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# William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra. [1]

152 relations: A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Algebra, Analytic geometry, Analytical dynamics, Andrew Wiles, Andrey Kolmogorov, Applied mathematics, Arabic, Arithmetic, Arithmetica Universalis, Arthur W. Conway, Astronomer, Astronomy, Éamon de Valera, Biquaternion, Blackboard bold, British Science Association, Broom Bridge, Calculus of variations, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Cayley–Hamilton theorem, Celestial mechanics, Central Bank of Ireland, Charles Jasper Joly, Cis (mathematics), Classical mechanics, Coefficient, Commutative property, Complex number, Computer graphics, Control theory, Curl (mathematics), Dedekind group, Del, Differential calculus, Differential equation, Discrete system, Division ring, Dublin, Dunboyne, Dunsink Observatory, Electromagnetism, Euclid, Euro, Fourier analysis, Frank Wilczek, Geometrical optics, George Jerrard, Gold medal, Gout, ... Expand index (102 more) »

## A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism

A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873.

## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

## Analytic geometry

In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.

## Analytical dynamics

In classical mechanics, analytical dynamics, or more briefly dynamics, is concerned with the relationship between motion of bodies and its causes, namely the forces acting on the bodies and the properties of the bodies, particularly mass and moment of inertia.

## Andrew Wiles

Sir Andrew John Wiles (born 11 April 1953) is a British mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, specialising in number theory.

## Andrey Kolmogorov

Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

## Applied mathematics

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.

## Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

## Arithmetica Universalis

Arithmetica Universalis ("Universal Arithmetic") is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton.

## Arthur W. Conway

Arthur William Conway FRS (2 October 1875 – 11 July 1950) was a distinguished Irish mathematician and mathematical physicist who wrote one of the first books on relativity and co-edited two volumes of William Rowan Hamilton's collected works.

## Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

## Éamon de Valera

Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.

## Biquaternion

In abstract algebra, the biquaternions are the numbers, where, and are complex numbers, or variants thereof, and the elements of multiply as in the quaternion group.

## Blackboard bold

Blackboard bold is a typeface style that is often used for certain symbols in mathematical texts, in which certain lines of the symbol (usually vertical or near-vertical lines) are doubled.

## British Science Association

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.

## Broom Bridge

Broom Bridge (Irish: Droichead Broome), also called Broome Bridge, and sometimes Brougham Bridge, is a bridge along Broombridge Road which crosses the Royal Canal in Cabra, Dublin, Ireland.

## Calculus of variations

Calculus of variations is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions and functionals, to find maxima and minima of functionals: mappings from a set of functions to the real numbers.

## Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

## Cayley–Hamilton theorem

In linear algebra, the Cayley–Hamilton theorem (named after the mathematicians Arthur Cayley and William Rowan Hamilton) states that every square matrix over a commutative ring (such as the real or complex field) satisfies its own characteristic equation.

## Celestial mechanics

Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.

## Central Bank of Ireland

The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

## Charles Jasper Joly

Charles Jasper Joly (27 June 1864 &ndash; 4 January 1906) was an Irish mathematician and astronomer who became Royal Astronomer of Ireland.

## Cis (mathematics)

is a less commonly used mathematical notation defined by, where is the cosine function, is the imaginary unit and is the sine.

## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

## Coefficient

In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

## Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

## Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Dedekind group

In group theory, a Dedekind group is a group G such that every subgroup of G is normal.

## Del

Del, or nabla, is an operator used in mathematics, in particular in vector calculus, as a vector differential operator, usually represented by the nabla symbol &nabla;.

## Differential calculus

In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Discrete system

A discrete system is a system with a countable number of states.

## Division ring

In abstract algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a ring in which division is possible.

## Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

## Dunboyne

Dunboyne is a town in Meath, Ireland.

## Dunsink Observatory

The Dunsink Observatory is an astronomical observatory established in 1785 in the townland of Dunsink near the city of Dublin, Ireland.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Euclid

Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

## Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

## Fourier analysis

In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.

## Frank Wilczek

Frank Anthony Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.

## Geometrical optics

Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.

## George Jerrard

George Birch Jerrard (25 November 1804 &ndash; 23 November 1863) was a British mathematician.

## Gold medal

A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.

## Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.

In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.

## Graph theory

In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

## Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

## Green Line (Luas)

The Green Line is one of the two lines of Dublin's Luas light rail system.

## Hamilton Institute

The Hamilton Institute is a multi-disciplinary research centre at the Maynooth University, named after William Rowan Hamilton, arguably Ireland's most distinguished mathematician.

## Hamilton Society

The Hamilton Society is a student group at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI).

## Hamilton's principle

In physics, Hamilton's principle is William Rowan Hamilton's formulation of the principle of stationary action (see that article for historical formulations).

## Hamilton–Jacobi equation

In mathematics, the Hamilton–Jacobi equation (HJE) is a necessary condition describing extremal geometry in generalizations of problems from the calculus of variations, and is a special case of the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation.

## Hamiltonian

Hamiltonian may refer to.

## Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

## Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.

## Hamiltonian path

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a Hamiltonian path (or traceable path) is a path in an undirected or directed graph that visits each vertex exactly once.

## Hamiltonian vector field

In mathematics and physics, a Hamiltonian vector field on a symplectic manifold is a vector field, defined for any energy function or Hamiltonian.

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## Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

## Hindustani language

Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.

## History of science and technology

The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (technology) have changed over the centuries.

## Hodograph

A hodograph is a diagram that gives a vectorial visual representation of the movement of a body or a fluid.

## Hurwitz's theorem (composition algebras)

In mathematics, Hurwitz's theorem is a theorem of Adolf Hurwitz (1859–1919), published posthumously in 1923, solving the Hurwitz problem for finite-dimensional unital real non-associative algebras endowed with a positive-definite quadratic form.

## Icosian calculus

The icosian calculus is a non-commutative algebraic structure discovered by the Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1856.

## Icosian game

The icosian game is a mathematical game invented in 1857 by William Rowan Hamilton.

## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

## Jean Gaston Darboux

Jean-Gaston Darboux FAS MIF FRS FRSE (14 August 1842 – 23 February 1917) was a French mathematician.

## John Brinkley (astronomer)

John Mortimer Brinkley (born 1733 or 1766died 14 September 1835) was the first Royal Astronomer of Ireland and later Bishop of Cloyne.

## John Joly

John Joly FRS (1 November 1857 – 8 December 1933) was an Irish physicist,and professor of geology at the University of Dublin famous for his development of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

## John T. Graves

John Thomas Graves (4 December 1806 – 29 March 1870) was an Irish jurist and mathematician.

## Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

## Joseph Liouville

Joseph Liouville FRS FRSE FAS (24 March 1809 – 8 September 1882) was a French mathematician.

## Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.

## Knight

A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.

## Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

## Lagrangian mechanics

Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

## Longman

Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

## Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922.

## Lorentz group

In physics and mathematics, the Lorentz group is the group of all Lorentz transformations of Minkowski spacetime, the classical and quantum setting for all (nongravitational) physical phenomena.

## Luas

Luas (Irish pronunciation:; Irish for "speed") is a tram/light rail system in Dublin, Ireland.

## Ludwik Silberstein

Ludwik Silberstein (1872 – 1948) was a Polish-American physicist who helped make special relativity and general relativity staples of university coursework.

## Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

## Marathi language

Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.

## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

## Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Maynooth University

The National University of Ireland, Maynooth (NUIM; Ollscoil na hÉireann Mhá Nuad), commonly known as Maynooth University (MU), is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland in Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland.

## Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

## Mental calculator

Mental calculators are people with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing large numbers.

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

## Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

## Mount Jerome Cemetery and Crematorium

Mount Jerome Cemetery & Crematorium (Reilig Chnoc Ieróim) is situated in Harold's Cross on the south side of Dublin, Ireland.

## Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

## Nabla symbol

∇ The nabla symbol The nabla is a triangular symbol like an inverted Greek delta:Indeed, it is called anadelta (ανάδελτα) in Modern Greek.

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

## Niels Henrik Abel

Niels Henrik Abel (5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields.

## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

## Olinde Rodrigues

Olinde Rodrigues Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues (6 October 1795 – 17 December 1851), more commonly known as Olinde Rodrigues, was a French banker, mathematician, and social reformer.

## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

## Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

## Peter Tait (physicist)

Peter Guthrie Tait FRSE (28 April 1831 – 4 July 1901) was a Scottish mathematical physicist and early pioneer in thermodynamics.

## Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

## Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

## Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Pierre Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

## Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

## Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

## Point (geometry)

In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.

## Principle of least action

The principle of least action – or, more accurately, the principle of stationary action – is a variational principle that, when applied to the action of a mechanical system, can be used to obtain the equations of motion for that system.

## Proof coinage

Proof coinage means special early samples of a coin issue, historically made for checking the dies and for archival purposes, but nowadays often struck in greater numbers specially for coin collectors (numismatists).

## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

## Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

## Quaternion group

In group theory, the quaternion group Q8 (sometimes just denoted by Q) is a non-abelian group of order eight, isomorphic to a certain eight-element subset of the quaternions under multiplication.

## Quintic function

In algebra, a quintic function is a function of the form where,,,, and are members of a field, typically the rational numbers, the real numbers or the complex numbers, and is nonzero.

## Royal Canal

The Royal Canal (An Chanáil Ríoga) is a canal originally built for freight and passenger transportation from the River Liffey in Dublin to Longford in Ireland.

## Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI; Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn) is a professional association and educational institution that is responsible for the medical speciality of surgery throughout the island of Ireland.

The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) (Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann), based in Dublin, is an all-Ireland independent academic body that promotes study and excellence in the sciences, and humanities and social sciences.

## Royal Medal

A Royal Medal, known also as The King's Medal or The Queen's Medal, depending on the gender of the monarch at the time of the award, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations.

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

## Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

## Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

## Taoiseach

The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

## Theoretical astronomy

Theoretical astronomy is the use of the analytical models of physics and chemistry to describe astronomical objects and astronomical phenomena.

## Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

## Timothy Gowers

Sir William Timothy Gowers, (born 20 November 1963) is a British mathematician.

## Trim, County Meath

Trim is a town in County Meath, Ireland.

## Trinity College Dublin

Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.

## Universal algebra

Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures.

## University of Dublin

The University of Dublin (Ollscoil Átha Cliath), corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin, Ireland.

## University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

## Variational principle

A variational principle is a scientific principle used within the calculus of variations, which develops general methods for finding functions which extremize the value of quantities that depend upon those functions.

## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

## Versor

In mathematics, a versor is a quaternion of norm one (a unit quaternion).

Vladimir Igorevich Arnold (alternative spelling Arnol'd, Влади́мир И́горевич Арно́льд, 12 June 1937 – 3 June 2010) was a Soviet and Russian mathematician.

## William Edwin Hamilton

William Edwin Hamilton (10 May 1834 – 17 March 1902) was the elder son of the Irish mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Lady Helen Maria Hamilton Bayly.

## William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

## Wrangler (University of Cambridge)

At the University of Cambridge in England, a "Wrangler" is a student who gains first-class honours in the third year of the University's undergraduate degree in mathematics.

## Zerah Colburn (mental calculator)

Zerah Colburn (September 1, 1804 – March 2, 1839) was a child prodigy of the 19th century who gained fame as a mental calculator.

## References

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