff, he opposed the house of Orange, and was the moderate successor to the republican Andries Bicker. In the mid 17th century he controlled the city's finances and politics and, in close cooperation with his brother Andries de Graeff and their nephew Johan de Witt, the Netherlands political system. Cornelis de Graeff followed in his father footsteps and, between 1643 and 1664, was appointed mayor some ten times. De Graeff was a member of a family of regents who belonged to the republican political movement also referred to as the ‘state oriented’, as opposed to the Royalists. Cornelis de Graeff was also the founder of a regent dynasty that retained power and influence for centuries and produced a number of ministers. He was Lord of the semisouverain Fief (allodiale hoge heerlijkheid) Zuidpolsbroek and an Ambachtsheer (Lord of the Manor) of Sloten, Sloterdijk, Nieuwer-Amstel, Osdorp and Amstelveen, near Amsterdam, and castlelord of Ilpenstein. De Graeff was also President of the Dutch East Indies Company, and a chiefcouncillor of the Admiralty of Amsterdam. Like his brother, Andries De Graeff, he was an art collector and patron of the arts. During his life De Graeff was often called "Polsbroek" or "Lord Polsbroek".
Cornelis de Witt (15 June 1623 – 20 August 1672) was a Dutch politician.
The Council of State (Raad van State) is a constitutionally established advisory body in the Netherlands to the government and States General that officially consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic or military experience.
Albertine Agnes of Nassau (April 9, 1634 – May 26, 1696), was regent of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe during the minority of her son Henry Casimir II, Count of Nassau-Dietz.
Louise Henrietta of Nassau (van Nassau, Luise Henriette von Nassau; 7 December 1627 – 18 June 1667) was a Countess of Nassau, granddaughter of William I, Prince of Orange, "William the Silent", and an Electress of Brandenburg.
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The County of Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later part of the German Confederation.
The County of Zeeland (Graafschap Zeeland) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, 7th Earl of Winchilsea PC (2 July 1647 – 1 January 1730), was an English Tory statesman during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to become a world trading nation by establishing a colony called "Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama on the Gulf of Darién in the late 1690s.
The Declaration of Indulgence or Declaration for Liberty of Conscience was a pair of proclamations made by James II of England and VII of Scotland in 1687.
The Declaration of Right, also known as the Declaration of Rights, is a document written to detail the wrongs committed by the King of England, James II, and specify the rights that all citizens of England should be entitled to and that all English monarchs should abide by.
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands located in the northeastern part of the country.
The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch States Army (Staatse leger) was the army of the Dutch Republic.
The Dutch States Party (without the qualifier "Dutch" if the meaning is clear from the context) is the name used in Anglophone historiography for the faction in the politics of the Dutch Republic referred to in (older) Dutch historiography as the Staatsgezinde partij.
Earl of Albemarle is a title created several times from Norman times onwards.
The title of Earl of Athlone has been created three times.
Earl of Portland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England, first in 1633 and again in 1689.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.
Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Orkney (1657 – 19 April 1733) (born Elizabeth Villiers) was an English courtier from the Villiers family and the reputed mistress of William III & II, King of England and Scotland, from 1680 until 1695.
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
The 1690 English general election occurred after the dissolution of the Convention Parliament summoned in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, and saw the partisan feuds in that parliament continue in the constituencies.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
The Excessive Bail Clause of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits excessive bail set in pre-trial detention.
The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.
This is the British monarchs' family tree, from James VI & I (whose accession united the thrones of England and Scotland) to the present monarch, Elizabeth II.
In heraldry, a fess or fesse (from Middle English fesse, from Old French, from Latin fascia, "band") is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the centre of the shield.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
The First Anglo-Dutch War, or, simply, the First Dutch War, (Eerste Engelse zeeoorlog "First English Sea War") (1652–54) was a conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The First Stadtholderless Period or Era (1650–72; Eerste Stadhouderloze Tijdperk) is the period in the history of the Dutch Republic in which the office of a Stadtholder was absent in five of the seven Dutch provinces (the provinces of Friesland and Groningen, however, retained their customary stadtholder from the cadet branch of the House of Orange).
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
Fort Amsterdam (subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James (again), Fort William Henry, Fort Anne and Fort George) was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan that was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626 until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.
Franciscus Gomarus (François Gomaer; 30 January 1563, Bruges – 11 January 1641, Groningen) was a Dutch theologian, a strict Calvinist and an opponent of the teaching of Jacobus Arminius (and his followers), whose theological disputes were addressed at the Synod of Dort (or Dordrecht) (1618–19).
The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often simply called the Dutch War (Guerre de Hollande; Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.
Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch (29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647), was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
Frederick of Nassau, Lord of Zuylestein (1624–1672) was an illegitimate son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, by Margaretha Catharina Bruyns,.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.
Gaspar Fagel (25 January 1634, The Hague – 15 December 1688) was a Dutch statesman, writer and quasi-diplomat who authored correspondence from and on behalf of William III, Prince of Orange during the English Revolution of 1688.
Gelderland (also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country.
General admiral was a Danish, Dutch, German, Russian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish naval rank.
The Generality Lands, Lands of the Generality or Common Lands (Generaliteitslanden) were about one fifth of the territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the States-General.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, (11 November 1633 – 5 April 1695) was an English statesman, writer, and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1660, and in the House of Lords after he was raised to the peerage in 1668.
Gisbertus Voetius (Latinized version of the Dutch name Gijsbert Voet; 3 March 1589 – 1 November 1676) was a Dutch Calvinist theologian.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Godard van Reede, 1st Earl of Athlone, Baron van Reede, Lord of Ginkel, born in the Netherlands as Baron Godard van Reede (Amerongen, 14 June 1644 – 11 February 1703, Utrecht) was a Dutch general in the service of England.
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
The Grand Alliance is the name commonly used for the coalition formed on 20 December 1689 by England, the Dutch Republic and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.
The grand pensionary (Dutch: raad(s)pensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Guelders or Gueldres (Gelre, Geldern) is a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Hendrik Verhoeff (around 1645 – 27 June 1710 in Utrecht) was a silversmith and schutter from The Hague who played a role in the assassination of Cornelis- and Johan de Witt on August 20 1672.
Henrietta Maria of France (Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.
Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, KG, PC (1618 – 28 July 1685) was an English statesman.
Henry Casimir II of Nassau-Dietz (The Hague, 18 January 1657 – Leeuwarden, 25 March 1696) was Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen from 1664 till 1696.
Henry Compton (1632 – 7 July 1713) was the Bishop of London from 1675 to 1713.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Highness (abbreviation HH, oral address Your Highness) is a formal style used to address (in second person) or refer to (in third person) certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty.
The Hoge Raad van Holland, Zeeland en West-Friesland (usually translated in the literature as "High Court of Holland and Zeeland," though "Supreme Court" may better designate its function, and the literal translation is: "High Council of Holland and Zeeland") was the supreme court of the provinces of Holland and Zeeland in the Dutch Republic in the period 1582-1795.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
The Hollandic Water Line (Hollandsche Waterlinie, modern spelling: Hollandse Waterlinie) was a series of water-based defences conceived by Maurice of Nassau in the early 17th century, and realised by his half brother Frederick Henry.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England (which incorporated Wales) from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe.
The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Invitation to William was a letter sent by seven notable Englishmen, later named the Immortal Seven, to William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688 (Julian calendar, 10 July Gregorian calendar).
The Jacobite assassination plot 1696 was an unsuccessful attempt led by George Barclay to ambush and kill William III of England in early 1696.
The Jacobite rising of 1689 was the first of a series of risings to take place with the aim of restoring James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart to the crown of Great Britain, after they had been deposed by Parliament in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Johan de Witt or Jan de Witt, heer van Zuid- en Noord-Linschoten, Snelrewaard, Hekendorp and IJsselveere (24 September 1625 – 20 August 1672) was a key figure in Dutch politics in the mid-17th century, when its flourishing sea trade in a period of globalisation made the United Provinces a leading European power during the Dutch Golden Age.
Johan Kievit (1627–1692) was an Orangist Rotterdam Regent, who may have been one of the instigators of the murder of former Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt, of the Dutch Republic, and his brother Cornelis de Witt on 20 August 1672, together with his brother-in-law, Cornelis Tromp.
Johan van Banchem (1615 – before 4 October 1694) was one of the leaders of the lynching of Johan de Witt and Cornelis de Witt on August 20, 1672.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer.
John Dalrymple (1648, Master of Stair – 8 January 1707) was a Scottish noble and Whig politician who played a crucial role in the 1707 Treaty of Union between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England, that created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee (c. 21 July 1648 – 27 July 1689), known as the 7th Laird of Claverhouse until raised to the viscountcy in 1688, was a Scottish soldier and nobleman, a Tory and an Episcopalian.
John Van der Kiste (born 15 September 1954 in Wendover, Buckinghamshire) is a British author, son of Wing Commander Guy Van der Kiste (1912–99).
John William Friso, Prince of Orange-Nassau (Johan Willem Friso van Oranje-Nassau; 14 August 1687 – 14 July 1711) became the titular Prince of Orange in 1702.
Jonathan Irvine Israel (born 26 January 1946) is a British writer and academic specialising in Dutch history, the Age of Enlightenment and European Jews.
Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria (28 October 1692 – 6 February 1699) was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679–1705, 1714–1726) and his first wife, Maria Antonia of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Katzenelnbogen ("cat's elbow") is the name of a castle and small town in the district of Rhein-Lahn-Kreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England.
A king consort or emperor consort is an alternative title to the more usual "prince consort" – which is a position given in some monarchies to the husband of a queen regnant.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
Lieutenant admiral is a senior naval military rank in some countries of the world.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
This is a list of the members of the British nobility and gentry, who in 1688 deserted King James II and pledged their allegiances to Prince William of Orange, as the events of the Glorious Revolution unfolded.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
This is a list of monarchs of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koningen der Nederlanden).
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louise de Coligny (23 September 1555 – 9 November 1620) was a Princess consort of Orange as the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Majesty (abbreviation HM, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually kings or sultanss.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary of Modena (Maria di Modena) (Maria Beatrice Anna Margherita Isabella d'Este; –) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII (1633–1701).
Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.
The Massacre of Glencoe (Gaelic: Mort Ghlinne Comhann) took place in Glen Coe in the Highlands of Scotland on 13 February 1692, following the Jacobite uprising of 1689-92.
The Meeting of Parliament Act 1694 (6 & 7 Will & Mary c 2), also known as the Triennial Act 1694, is an Act of the Parliament of England.
Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) was a Dutch admiral.
Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Moers (older form: Mörs; archaic Dutch: Murse, Murs or Meurs) is a German city on the western bank of the Rhine.
Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
Namur (Dutch:, Nameur in Walloon) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium.
Nassau County or is a suburban county comprising much of western Long Island in the U.S. state of New York.
Nassau is the capital and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nieuwerbrug is a village in the Dutch province of South Holland.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William III and Mary II could legally be recognised as sovereigns.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland.
In the history of the Dutch Republic, Orangism or prinsgezindheid ("pro-prince stance") was a political force opposing the ''Staatsgezinde'' (pro-Republic) party.
In heraldry, an orle is a subordinary consisting of a narrow band occupying the inward half of where a bordure would be, following the exact outline of the shield but within it, showing the field between the outer edge of the orle and the edge of the shield.
Overijssel (Dutch Low Saxon: Oaveriessel) is a province of the Netherlands in the central-eastern part of the country.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
A pensionary was a name given to the leading functionary and legal adviser of the principal town corporations in the Low Countries because they received a salary, or pension.
The Perpetual Edict (Dutch: Eeuwig Edict) was a resolution of the States of Holland passed on 5 August 1667 which abolished the office of Stadtholder in the province of Holland.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Predestination is a doctrine in Calvinism dealing with the question of the control that God exercises over the world.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France.
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester (24 July 1689 – 30 July 1700) was the son of Princess Anne, later Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1702, and her husband, Prince George, Duke of Cumberland.
The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.
Princess Royal is a substantive title customarily (but not automatically) awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
The Principality of Orange (la Principauté d'Orange) was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the "disaster year." That year, following the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Republic was simultaneously attacked by England, France, and the prince-bishops Bernhard von Galen, bishop of Münster, and Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne.
Real tennis – one of several games sometimes called "the sport of kings" – is the original racquet sport from which the modern game of tennis (originally called "lawn tennis") is derived.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the regenten (the Dutch plural for regent) were the rulers of the Dutch Republic, the leaders of the Dutch cities or the heads of organisations (e.g. "regent of an orphanage").
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.
The right to petition government for redress of grievances is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Jacobus Fruin (11 November 1823 in Rotterdam – 29 January 1899 in Leiden) was a Dutch historian.
Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, (5 September 164128 September 1702) was an English nobleman and politician of the Spencer family.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
In heraldry, sable is the tincture black, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures, called "colours".
Schutterij refers to a voluntary city guard or citizen militia in the medieval and early modern Netherlands, intended to protect the town or city from attack and act in case of revolt or fire.
A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people.
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Second Stadtholderless Period or Era (Tweede Stadhouderloze Tijdperk) is the designation in Dutch historiography of the period between the death of stadtholder William III on March 19, 1702 and the appointment of William IV as stadtholder and captain general in all provinces of the Dutch Republic on May 2, 1747.
The Treaty of Dover, also known as the Secret Treaty of Dover, was a treaty between England and France signed at Dover on 1 June 1670.
The Seven Bishops of the Church of England were those imprisoned and tried for seditious libel related to their opposition to the second Declaration of Indulgence, issued by James II in 1688.
The Siege of Carrickfergus took place in August 1689 when a force of Williamite troops under Marshal Schomberg landed and laid siege to the Jacobite garrison of Carrickfergus in Ireland.
The Siege of Derry, (Léigear Dhoire), was the first major event in the Williamite War in Ireland.
Sir John Fenwick, 3rd Baronet (c. 1645 – 28 January 1697) was an English Jacobite conspirator, who succeeded to the Baronetcy of Fenwick on the death of his father in 1676.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Solms-Braunfels was a County with Imperial immediacy in what is today the federal Land of Hesse in Germany.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
The States of Holland and West Frisia (Staten van Holland en West-Friesland) were the representation of the two Estates (standen) (Nobility and Commons) to the court of the Count of Holland.
The States of Zeeland (Staten van Zeeland) are the States-Provincial for the Dutch province of Zeeland.
Stephen B. Baxter is an American historian specialising in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century English history.
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Twelfth (also called the Glorious Twelfth or Orangemen's Day) is a Protestant celebration held on 12 July.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, KG (20 February 1632 – 26 July 1712), English politician who was part of the Immortal Seven group that invited William III, Prince of Orange to depose James II of England as monarch during the Glorious Revolution.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
The Toleration Act 1689 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689.
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.
The Treaty of Limerick (Conradh Luimnigh) ended the Williamite War in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange and concluded the Siege of Limerick.
The Treaty of London (1700) or Second Partition Treaty was the second of two attempts by France, Great Britain and the United Provinces or Dutch Republic to impose a diplomatic solution to the issues that resulted in the 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession.
The Treaty or Peace of Ryswick, also known as The Peace of Rijswijk was a series of agreements signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697, ending the 1689-97 Nine Years War between France and the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic.
The 1698 Treaty of The Hague, also known as the 1698 Treaty of Den Haag or First Partition Treaty was the first of two attempts by France, Britain and the Dutch Republic to achieve a diplomatic solution to the issues that led to the 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Treaty of Westminster, concluded between the Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth, Oliver Cromwell, and the States General of the United Netherlands, was signed on 5/15 April 1654.
The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom has remained controversial.
Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.
Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands.
In heraldry, variations of the field are any of a number of ways that a field (or a charge) may be covered with a pattern, rather than a flat tincture or a simple division of the field.
Vianden (Veianen) is a commune with town status in the Oesling, north-eastern Luxembourg, with over 1,800 inhabitants.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The Whig Junto is the name given to a group of leading Whigs who were seen to direct the management of the Whig Party and often the government, during the reigns of William III and Anne.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Hans William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, Baron Bentinck of Diepenheim and Schoonheten, (20 July 1649, Diepenheim, Overijssel – 23 November 1709, Bulstrode Park, Buckinghamshire) was a Dutch and English nobleman who became in an early stage the favourite of William, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder in the Netherlands, and future King of England.
William Frederick (Willem Frederik; Arnhem 7 August 1613 – Leeuwarden 31 October 1664), Count (from 1654 Imperial Prince) of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.
William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later.
William IV, Prince of Orange-Nassau (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751) was the first hereditary Stadtholder of all the United Provinces.
William Sancroft (30 January 1617 – 24 November 1693) was the 79th Archbishop of Canterbury, and was one of the Seven Bishops imprisoned in 1688 for seditious libel against King James II, over his opposition to the king's Declaration of Indulgence.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.
Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.
The 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot was a Scottish infantry regiment of the British Army, active from 1689 to 1881.
King Billy of Ireland and Scotland, King William III, King William III Orange, King William III of England, King william iii, Prince William of Orange, The Story of King Billy, Uilleam II of Scotland, Uilliam II of Scotland, Will. 3, Willem III of Orange, William Henry of Orange, William II of Scotland, William III & II, William III (England), William III (of England), William III and II, William III of England, Scotland and Ireland, William III of England,Scotland and Ireland, William III of Great Britain, William III of Ireland, William III of Orange, William III of Orange-Nassau, William III, King of England, William III, Prince of Orange, William Iii Of England, William and Mary of Orange, William of Orange (king of England), William the Third.