224 relations: Abolitionism, Adam Hart-Davis, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Admiral, Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Admiralty, Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Adultery, Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, Amelia Cary, Viscountess Falkland, American Revolutionary War, Antwerp, Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford, Argent, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Attitude (heraldry), Azure (heraldry), Barley water, Battle of Cape St. Vincent (1780), Belgian Revolution, Birmingham, Brighton, British Empire, Buckingham Palace, Bushy House, Bushy Park, Cadency labels of the British royal family, Calais, Captain (naval), Caribbean, Caroline Norton, Caroline of Ansbach, Cat o' nine tails, Catherine Tylney-Long, Catholic emancipation, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, Charles Richard Fox, Charles Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlotte Williams-Wynn (diarist), Child labour, Church of Ireland, Clarence House, Coat of arms of Ireland, Coat of arms of Lower Saxony, Coronation of the British monarch, Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach, Cultural depictions of William IV of the United Kingdom, Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, ..., David Cameron, Demise of the Crown, Dictionary of National Biography, Division of the field, Dorothea Jordan, Duff Cooper, Duke, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews, Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Wellington (title), Dunkirk, Earl of Munster, Egypt Eyalet, Elizabeth Hay, Countess of Erroll, Emily Eden, English Dissenters, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Escutcheon (heraldry), Factory Acts, First Lord of the Admiralty, FitzClarence, Fox–North coalition, Frances Nelson, Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Frederick, Prince of Wales, Georg I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, George Canning, George Edward Cokayne, George FitzClarence, 1st Earl of Munster, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, George IV of the United Kingdom, George Washington, Gibraltar, Gules, Hackney carriage, Half crown (British coin), Hanover, Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Henry FitzClarence, Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Herbert Taylor (British Army officer), Hereditary monarchy, Highlands and Islands, HMS Blenheim (1761), Home Secretary, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Hanover, House of Lords, House of Welf, John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton, John Nash (architect), John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, John Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer, John Van der Kiste, Kew Palace, King of Hanover, Kingdom of Hanover, Klemens von Metternich, Label (heraldry), Lady Augusta Gordon, Lady Mary Fox, Leader of the House of Commons, Legislative Council of Lower Canada, Leopold I of Belgium, List of British monarchs, List of Lord High Admirals (United Kingdom), Lord Adolphus FitzClarence, Lord Augustus FitzClarence, Lord Frederick FitzClarence, Louise, Princess Royal, Low Countries, Lucius Cary, 10th Viscount Falkland, Madagascar, Majesty, Manchester, Martin Archer Shee, Michael Brock, Midshipman, Mutiny, Napoleonic Wars, Nathaniel Wraxall, Old Sarum (UK Parliament constituency), Or (heraldry), Order of St. Andrew, Order of the Bath, Order of the Black Eagle, Order of the Elephant, Order of the Garter, Order of the Holy Spirit, Order of the Thistle, Orle (heraldry), Palace of Westminster, Pale (heraldry), Peerage, Penal law (British), Personal union, Philip Sidney, 1st Baron De L'Isle and Dudley, Philip Ziegler, Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, Poor relief, Presbyterianism, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours, Prince regent, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Princess Augusta of Great Britain, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess Charlotte of Wales, Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Protestantism, Quartering (heraldry), Queen Victoria, Rear admiral, Reform Act 1832, Richmond, London, Robert Digby (Royal Navy officer), Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville, Robert Peel, Rotten and pocket boroughs, Royal Arms of England, Royal Arms of Scotland, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal Fellow of the Royal Society, Royal Guelphic Order, Royal Highness, Royal Marriages Act 1772, Royal Navy, Royal Pavilion, Salic law, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Sophia Sidney, Baroness De L'Isle and Dudley, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, St James's Palace, Stud (animal), Suez Canal, The Times, Tithe, Tory, Totnes (UK Parliament constituency), United Kingdom general election, 1830, United Kingdom general election, 1831, United Kingdom general election, 1832–33, United Kingdom general election, 1835, Variation of the field, Vicary Gibbs (St Albans MP), Viceroy, Vienna, West Indies, Whigs (British political party), William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, William Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll, William II of the Netherlands, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, William Wilberforce, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, Zachary Macaulay. Expand index (174 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Adam John Hart-Davis (born 4 July 1943) is an English scientist, author, photographer, historian and broadcaster, well known in the UK for presenting the BBC television series Local Heroes and What the Romans Did for Us, the latter spawning several spin-off series involving the Victorians, the Tudors, the Stuarts and the Ancients.
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia;; 13 August 1792 – 2 December 1849) was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover as spouse of William IV of the United Kingdom.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the British Royal Navy.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Adolphus Frederick II (19 October 1658 – 12 May 1708), Duke of Mecklenburg, was the first Duke of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, reigning from 1701 until his death.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Alexander William George Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, (10 November 1849 – 29 January 1912), styled Viscount Macduff between 1857 and 1879 and known as The Earl Fife between 1879 and 1889, was a British peer who married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra.
Amelia Cary, Viscountess Falkland (21 March 1807 – 2 July 1858) was a British noblewoman.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford (1 August 1776 – 27 March 1849, Markethill), styled The Honourable Archibald Acheson from 1790 to 1806 and Lord Acheson from 1806 to 1807, was a British politician who served as Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada and Governor General of British North America in the 19th century.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
Barley water is a traditional drink consumed in various parts of the world.
The Battle of Cape St.
The Belgian Revolution (Belgische Revolution) was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Bushy House is a Grade II* listed former royal residence of William IV and then of the dowager queen Adelaide his former queen consort in Teddington, London, which George Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax had constructed for his own enjoyment on the site of a previous house Upper Lodge, Bushy Park, between 1714 and 1715.
Bushy Park in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is the second largest of London's Royal Parks, at in area, after Richmond Park.
Heraldic labels are used to differentiate the personal coats of arms of members of the royal family of the United Kingdom from that of the monarch and from each other.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Norton (22 March 1808 – 15 June 1877) was an English social reformer and author active in the early and mid-nineteenth century.
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was Queen consort of Great Britain as the wife of King George II.
The cat o' nine tails, commonly shortened to the cat, is a type of multi-tailed whip that originated as an implement for severe physical punishment, notably in the Royal Navy and Army of the United Kingdom, and also as a judicial punishment in Britain and some other countries.
Catherine Tylney-Long (1789 – 12 September 1825) was a 19th-century British heiress.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, (13 March 1764 – 17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from November 1830 to July 1834.
General Charles Richard Fox (6 November 1796 – 13 April 1873) was a British army general, and later a politician.
Charles William Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry (18 May 1778 – 6 March 1854), born Charles William Stewart and raised to the peerage as Baron Stewart in 1814, was an Irish soldier in the British army, politician and nobleman.
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was a British queen consort and wife of King George III.
Charlotte Williams-Wynn (16 January 1807 – 26 April 1869) was a British letter-writer and diarist.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
Clarence House is a royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
The coat of arms of the German federal-state of Lower Saxony shows a white Saxon steed (Sachsenross) on a red background.
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey.
Sophia Albertine, Countess of Erbach-Erbach (30 July 1683, in Erbach – 4 September 1742, in Eisfeld), was Countess of Erbach-Erbach by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
William IV of the United Kingdom has been featured in artworks.
Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1748 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Lord Nelson in several of the British victories of the Napoleonic Wars, and frequently as Nelson's successor in commands.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
The demise of the Crown is the legal term for the end of a reign by a king, queen regnant, or emperor, whether by death or abdication.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
In heraldry, the field (background) of a shield can be divided into more than one area, or subdivision, of different tinctures, usually following the lines of one of the ordinaries and carrying its name (e.g. a shield divided in the shape of a chevron is said to be parted "per chevron").
Dorothea Jordan (22 November 17615 July 1816) also known as Mrs Jordan, was an Anglo-Irish actress, courtesan, and the mistress and companion of the future King William IV of the United Kingdom, for 20 years while he was Duke of Clarence.
Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich, (22 February 1890 – 1 January 1954), known as Duff Cooper, was a British Conservative Party politician, diplomat and author.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow (Herzog Carl Ludwig Friedrich zu Mecklenburg, Prinz von Mirow; 23 February 1708 – 5 June 1752) was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the father of Charlotte, Queen of the United Kingdom and Hanover.
Duke of Clarence and St Andrews was a title awarded to a prince of the British Royal family.
Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the former county of Cumberland (now Cumbria).
Duke of Wellington is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Earl of Munster was a title created twice, once in the Peerage of Ireland and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.
Elizabeth Hay, Countess of Erroll (17 January 1801 – 16 January 1856; born Elizabeth FitzClarence) was an illegitimate daughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom and Dorothea Jordan.
Emily Eden (3 March 1797 – 5 August 1869) was an English poet and novelist who gave witty accounts of English life in the early 19th century.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851) was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death.
Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (Gotha, 21 August 1681 – Hildburghausen, 9 March 1724), was a duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.
The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services.
Fitzclarence or FitzClarence is a pseudo-Anglo-Norman name meaning "son of Clarence"—it usually refers to a bastard son of a Duke of Clarence, or a descendant thereof, and was used by them as a surname.
The Fox–North coalition was a government in Great Britain that held office during 1783.
Frances "Fanny" Nelson, Viscountess Nelson (17584 May 1831), is best known as the wife of Horatio Nelson, the British naval officer who won several victories over the French during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (28 July 1676, in Gotha – 23 March 1732, in Altenburg), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG (1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751.
Georg I Frederick Karl, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (4 February 1761 in Frankfurt – 24 December 1803 in Meiningen), was Duke of Saxe-Meiningen from 1782 to 1803.
George Canning (11 April 17708 August 1827) was a British statesman and Tory politician who served in various senior cabinet positions under numerous Prime Ministers, before himself serving as Prime Minister for the final four months of his life.
George Edward Cokayne, (29 April 1825 – 6 August 1911), was an English genealogist and long-serving herald at the College of Arms in London, who eventually rose to the rank of Clarenceux King of Arms.
George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence, 1st Earl of Munster (29 January 179420 March 1842), was an English peer and soldier.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab, black cab, hack or London taxi) is a carriage or automobile for hire.
The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, (19 September 1778 – 7 May 1868) was a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
Henry Edward FitzClarence (27 March 1795 – September 1817), was the second eldest illegitimate son of William IV by his longtime mistress Dorothea Jordan.
Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey (28 December 18029 October 1894), known as Viscount Howick from 1807 until 1845, was an English statesman.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
Lieutenant-General Sir Herbert Taylor (29 September 1775 – 20 March 1839) was the first Private Secretary to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, serving Kings George III, George IV and William IV.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
The Highlands and Islands of Scotland are broadly the Scottish Highlands, plus Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles.
HMS Blenheim was a 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 5 July 1761 at Woolwich.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton, (27 June 1786 – 3 June 1869), known as Sir John Hobhouse, Bt, from 1831 to 1851, was an English politician and diarist.
John Nash (18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was an English architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London under the patronage of the Prince Regent, and during his reign as George IV.
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.
John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer PC DL FRS (30 May 1782 – 1 October 1845), styled Viscount Althorp from 1783 to 1834, was a British statesman.
John Van der Kiste (born 15 September 1954 in Wendover, Buckinghamshire) is a British author, son of Wing Commander Guy Van der Kiste (1912–99).
Kew Palace is a British royal palace in Kew Gardens on the banks of the Thames up river from London.
The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung.
Lady Augusta Gordon (née FitzClarence; 17 November 1803 – 8 December 1865) was a British noblewoman.
Lady Mary Fox (née FitzClarence; 19 December 1798 – 13 July 1864) was an illegitimate daughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom by his mistress Dorothea Jordan.
The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons.
The Legislative Council of Lower Canada was the upper house of the bicameral structure of provincial government in Lower Canada until 1838.
Leopold I (Léopold Ier; German and Leopold I; 16 December 1790 – 10 December 1865) was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
The Lord High Admiral (of England, Great Britain and then the United Kingdom, beginning in the 14th century) is the titular head of the Royal Navy.
Lord Adolphus FitzClarence, GCH, ADC (18 February 1802 – 17 May 1856) was a British naval officer.
Lord Augustus FitzClarence (1 March 1805 – 14 June 1854), was the youngest illegitimate son of William IV of the United Kingdom and his long-time mistress Dorothea Jordan.
Lieutenant-General Lord Frederick FitzClarence, GCH (9 December 1799 – 30 October 1854) was a British Army officer as well as being the illegitimate third son of King William IV and his mistress, Dorothea Jordan.
Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife (Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar; 20 February 1867 – 4 January 1931) was the third child and the eldest daughter of the British king Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark; she was a younger sister of George V. In 1905, her father gave her the title of Princess Royal, which is usually bestowed on the eldest daughter of the British monarch if there is no living previous holder.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lucius Bentinck Cary, 10th Viscount Falkland GCH, PC (5 November 1803 – 12 March 1884) was a British colonial administrator and Liberal politician.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Majesty (abbreviation HM, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually kings or sultanss.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Sir Martin Archer Shee PRA (23 December 1769 – 13 August 1850) was an Irish portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.
Michael George Brock CBE FRHistS FRSL (9 March 1920 – 30 April 2014) was a British historian who was associated with several Oxford colleges during his academic career.
A midshipman is an officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Sir Nathaniel William Wraxall, 1st Baronet (8 April 1751 – 7 November 1831) was an English author.
Old Sarum was from 1295 to 1832 a parliamentary constituency of England (until 1707), of Great Britain (until 1800), and finally of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Order of St.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Black Eagle (Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler) was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit (Ordre du Saint-Esprit or Ordre des chevaliers du Saint-Esprit; sometimes translated into English as the Order of the Holy Ghost), is a French order of chivalry founded by Henry III of France in 1578.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
In heraldry, an orle is a subordinary consisting of a narrow band occupying the inward half of where a bordure would be, following the exact outline of the shield but within it, showing the field between the outer edge of the orle and the edge of the shield.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant nonconformists and Catholicism, by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disabilities upon these dissenters.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Philip Charles Shelley Sidney, 1st Baron De L'Isle and Dudley GCH (11 March 1800 – 4 March 1851) was a British Tory politician.
Philip Sandeman Ziegler CVO (born 24 December 1929) is a British biographer and historian.
The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey.
In English and British history, poor relief refers to government and ecclesiastical action to relieve poverty.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, (Adolphus Frederick; 24 February 1774 – 8 July 1850) was the tenth child and seventh son of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843) was the sixth son and ninth child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (11 September 1747 – 20 May 1837) was a younger member of the dynasty that ruled the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and a Danish general.
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (Henry Frederick;He is called simply "(His Royal Highness) Prince Henry" in the London Gazette;;; 7 November 1745 – 18 September 1790) was the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III.
Prince Louis of Orleans, Duke of Nemours (Louis Charles Philippe Raphaël d'Orléans; 25 October 1814 – 26 June 1896) was the second son of King Louis-Philippe I of France, and his wife Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (William Henry; 25 November 1743 – 25 August 1805), was a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of King George III of the United Kingdom.
Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain (31 July 1737 – 23 March 1813) was a British princess, granddaughter of King George II and the only elder sibling of King George III.
Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel; 25 July 1797 – 6 April 1889) was the wife of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the tenth-born child, and seventh son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (30 November 1719 – 8 February 1772) was Princess of Wales by marriage to Frederick, Prince of Wales.
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (7 January 1796 – 6 November 1817) was the only child of the British king George IV, who was still Prince of Wales during her lifetime, and Caroline of Brunswick.
Duchess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen (4 August 1713 – 29 June 1761) was a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide; 10 December 1820 – 4 March 1821) was a member of the British royal family.
Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (13 October 1679 – 11 October 1740) was, by birth, a Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst and, by marriage, a Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), later Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, was a German princess and the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
Richmond is a suburban town in south-west London, The London Government Act 1963 (c.33) (as amended) categorises the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames as an Outer London borough.
Admiral Robert Digby (20 December 1732 – 25 February 1815) was an officer in the Royal Navy officer who also served briefly as a Member of Parliament (MP).
Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville, (14 March 1771 – 10 June 1851) was a British statesman, the son of Henry Dundas, the 1st Viscount.
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
A rotten or pocket borough, more formally known as a nomination borough or proprietorial borough, was a parliamentary borough or constituency in England, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom before the Reform Act 1832, which had a very small electorate and could be used by a patron to gain unrepresentative influence within the unreformed House of Commons.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
A Royal Fellow of the Royal Society is a member of the British Royal Family who has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
The Royal Guelphic Order (Guelphen-Orden), sometimes also referred to as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, is a Hanoverian order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later King George IV).
Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses.
The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British Royal Family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Pavilion, also known as the Brighton Pavilion, is a Grade I listed former royal residence located in Brighton, England.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.
Sophia Sidney, Baroness De L'Isle and Dudley (née FitzClarence; 4 March 1795 – 10 April 1837) was the eldest illegitimate daughter of William IV of the United Kingdom and his longtime mistress Dorothea Jordan.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
A stud animal is a registered animal retained for breeding.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Totnes is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Sarah Wollaston of the Conservative Party.
The 1830 United Kingdom general election was triggered by the death of King George IV and produced the first parliament of the reign of his successor, William IV.
The 1831 United Kingdom general election saw a landslide win by supporters of electoral reform, which was the major election issue.
The United Kingdom general election, the first after the Reform Act, saw the Whigs win a large majority, with the Tories winning less than 30% of the vote.
The 1835 United Kingdom general election was called when Parliament was dissolved on 29 December 1834.
In heraldry, variations of the field are any of a number of ways that a field (or a charge) may be covered with a pattern, rather than a flat tincture or a simple division of the field.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, (25 October 1759 – 12 January 1834) was a British Whig statesman.
William George Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll, KT, GCH, PC (21 February 1801 – 19 April 1846), styled Lord Hay between 1815 and 1819, was a Scottish peer and politician.
William II (Willem Frederik George Lodewijk, anglicized as William Frederick George Louis; 6 December 1792 – 17 March 1849) was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg.
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 1779 – 24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841).
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.
Zachary Macaulay (2 May 1768 – 13 May 1838) was a Scottish statistician, one of the founders of London University and of the Society for the Suppression of Vice, an antislavery activist, and governor of Sierra Leone, the British colony for freed slaves.
Charlotte Augusta Louisa, King William IV, King William IV of the United Kingdom, King William of the UK, King William of the United Kingdom, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, Princess Charlotte of Clarence, Will. 4, William I of Hanover, William IV (of England), William IV of Britain, William IV of England, William IV of England,Scotland,and Ireland, William IV of Great Britain, William IV of Great Britain and Ireland, William IV of Hanover, William IV of the UK, William IV, King of the United Kingdom, William of the UK, William of the United Kingdom, William, Duke of Clarence.