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William Perry

Index William Perry

William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) is an American mathematician, engineer, and businessman who was the United States Secretary of Defense from February 3, 1994, to January 23, 1997, under President Bill Clinton. [1]

216 relations: Aegis Combat System, Africa, AGM-65 Maverick, Aircraft carrier, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Aquacade (satellite), Argentina, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Asia, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Base Realignment and Closure, Battle of Mogadishu (1993), Belarus, Bill Clinton, Bob Dole, Boeing AH-64 Apache, Boeing C-17 Globemaster III, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Butler Senior High School, California, Car bomb, Caspar Weinberger, Center for a New American Security, Center for International Security and Cooperation, China, Colin Powell, Commercial off-the-shelf, Commonwealth Club of California, Contract with America, Counter-proliferation, Croatia, Cuba, Culver Academies, Dayton, Ohio, De facto, Democracy, Democratic Party (United States), Dhahran, Doctor of Philosophy, Donald J. Atwood Jr., Duma, Eastern Europe, Electronic Defense Laboratories, Emperor of Japan, ESL Incorporated, Europe, Fiscal year, Foreign policy, France, ..., Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Geneva, George P. Shultz, Germany, Goražde, Grand Order of King Dmitar Zvonimir, GTE, Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Gulf Cooperation Council, Gulf War, Haiti, Hambrecht & Quist, Henry Kissinger, Hidehiko Yuzaki, Hoover Institution, Human rights in China, Hutu, Implementation Force, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe, Investment banking, Iran, Iraq, Iraq Study Group, James A. Van Fleet Award, Japan, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Jerry Brown, Jimmy Carter, John M. Deutch, John P. White, John Shalikashvili, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Khobar Towers bombing, Kigali, Korea Society, Kurds, Kuwait, Les Aspin, LGM-118 Peacekeeper, LGM-30 Minuteman, Light-water reactor, Lockheed MQM-105 Aquila, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Security, Louisiana, M247 Sergeant York, Malcolm R. Currie, Master of Arts, Master's degree, Mathematics, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military dictatorship, Missile defense systems by country, Missouri, Moscow, National Academy of Engineering, National Order of Merit (France), National security, NATO, No-fly zone, North Atlantic Council, North Korea, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Nuclear Tipping Point, Nuclear weapon, Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction, Occupation of Japan, Okinawa Prefecture, Operation Uphold Democracy, Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland, Order of the British Empire, Order of the Rising Sun, Oriental fire-bellied toad, Packard Commission, Paris, Parliament, Partnership for a Secure America, Partnership for Peace, Paul Glastris, Pavel Grachev, PBS, Pennsylvania State University, Persian Gulf, Petroleum, Plutonium, Political party, Presidency of Bill Clinton, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Radio frequency, Radiolab, Raoul Cédras, Refugee, Republican Guard (Iraq), Research and development, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Ronald Reagan, Roosevelt Institute Campus Network, Russia, Rwanda, Rwandan Civil War, Rwandan genocide, Saddam Hussein, Sam Nunn, San Francisco, Sarajevo, Secretary of state, Serbs, Signals intelligence, Somalia, South Korea, Soviet Union, Stanford University, Stanford University centers and institutes, START II, Stealth technology, Strait of Hormuz, Strategic Defense Initiative, Surface-to-air missile, Sylvania Electric Products, Sylvanus Thayer Award, Taiwan presidential election, 1996, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, The Pentagon, The Seattle Times, The Wall Street Journal, Theranos, Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Timeline of the Cox Report controversy, Truman National Security Project, Tutsi, Ukraine, Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, United Arab Emirates, United Nations, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Army Reserve, United States Department of Defense, United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, United States Marine Corps, United States Military Academy, United States presidential election, 1996, United States Secretary of Defense, University of California, Santa Barbara, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Vandergrift, Pennsylvania, Veto, Warsaw Pact, Washington Monthly, Washington, D.C., White House, William Cohen, Williamsburg, Virginia, Zaire, 32nd parallel north, 36th parallel north. Expand index (166 more) »

Aegis Combat System

The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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AGM-65 Maverick

The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-surface missile (AGM) designed for close air support.

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Aircraft carrier

An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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Aquacade (satellite)

Aquacade, previously designated Rhyolite, was a class of SIGINT spy satellites operated by the National Reconnaissance Office for the United States Central Intelligence Agency.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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Bachelor of Science

A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.

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Base Realignment and Closure

Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) is a process by a United States federal government commission to increase United States Department of Defense efficiency by planning the end of the Cold War realignment and closure of military installations.

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Battle of Mogadishu (1993)

The Battle of Mogadishu, or Day of the Rangers (Maalintii Rangers), was part of Operation Gothic Serpent.

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Belarus

Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Bob Dole

Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is a retired American politician and attorney who represented Kansas in Congress from 1961 to 1996 and served as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996.

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Boeing AH-64 Apache

The Boeing AH-64 Apache is an American twin-turboshaft attack helicopter with a tailwheel-type landing gear arrangement and a tandem cockpit for a two-man crew.

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Boeing C-17 Globemaster III

The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Butler Senior High School

Butler Senior High School is located in Butler, Pennsylvania, USA, and is part of the Butler Area School District.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Caspar Weinberger

Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.

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Center for a New American Security

The Center for a New American Security (CNAS) is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2007 by co-founders Michèle Flournoy and Kurt M. Campbell.

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Center for International Security and Cooperation

Formerly the Center for International Security and Arms Control, co-founded by physicist Sidney Drell and political scientist John Lewis, CISAC now stands for the Center for International Security and Cooperation.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Colin Powell

Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.

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Commercial off-the-shelf

Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.

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Commonwealth Club of California

The Commonwealth Club of California is a non-profit, non-partisan educational organization based in Northern California.

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Contract with America

The Contract with America was a document released by the United States Republican Party during the 1994 Congressional election campaign.

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Counter-proliferation

Counterproliferation refers to diplomatic, intelligence, and military efforts to combat the proliferation of weapons, including both weapons of mass destruction (WMD), long-range missiles, and certain conventional weapons.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Culver Academies

Culver Academies is a college preparatory boarding school located in Culver, Indiana, which is composed of three entities: Culver Military Academy (CMA) for boys, Culver Girls Academy (CGA), and the Culver Summer Schools and Camps (CSSC).

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Dayton, Ohio

Dayton is the sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).

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Dhahran

Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Donald J. Atwood Jr.

Donald Jesse Atwood Jr. (May 25, 1924 – April 24, 1994) was appointed Deputy Secretary of Defense for U.S. President George H. W. Bush in 1989.

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Duma

A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Electronic Defense Laboratories

Electronic Defense Laboratories, located in Mountain View, California, known in the 1960s and 1970s simply as "EDL", was a semi-private corporate entity, essentially funded by the Department of Defense, that drew heavily on civilian scientific expertise.

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Emperor of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.

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ESL Incorporated

ESL Incorporated, or Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory, was a subsidiary of TRW, a high technology firm in the United States that was engaged in software design, systems analysis and hardware development for the strategic reconnaissance marketplace.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fiscal year

A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.

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Foreign policy

A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany.

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Geneva

Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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George P. Shultz

George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Goražde

Goražde (Горажде) is a city and the administrative center of Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Grand Order of King Dmitar Zvonimir

The Grand Order of King Dmitar Zvonimir (Velered kralja Dmitra Zvonimira s lentom i Danicom), or more fully the Grand Order of King Dmitar Zvonimir with sash and Morning Star (Velered kralja Dmitra Zvonimira s lentom i Danicom), is an order of the Republic of Croatia.

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GTE

GTE Corporation, formerly General Telephone & Electronics Corporation (1955–1982), was the largest independent telephone company in the United States during the days of the Bell System.

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Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Base Naval de la Bahía de Guantánamo), officially known as Naval Station Guantanamo Bay or NSGB (also called GTMO because of the abbreviation of Guantanamo or Gitmo because of the common pronunciation of this word by the U.S. military), is a United States military base located on 120 square kilometres (45 sq mi) of land and water at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, which the U.S. leased for use as a coaling station and naval base in 1903 for $2,000 in gold per year until 1934, when the payment was set to match the value in gold in dollars; in 1974, the yearly lease was set to $4,085.

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Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Haiti

Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Hambrecht & Quist

Hambrecht & Quist (H&Q) was an investment bank based in San Francisco, California noted for its focus on the technology and Internet sectors.

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Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Hidehiko Yuzaki

is a Japanese politician and the current governor of Hiroshima Prefecture in Japan.

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Hoover Institution

The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.

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Human rights in China

Human rights in China is a highly contested topic, especially for the fundamental human rights periodically reviewed by the United Nations Human Rights Committee, on which the government of the People's Republic of China and various foreign governments and human rights organizations have often disagreed.

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Hutu

The Hutu, also known as the Abahutu, are a Bantu ethnic group native to African Great Lakes region of Africa, primarily area now under Burundi and Rwanda.

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Implementation Force

The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.

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Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe

The International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe (also The Luxembourg Forum) — is an international non-governmental organisation uniting leading world-renowned experts on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, materials and delivery vehicles.

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Investment banking

An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq Study Group

The Iraq Study Group (ISG) also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making policy recommendations.

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James A. Van Fleet Award

The General James A. Van Fleet Award (Korean: 제임스 밴 플리트상), given annually since 1995 by The Korea Society, is awarded to "one or more distinguished Koreans or Americans in recognition of their outstanding contributions to the promotion of U.S.-Korea relations.” It is one of the most prestigious awards in the field of U.S.–Korea relations.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born 15 July 1953) is a former Haitian priest and politician who became Haiti's first democratically elected president.

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Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.

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Jimmy Carter

James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.

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John M. Deutch

John Mark Deutch (born July 27, 1938) is an American physical chemist and civil servant.

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John P. White

John Patrick White (February 27, 1937 – September 3, 2017) was an American university professor and a government official who served in the Clinton Administration.

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John Shalikashvili

John Malchase David Shalikashvili (ჯონ მალხაზ დავით შალიკაშვილი,; June 27, 1936 – July 23, 2011) was a United States Army general who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Supreme Allied Commander from 1993 to 1997.

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Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.

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Kansas

Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Khobar Towers bombing

The Khobar Towers bombing was a terrorist attack on part of a housing complex in the city of Khobar, Saudi Arabia, located near the national oil company (Saudi Aramco) headquarters of Dhahran and nearby King Abdulaziz Air Base on June 25, 1996.

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Kigali

Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda.

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Korea Society

The Korea Society is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) organization with individual and corporate members that is dedicated solely to the promotion of greater awareness, understanding and cooperation between the people of the United States and Korea.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Les Aspin

Leslie "Les" Aspin Jr. (July 21, 1938 – May 21, 1995) was a United States Representative from 1971 to 1993, and the United States Secretary of Defense under President Bill Clinton from January 21, 1993 to February 3, 1994.

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LGM-118 Peacekeeper

The LGM-118 Peacekeeper, also known as the MX missile (for Missile-eXperimental), was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986.

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LGM-30 Minuteman

The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.

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Light-water reactor

The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.

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Lockheed MQM-105 Aquila

The Lockheed MQM-105 Aquila (Eagle) was the first small battlefield drone developed in the United States during the 1970s to act as a target designator for the US Army.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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Los Alamos National Security

Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS LLC) is a private limited liability company (LLC) formed by the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, and URS Energy and Construction (which was purchased by AECOM in 2014).

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Louisiana

Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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M247 Sergeant York

The M247 Sergeant York DIVAD (Division Air Defense) was a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG), developed by Ford Aerospace in the late 1970s.

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Malcolm R. Currie

Malcolm Roderick Currie (born March 13, 1927) is an American engineer and former executive.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) to gain and maintain air supremacy in all aspects of aerial combat.

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McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Missile defense systems by country

Missile defense systems are a type of missile defense intended to shield a country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles.

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Missouri

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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National Academy of Engineering

The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Order of Merit (France)

The National Order of Merit (Ordre national du Mérite) is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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No-fly zone

A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone, is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.

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North Atlantic Council

The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), consisting of Permanent Representatives from its member countries.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Nuclear Threat Initiative

The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization founded in 2001 by former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn and philanthropist Ted Turner in the United States, which works to prevent catastrophic attacks and accidents with weapons of mass destruction and disruption – nuclear, biological, radiological, chemical, and cyber.

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Nuclear Tipping Point

Nuclear Tipping Point is a 2010 documentary film produced by the Nuclear Threat Initiative.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction

As the fall of the Soviet Union appeared imminent, the United States and their allies began to worry about the concept that the nuclear weapons held in smaller countries by the Soviet Union could fall or would fall into enemy hands.

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Occupation of Japan

The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.

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Okinawa Prefecture

is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.

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Operation Uphold Democracy

Operation Uphold Democracy (19 September 1994 – 31 March 1995) was a military intervention designed to remove the military regime installed by the 1991 Haitian coup d'état that overthrew the elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

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Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland

The Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (Order Zasługi Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is a Polish order of merit created in 1974, awarded to persons who have rendered great service to Poland.

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Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.

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Order of the Rising Sun

The is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan.

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Oriental fire-bellied toad

The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a small (4 cm, 2") semiaquatic frog species found in Korea, northeastern China, and adjacent parts of Russia.

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Packard Commission

The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management, informally known as the Packard Commission, was a federal government commission by President Ronald Reagan, created by to study several areas of management functionality within the US Department of Defense.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parliament

In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Partnership for a Secure America

Partnership for a Secure America (PSA) is a nonprofit organization in Washington, D.C. that seeks to promote bipartisan solutions to today's critical national security and foreign policy issues.

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Partnership for Peace

The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.

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Paul Glastris

Paul Glastris is an American journalist and political columnist.

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Pavel Grachev

Pavel Sergeyevich Grachev (Па́вел Серге́евич Грачё́в; 1 January 1948 – 23 September 2012), sometimes transliterated as Grachov, was a Russian Army General and the Defence Minister of the Russian Federation from 1992 to 1996; in 1988 he was awarded Hero of the Soviet Union gold star.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Plutonium

Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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Presidency of Bill Clinton

The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.

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Presidential Medal of Freedom

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Radiolab

Radiolab is a radio program produced by WNYC, a public radio station in New York City, and broadcast on public radio stations in the United States.

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Raoul Cédras

Joseph Raoul Cédras (born July 9, 1949) is a Haitian former military officer who was de facto ruler of Haiti from 1991 to 1994.

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Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Republican Guard (Iraq)

The Iraqi Republican Guard (حرس العراق الجمهوري Ḥaras al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy) was a branch of the Iraqi military from 1964 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Reserve Officers' Training Corps

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) are a group of college and university-based officer training programs for training commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Roosevelt Institute Campus Network

The Roosevelt Institute's Network, formerly the "Roosevelt Institute Campus Network" and the "Roosevelt Institution", bills itself as the first student-run policy organization in the United States.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Rwandan Civil War

The Rwandan Civil War was a conflict in the African republic of Rwanda, between the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).

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Rwandan genocide

The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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Sam Nunn

Samuel Augustus Nunn Jr. (born September 8, 1938) is an American lawyer and politician.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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Sarajevo

Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.

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Secretary of state

The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.

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Serbs

The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Stanford University centers and institutes

Stanford University has many centers and institutes dedicated to the study of various specific topics.

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START II

START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and Russia on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.

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Stealth technology

Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.

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Strait of Hormuz

The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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Strategic Defense Initiative

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).

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Surface-to-air missile

A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.

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Sylvania Electric Products

Sylvania Electric Products was a U.S. manufacturer of diverse electrical equipment, including at various times radio transceivers, vacuum tubes, semiconductors, and mainframe computers such as MOBIDIC.

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Sylvanus Thayer Award

The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point.

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Taiwan presidential election, 1996

The election of the ninth-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第九任中華民國總統 、副總統選舉) was the first direct presidential election in the history of the Republic of China.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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The Seattle Times

The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Theranos

Theranos is a privately held health technology company known for its false claims to have devised revolutionary blood tests using very small amounts of blood.

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Third Taiwan Strait Crisis

The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1995–1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was the effect of a series of missile tests conducted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the waters surrounding Taiwan including the Taiwan Strait from 21 July 1995, to 23 March 1996.

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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.

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Timeline of the Cox Report controversy

The timeline of the Cox Report controversy is a chronology of information relating to the People's Republic of China's (PRC) nuclear espionage against the United States detailed in the Congressional Cox Report.

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Truman National Security Project

Truman National Security Project is a nationwide membership organization of frontline civilians, veterans, political professionals, and policy experts who conduct education and advocacy work on national security and foreign policy issues in the United States of America.

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Tutsi

The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering

The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USD(R&E)) is a senior official of the United States Department of Defense.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Corps of Engineers

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.

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United States Army Reserve

The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Deputy Secretary of Defense

The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States Military Academy

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.

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United States presidential election, 1996

The United States presidential election of 1996 was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election.

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United States Secretary of Defense

The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.

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University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Vandergrift, Pennsylvania

Vandergrift is a borough in Westmoreland County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, approximately northeast of Pittsburgh.

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Veto

A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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Washington Monthly

Washington Monthly is a bimonthly nonprofit magazine of United States politics and government that is based in Washington, D.C. The magazine is known for its annual ranking of American colleges and universities, which serve as an alternative to the Forbes and U.S. News & World Report rankings.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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William Cohen

William Sebastian Cohen (born August 28, 1940) is an American politician and author from the U.S. state of Maine.

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Williamsburg, Virginia

Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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Zaire

Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.

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32nd parallel north

The 32nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 32 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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36th parallel north

The 36th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 36 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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Redirects here:

Perry, William, William J. Perry.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Perry

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