221 relations: A Tale of Two Cities, Aesthetics, Afrikan Spir, Agnosticism, Alain LeRoy Locke, Alfred Henry Lloyd, Alfred North Whitehead, Alice James, Alkyl nitrites, Amazon River, American Anti-Imperialist League, American Civil War, American philosophy, American Psychologist, American Society for Psychical Research, Amusia, Anatomy, Arthur Compton, Association for Psychological Science, Associationism, Astor House, Avant-garde, Émile Boutroux, Émile Durkheim, Bernhard Riemann, Bertrand Russell, Boris Sidis, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Carl Lange (physician), Charles Bernard Renouvier, Charles Dickens, Charles Sanders Peirce, Chauncey Wright, Chloral hydrate, Chocorua, New Hampshire, Choice, Clarence Irving Lewis, Classicism, Coherence theory of truth, Compatibilism, Correspondence theory of truth, David Hartley (philosopher), David Hume, Deborah Blum, Depression (mood), Determinism, Edmund Husserl, Education, Edward B. Titchener, Edwin Holt, ..., Emanuel Swedenborg, Emotion, Empiricism, Epistemological realism, Epistemology, Ernst Mach, Essays in Radical Empiricism, Essex County, New York, Evidentialism, Experimental psychology, F. C. S. Schiller, Fallibilism, Fitness (biology), Frederick Burkhardt, Fredson Bowers, Free Thought and Official Propaganda, Free will, Functional psychology, G. Stanley Hall, Gabriel Wells, Gardner Murphy, Generation, Genius, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Santayana, Gertrude Stein, Gifford Lectures, Giuseppe Sergi, Harvard Divinity School, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Henri Bergson, Henri Poincaré, Henry James, Henry James Sr., Henry Pickering Bowditch, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hibbert Lectures, Hilary Putnam, Holism, Horace Kallen, Horatio Alger, Immanuel Kant, Indeterminism, Innatism, Instrumentalism, Isaac Newton, Jacques Barzun, James Huneker, James Jackson Putnam, James McKeen Cattell, James–Lange theory, Jane Roberts, Jimmy Carter, John Dewey, John J. McDermott (philosopher), John Lachs, Joseph E. LeDoux, Josiah Royce, Jules Lequier, Karl Popper, Keene, New York, Leonora Piper, Library of America, Linda Simon, List of American philosophers, Louis Agassiz, Louis Menand, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Macedonio Fernández, Mark Twain, Mary Whiton Calkins, Massimo Polidoro, Meaning (linguistics), Metaphysics, Michel Weber, Modernism, Monism, Moral Equivalent of War speech, Morris Raphael Cohen, Motion sickness, Mysticism, National Academy of Sciences, Neurasthenia, New Thought, New York City, New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, Newport, Rhode Island, Nitrous oxide, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Overbelief, Pandeism, Pantheism, Parapsychology, Parasympathetic nervous system, Penguin Group, Perception, Peyote, Philosophy of history, Philosophy of religion, Physician, Physiology, Pierre Janet, Pleasure, Pluralism (philosophy), Pragmatic theory of truth, Pragmatism, Psychologist's fallacy, Psychology, Psychology of religion, Putnam Camp, Radical empiricism, Ralph Barton Perry, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Relativism, Religion, Religious experience, Review of General Psychology, Richard Rorty, Richard Wiseman, Robert B. Talisse, Robert D. Richardson, Romanticism, Science, Sigmund Freud, Skepticism, Smallpox, Society, Spiritualism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, Stanford University centers and institutes, Stream of consciousness (psychology), Suicide, Susan Haack, Sympathetic nervous system, Tamworth, New Hampshire, Telepathy, Ten percent of the brain myth, Théodore Flournoy, The Atlantic, The French Revolution: A History, The Ingersoll Lectures on Human Immortality, The Metaphysical Club, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America, The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life, The New Church (Swedenborgian), The Principles of Psychology, The Varieties of Religious Experience, The Will to Believe, The Will to Doubt, Theodore Roosevelt, Theology, Theosophical Society, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hobbes, Truth, University of Edinburgh, W. E. B. Du Bois, Walter Lippmann, Western philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt, William James Lectures, William James Sidis, William James Society, William Kingdon Clifford, William Morris Hunt, 1970s energy crisis, 19th-century philosophy, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
A Tale of Two Cities (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Afrikan Aleksandrovich Spir (Russian: Африка́н Алекса́ндрович Спир; German: Afrikan (von) Spir, French: African (de) Spir, Italian: Africano Spir) (15 November 1837 – 26 March 1890) was a Russian Neo-Kantian philosopher of Greek-German descent who wrote primarily in German.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Alain Leroy Locke (September 13, 1885 – June 9, 1954) was an American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts.
Alfred Henry Lloyd (January 3, 1864 – May 11, 1927) was an American philosopher.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alice James (August 7, 1848 – March 6, 1892) was an American diarist, sister of novelist Henry James and philosopher and psychologist William James.
Alkyl nitrites are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American philosophy is the activity, corpus, and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States.
American Psychologist is the official peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Psychological Association.
The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) is an organisation dedicated to parapsychology based in New York City, where it maintains offices and a library.
Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch but also encompasses musical memory and recognition.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
The Association for Psychological Science (APS), previously the American Psychological Society, is an international non-profit organization whose mission is to promote, protect, and advance the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in research, application, teaching, and the improvement of human welfare.
Associationism is the idea that mental processes operate by the association of one mental state with its successor states.
The Astor House was the first luxury hotel in New York City.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Étienne Émile Marie Boutroux (July 28, 1845 – November 22, 1921) was an eminent 19th century French philosopher of science and religion, and an historian of philosophy.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Boris Sidis (October 12, 1867 – October 24, 1923) was a Ukrainian-American psychologist, physician, psychiatrist, and philosopher of education.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Carl Georg Lange (4 December 1834 – 29 May 1900) was a Danish physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology, psychiatry, and psychology.
Charles Bernard Renouvier (January 1, 1815 – September 1, 1903) was a French philosopher.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Chauncey Wright (September 10, 1830 – September 12, 1875) was an American philosopher and mathematician, who was an influential early defender of Darwinism and an important influence on American pragmatists such as Charles Sanders Peirce and William James.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
Chocorua is an unincorporated community within the town of Tamworth in Carroll County, New Hampshire, United States.
Choice involves decision making.
Clarence Irving Lewis (April 12, 1883 – February 3, 1964), usually cited as C. I. Lewis, was an American academic philosopher and the founder of conceptual pragmatism.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
Coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs.
Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.
The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.
David Hartley (8 August 170528 August 1757) was an English philosopher and founder of the Associationist school of psychology.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Deborah Blum (born October 19, 1954) is an American journalist and the director of the Knight Science Journalism program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Edward Bradford Titchener (11 January 1867 – 3 August 1927) was a British psychologist who studied under Wilhelm Wundt for several years.
Edwin Bissell Holt (August 21, 1873 – January 25, 1946) was a professor of philosophy and psychology at Harvard from 1901–1918.
Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epistemological realism is a philosophical position, a subcategory of objectivism, holding that what you know about an object exists independently of your mind.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Essays in Radical Empiricism (ERE) by William James is a collection edited and published posthumously by his colleague and biographer Ralph Barton Perry in 1912.
Essex County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
For philosophers Richard Feldman and Earl Conee, evidentialism is the strongest argument for justification because it identifies the primary notion of epistemic justification.
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller (16 August 1864 – 6 August 1937), usually cited as F. C. S. Schiller, was a German-British philosopher.
Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Frederick Burkhardt (13 September 1913 – 23 September 2007) was for many years the President Emeritus of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS).
Fredson Thayer Bowers (April 25, 1905 – April 11, 1991) was an American bibliographer and scholar of textual editing.
Free Thought and Official Propaganda is a speech (and subsequent publication) delivered in 1922 by Bertrand Russel on the importance of unrestricted freedom of expression in society, and the problem of the state and political class interfering in this through control of education, fines, economic leverage, and distortion of evidence.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behaviour in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment.
Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator.
Gabriel Wells (January 24, 1861 – November 6, 1946) was a noted bookseller, historian and author.
Gardner Murphy (July 8, 1895 – March 18, 1979) was an American psychologist specialising in social and personality psychology and parapsychology.
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.
A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector.
The Gifford Lectures are an annual series of lectures which were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887).
Giuseppe Sergi (March 20, 1841 – October 17, 1936) was an Italian anthropologist of the early twentieth century, best known for his opposition to Nordicism in his books on the racial identity of ancient Mediterranean peoples.
Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) is the engineering school within Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS).
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.
Henry James, OM (–) was an American author regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
Henry James Sr. (June 3, 1811 in Albany, New YorkDecember 18, 1882 in Boston, Massachusetts) was an American theologian and adherent of Swedenborgianism, also known for being the father of the philosopher William James, novelist Henry James, and diarist Alice James.
Henry Pickering Bowditch (April 4, 1840 – March 13, 1911) was an American soldier, physician, physiologist, and dean of the Harvard Medical School.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
The Hibbert Lectures are an annual series of non-sectarian lectures on theological issues.
Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Horace Meyer Kallen (August 11, 1882 – February 16, 1974) was an American philosopher.
Horatio Alger Jr. (January 13, 1832 – July 18, 1899) was an American writer, best known for his many young adult novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of middle-class security and comfort through hard work, determination, courage, and honesty.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jacques Martin Barzun (November 30, 1907October 25, 2012) was a French-American historian known for his studies of the history of ideas and cultural history.
James Gibbons Huneker (January 31, 1857 – February 9, 1921) was an American art, book, music, and theater critic.
James Jackson Putnam (October 3, 1846 – November 4, 1918) was a United States neurologist.
James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860 – January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States, teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, and long-time editor and publisher of scientific journals and publications, most notably the journal Science.
The James–Lange theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions and is one of the earliest theories of emotion within modern psychology.
Dorothy Jane Roberts (May 8, 1929 – September 5, 1984) was an American author, poet, self-proclaimed psychic, and spirit medium, who claimed to channel an energy personality who called himself "Seth." Her publication of the Seth texts, known as the Seth Material, established her as one of the preeminent figures in the world of paranormal phenomena.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Joseph McDermott (born January 5, 1932) is an American philosopher and a professor at Texas A&M University.
John Lachs is the Centennial Professor of Philosophy at Vanderbilt University, where he has taught since 1967.
Joseph E. LeDoux (born December 7, 1949) is an American neuroscientist whose research is primarily focused on the biological underpinnings of emotion and memory, especially brain mechanisms related to fear and anxiety.
Josiah Royce (November 20, 1855 – September 14, 1916) was an American objective idealist philosopher.
Jules Lequier (or Lequyer,; 30 January 1814 – 11 February 1862) was a French philosopher from Brittany.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Keene is a town in central Essex County, New York, United States.
Leonora Piper (née Leonora Evelina Simonds; 27 June 1857 – 3 June 1950) was a famous American trance medium in the area of Spiritualism.
The Library of America (LOA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature.
Linda Simon (born 12 December 1946) is professor emerita of English at Skidmore College.
This is a list of American philosophers; of philosophers who are either from, or spent many productive years of their lives in the United States.
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history.
Louis Menand (born January 21, 1952) is an American critic and essayist, best known for his book The Metaphysical Club (2001), an intellectual and cultural history of late 19th and early 20th century America.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Macedonio Fernández (1 June 1874 – 10 February 1952) was an Argentine writer, humorist, and philosopher.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Mary Whiton Calkins (30 March 1863 – 26 February 1930) was an American philosopher and psychologist.
Massimo Polidoro (born 10 March 1969) is an Italian psychologist, writer, journalist, television personality, co-founder and executive director of the Italian Committee for the Investigation of Claims of the Pseudoscience (CICAP).
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
President Jimmy Carter's Moral Equivalent of War Speech was a speech in which United States President Jimmy Carter addressed the United States on April 18, 1977.
Morris Raphael Cohen (Мо́ррис Рафаэ́ль Ко́эн; July 25, 1880 – January 28, 1947) was an American philosopher, lawyer, and legal scholar who united pragmatism with logical positivism and linguistic analysis.
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Neurasthenia is a term that was first used at least as early as 1829 to label a mechanical weakness of the nerves and would become a major diagnosis in North America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries after neurologist George Miller Beard reintroduced the concept in 1869.
The New Thought movement (also "Higher Thought") is a religious movement which developed in the United States in the 19th century, considered by many to have been derived from the unpublished writings of Phineas Quimby.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (NYS OPRHP) is a state agency within the New York State Executive Department charged with the operation of state parks and historic sites within the U.S. state of New York.
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
Overbelief (also written as "over-belief") is a philosophical term for a belief adopted that requires more evidence than one presently has.
Pandeism (or pan-deism) is a theological doctrine first delineated in the 18th century which combines aspects of pantheism with aspects of deism.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pierre Marie Félix Janet (30 May 1859 – 24 February 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist, philosopher and psychotherapist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").
A pragmatic theory of truth is a theory of truth within the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The psychologist's fallacy is a fallacy that occurs when an observer assumes that his or her subjective experience reflects the true nature of an event.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Strictly speaking, psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of the religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals.
Putnam Camp is a historic former farm and Adirondack seasonal camp and national historic district located at St. Huberts, Essex County, New York.
Radical empiricism is a philosophical doctrine put forth by William James.
Ralph Barton Perry (July 3, 1876 in Poultney, Vermont – January 22, 1957 in Boston, Massachusetts) was an American philosopher.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.
Review of General Psychology is the quarterly scientific journal of the American Psychological Association Division 1: The Society for General Psychology.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Richard J. Wiseman (born 1966) is a Professor of the Public Understanding of Psychology at the University of Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Robert B. Talisse (born 1970) is an American philosopher and political theorist.
Robert D. Richardson (born 1934 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is an American historian, and biographer.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stanford University has many centers and institutes dedicated to the study of various specific topics.
Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Susan Haack (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tamworth is a town in Carroll County, New Hampshire, United States.
Telepathy (from the Greek τῆλε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθος, pathos or -patheia meaning "feeling, perception, passion, affliction, experience") is the purported transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction.
The 10 percent of the brain myth is a widely perpetuated urban legend that most or all humans only use 10 percent (or some other small percentage) of their brains.
Théodore Flournoy (15 August 1854 – 5 November 1920) was a professor of psychology at the University of Geneva and author of books on parapsychology and spiritism.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle.
The Ingersoll Lectures is a series of lectures presented annually at Harvard University on the subject of immortality.
The Metaphysical Club was a conversational philosophical club that the future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., the philosopher and psychologist William James, and the philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce formed in January 1872 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and dissolved in December 1872.
The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America is a Pulitzer Prize-winning 2001 book by Louis Menand, an American writer and legal scholar, which won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for History.
"The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" was an essay by the philosopher William James, which he first delivered as a lecture to the Yale Philosophical Club, in 1891.
The New Church (or Swedenborgianism) is the name for several historically related Christian denominations that developed as a new religious movement, informed by the writings of scientist and Swedish Lutheran theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772).
The Principles of Psychology is an 1890 book about psychology by William James, an American philosopher and psychologist who trained to be a physician before going into psychology.
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.
"The Will to Believe" is a lecture by William James, first published in 1896, which defends, in certain cases, the adoption of a belief without prior evidence of its truth.
The Will to Doubt: An Essay in Philosophy for the General Thinker is a book published in 1907 by University of Michigan professor Alfred Henry Lloyd.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.
The William James Lectures are a series of invited lectureships at Harvard University sponsored by the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology, who alternate in the selection of speakers.
William James Sidis (April 1, 1898 – July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic skills.
The William James Society (WJS) is an interdisciplinary professional society which supports the study of the life and work of American psychologist and philosopher William James.
William Kingdon Clifford FRS (4 May 1845 – 3 March 1879) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
William Morris Hunt (March 31, 1824 – September 8, 1879), American painter, was born at Brattleboro, Vermont, to Jane Maria (Leavitt) Hunt and Hon.
The 1970s energy crisis was a period when the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, faced substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.