298 relations: Abbey of Saint-Étienne, Caen, Abbey of Sainte-Trinité, Caen, Abbot of Evesham, Adela of Normandy, Adelaide of Normandy, Adeliza, Adeliza of Louvain, Affinity (canon law), Alan III, Duke of Brittany, Alan IV, Duke of Brittany, Alençon, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Alfred Aetheling, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anjou, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of York, Arnulf III, Count of Flanders, Æthelmær of Elmham, Æthelred the Unready, Æthelwig, İznik, Baldwin II, Count of Hainaut, Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, Baldwin VI, Count of Flanders, Battle Abbey, Battle of Cassel (1071), Battle of Fulford, Battle of Hastings, Battle of Mortemer, Battle of Stamford Bridge, Battle of Tinchebray, Battle of Val-ès-Dunes, Battle of Varaville, Battle, East Sussex, Bayeux Tapestry, Bellême, Berkhamsted, Bertha of Holland, Bishop of Durham, Bishop of Norwich, Bishop of Winchester, Bishop of Worcester, Bretons, Brionne, Bristol, Brittany, Butler, Caen, ..., Cambridge Castle, Canterbury, Canute IV of Denmark, Castle, Cecilia of Normandy, Charles the Simple, Charter, Chester Castle, Circa, Cnut the Great, Conan II, Duke of Brittany, Constance of Normandy, Council of Reims, Count of Évreux, Count of Boulogne, Counts and dukes of Anjou, Counts of Dreux, Counts of Eu, County of Amiens, County of Flanders, Cousin, Cristina, daughter of Edward the Exile, Danegeld, Danes (Germanic tribe), David Bates (historian), Dives (river), Dol-de-Bretagne, Domesday Book, Domfront, Orne, Dover, Duchy of Brittany, Duchy of Normandy, Duke of Normandy, Duncan II of Scotland, Eadnoth the Constable, Eadric the Wild, Ealdred (archbishop of York), Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Hereford, Earl of Kent, Earl of Mercia, Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Northumbria, Earl of Wessex, Edgar Ætheling, Edith of Wessex, Edmund Ironside, Edward Augustus Freeman, Edward the Confessor, Edward the Exile, Edwin, Earl of Mercia, Elizabeth I of England, Emma of Normandy, English Channel, Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, Exeter, Exning, Falaise, Calvados, Fécamp Abbey, Fealty, Femur, Fief, Flanders, French Revolution, French Wars of Religion, Fulbert of Falaise, Fulk IV, Count of Anjou, García II of Galicia, Geoffrey de Montbray, Geoffrey II, Count of Anjou, Geoffrey III, Count of Anjou, Geoffrey, Count of Conversano, Gerberoy, Gesta Normannorum Ducum, Gilbert, Count of Brionne, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria, Gregorian Reform, Gunnora, Gyrth Godwinson, Harald Hardrada, Harold Godwinson, Harold Harefoot, Harrying of the North, Harthacnut, Hastings, Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick, Henry I of England, Henry I of France, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Herbert II, Count of Maine, Hereford, Hereward the Wake, Herleva, Herluin de Conteville, Hide (unit), House of Normandy, Housecarl, Hubert de Beaumont-au-Maine, Hugh IV, Count of Maine, Humber, Hundred (county division), Huntingdon Castle, Isle of Ely, Isle of Wight, Jerusalem, Judith of Flanders (died 1095), Keep, Kingdom of Northumbria, Knight, La Ferté-Macé, Lanfranc, Latin, Le Mans, Legal tender, Legitimacy (family law), Leofwine Godwinson, Lincoln Castle, Lincolnshire, List of English monarchs, List of rulers of Brittany, Magnus the Good, Maine (province), Malcolm III of Scotland, Mantes-la-Jolie, Marshal, Matilda of Flanders, Matilda of Scotland, Matthew Parker, Mauger (archbishop of Rouen), Maurilius, Montreuil, Pas-de-Calais, Morcar, Motte-and-bailey castle, New Forest, Newcastle upon Tyne, Norman architecture, Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest of southern Italy, Norman yoke, Normandy, Normans, Norwich Castle, Nottingham Castle, Oath of Salisbury, Odo of Bayeux, Old English, Old Norman, Orderic Vitalis, Osbern the Steward, Papal legate, Pennines, Penny, Peterborough Cathedral, Pevensey, Philip I of France, Pilgrimage, Pope Alexander II, Pope Leo IX, Priory, R. W. Southern, Ralph de Gael, Rémalard, Richard fitz Gilbert, Richard II, Duke of Normandy, Richard III, Duke of Normandy, Richard, son of William the Conqueror, Richilde, Countess of Hainaut, River Ribble, River Tees, River Thames, River Tweed, Robert Curthose, Robert FitzWimarc, Robert Guiscard, Robert I, Count of Flanders, Robert I, Duke of Normandy, Robert II (archbishop of Rouen), Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, Robert of Jumièges, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, Robert, Count of Mortain, Roger de Beaumont, Roger de Breteuil, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Roger de Montgomery, Roger of Mortemer, Rollo, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen, Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayeux, Roman Catholic Diocese of Le Mans, Rouen, Royal forest, Royal Household, Saddle, Saint David, Saint Margaret of Scotland, Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, Sancho II of Castile and León, Seal (emblem), Sheriff, Shield wall, Shire, Shrewsbury, Siege of Saint-Suzanne, Siege of Thimert, Simon de Crépy, Sortie, Southwark, St Davids, Stafford Castle, Stephen, Count of Blois, Stigand, Subinfeudation, Sweyn Forkbeard, Sweyn II of Denmark, Sybilla of Conversano, Thegn, Thimert-Gâtelles, Thomas of Bayeux, Tillières-sur-Avre, Tostig Godwinson, Tower of London, Treaty of Abernethy, Vexin, Vikings, Viscount, Vita Ædwardi Regis, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville, Waltham Abbey Church, Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria, Warwick Castle, Westminster Abbey, White Tower (Tower of London), Whitsun, William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford, William II of England, William of Jumièges, William of Malmesbury, William of Poitiers, William Peverel, William Walcher, Winchester, Writ, Wulfstan (died 1095), York, York Castle. 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The Abbey of Saint-Étienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ("Men's Abbey") by contrast with the Abbaye aux Dames ("Ladies' Abbey"), is a former Benedictine monastery in the French city of Caen, Normandy, dedicated to Saint Stephen.
The Abbey of Sainte-Trinité (the Holy Trinity), also known as Abbaye aux Dames, is a former monastery of women in Caen, Normandy, now home to the Regional Council of Lower Normandy.
The Abbot of Evesham was the head of Evesham Abbey, a Benedictine monastery in Worcestershire founded in the Anglo-Saxon era of English history.
Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England (c. 1067LoPrete, Kimberly. "Adela of Blois." Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Margaret Schaus. New York: Routledge, 2006. 6-7. – 8 March 1137), also known as in Roman Catholicism, was Countess of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux by marriage to Stephen II, Count of Blois.
Adelaide of Normandy (or Adeliza) (1030 – bef. 1090) was the sister of William the Conqueror and was Countess of Aumale in her own right.
Adeliza or Adelida (died before 1113) was a daughter of the English king William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders.
Adeliza of Louvain, sometimes known in England as Adelicia of Louvain, also called Adela and Aleidis; (c. 1103 – 23 April 1151) was Queen of England from 1121 to 1135, as the second wife of King Henry I. She was the daughter of Godfrey I, Count of Louvain.
In Catholic canon law, affinity is an impediment to marriage of a couple due to the relationship which either party has as a result of a kinship relationship created by another marriage or as a result of extramarital intercourse.
Alan III of Rennes (997–1 October 1040) (French: Alain III de Bretagne) was Count of Rennes and duke of Brittany, by right of succession from 1008 to his death.
Alan IV (born circa 1063; died 13 October 1119) was Duke of Brittany from 1084 until his abdication in 1112.
Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Ælfred Æþeling (English: Alfred the Noble) (1005 – died 1036) was one of the eight sons of the English king Æthelred the Unready.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Arnulf III (died 22 February 1071) was Count of Flanders from 1070 until his death at the Battle of Cassel in 1071.
Æthelmaer (or Æthelmær) was a medieval Bishop of Elmham.
Æthelred II (Old English: Æþelræd,;Different spellings of this king’s name most commonly found in modern texts are "Ethelred" and "Æthelred" (or "Aethelred"), the latter being closer to the original Old English form Æþelræd. 966 – 23 April 1016), known as the Unready, was King of the English from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death.
Æthelwig (c. 1013–16 February in either 1077 or 1078) was an Abbot of Evesham before and during the Norman Conquest of England.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Baldwin II of Mons (1056–1098?) was count of Hainaut from 1071 to his death.
Baldwin IV (980 – 30 May 1035), called the Bearded, was Count of Flanders from 987.
Baldwin V of Flanders (19 August 1012, Arras, Flanders – 1 September 1067, Lille, Flanders) was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.
Baldwin VI (– 17 July 1070), also known as Baldwin the Good, was Count of Hainaut from 1051 to 1070 (as Baldwin I) and Count of Flanders from 1067 to 1070.
Battle Abbey is a partially ruined Benedictine abbey in Battle, East Sussex, England.
The Battle of Cassel was fought on 22 February 1071 between Robert I of Flanders (or Robert the Frisian) and his nephew, Arnulf III (son of Baldwin VI of Flanders).
The Battle of Fulford was fought on the outskirts of the village of Fulford near York in England, on 20 September 1066, when King Harald III of Norway, also known as Harald Hardrada ("harðráði" in Old Norse, meaning "hard ruler"), and Tostig Godwinson, his English ally, fought and defeated the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Mortemer was a defeat for Henry I of France when he led an army against his vassal, William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy in 1054.
The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson.
The Battle of Tinchebray (alternate spellings Tinchebrai or Tenchebrai) was fought 28 September 1106, in Tinchebray (today in Orne département of France), Normandy, between an invading force led by King Henry I of England, and his elder brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy.
The Battle of Val-ès-Dunes was fought in 1047 by the combined forces of William, Duke of Normandy and King Henry I of France against the forces of several rebel Norman barons, led by Guy of Brionne, the son of Reginald I, Count of Burgundy.
The Battle of Varaville was a battle fought in 1057 by William, Duke of Normandy, against King Henry I of France and Count Geoffrey Martel of Anjou.
Battle is a small town and civil parish in the local government district of Rother in East Sussex, England.
The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux or La telle du conquest; Tapete Baiocense) is an embroidered cloth nearly long and tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.
Bellême is a commune in the Orne department in northwestern France.
Berkhamsted is a historic market town close to the western boundary of Hertfordshire, England, in the small Bulbourne valley in the Chiltern Hills, northwest of London.
Bertha of Holland (1055 – 15 October 1094), also known as Berthe or Bertha of Frisia and erroneously as Berta or Bertrada, was queen consort of the Franks from 1072 until 1092, as the first wife of King Philip I. Bertha's marriage to the king in 1072 was a result of peace negotiations between him and her stepfather, Count Robert the Frisian of Flanders.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
The Bishop of Norwich is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England.
The Bishop of Worcester is the head of the Church of England Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury, England.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brionne is a commune in the Eure department.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
A butler is a domestic worker in a large household.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Cambridge Castle, locally also known as Castle Mound, is located in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Canute IV (– 10 July 1086), later known as Canute the Holy (Knud IV den Hellige) or Saint Canute (Sankt Knud), was King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Cecilia of Normandy (or Cecily; c. 1056 – 30 July 1126) is thought to be the eldest daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders.
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
Chester Castle is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
Conan II of Rennes (c. 1033 – 11 December 1066) was Duke of Brittany, from 1040 to his death.
Constance of Normandy (between 1057 and 1061 - 13 August 1090) was a member of the House of Normandy who was, by marriage, Duchess of Brittany.
Reims, located in the north-east of modern France, hosted several councils or synods in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Count of Évreux was a French noble title and was named for the county of Évreux in Normandy.
The Count of Boulogne is a historical title in the kingdom of France.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
The Counts of Dreux were a noble family of France, who took their title from the chief stronghold of their domain, the château of Dreux, which lies near the boundary between Normandy and the Île-de-France.
This is a list of the counts of Eu, a French fief in the Middle Ages.
The County of Amiens (also: Amiénois) was a feudal state centred on the city of Amiens, northern France.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.
Cristina, daughter of Edward the Exile and Agatha, was the sister of Edgar Ætheling and Saint Margaret of Scotland, born in the 1040s.
The Danegeld ("Danish tax", literally "Dane tribute") was a tax raised to pay tribute to the Viking raiders to save a land from being ravaged.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
David Bates (born 30 April 1945) is a British historian of Britain and France during the period from the tenth century to the thirteenth century.
The Dives is a 105 km long river in the Pays d'Auge, Normandie, France.
Dol-de-Bretagne (Gallo: Dóu), cited in most historical records under its Breton name of Dol, is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine département in Brittany in northwestern France.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
Domfront is a former commune in the Orne department in north-western France.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
Donnchad mac Máel Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim;Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim is the Mediaeval Gaelic form. anglicised as Duncan II; c. 1060 – 12 November 1094) was king of Scots.
Eadnoth the Constable (died 1068) also known as Eadnoth the Staller, was an Anglo-Saxon landowner and steward to Edward the Confessor and King Harold II.
Eadric the Wild (or Eadric Silvaticus), also known as Wild Edric, Eadric Cild (or Child) and Edric the Forester, was an Anglo-Saxon magnate of the West Midlands who led English resistance to the Norman Conquest, active in 1068-70.
Ealdred (or Aldred; died 11 September 1069) was Abbot of Tavistock, Bishop of Worcester, and Archbishop of York in Anglo-Saxon England.
The Earls of East Anglia were governors of East Anglia during the 11th century.
The title of Earl of Hereford was created six times in the Peerage of England.
The peerage title Earl of Kent has been created eight times in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earl of Mercia was a title in the late Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Danish, and early Anglo-Norman period in England.
Earl of Norfolk is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England.
Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England.
Earl of Wessex is a title that has been created three times in British history, twice in the pre-Conquest Anglo-Saxon nobility of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Edgar Ætheling (also spelt Æþeling, Aetheling, Atheling or Etheling) or Edgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was the last male member of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree).
Edith of Wessex (1025 – 18 December 1075) was a Queen of England.
Edmund Ironside (c.990 – 30 November 1016), also known as Edmund II, was King of England from 23 April to 30 November 1016.
Edward Augustus Freeman (2 August 1823 – 16 March 1892) was an English historian, architectural artist, and Liberal politician during the late-19th-century heyday of William Gladstone, as well as a one-time candidate for Parliament.
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
Edward the Exile (1016 – 19 April 1057), also called Edward Ætheling, was the son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth.
Edwin (Old English: Ēadwine) (died 1071) was the elder brother of Morcar, Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgār, Earl of Mercia and grandson of Leofric, Earl of Mercia.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Emma of Normandy (c. 985 – 6 March 1052) was a queen consort of England, Denmark and Norway. She was the daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and his second wife, Gunnora. Through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready (1002–1016) and Cnut the Great (1017–1035), she became the Queen Consort of England, Denmark, and Norway. She was the mother of three sons, King Edward the Confessor, Alfred Ætheling, and King Harthacnut, as well as two daughters, Goda of England, and Gunhilda of Denmark. Even after her husbands' deaths Emma remained in the public eye, and continued to participate actively in politics. She is the central figure within the Encomium Emmae Reginae, a critical source for the history of early 11th-century English politics. As Catherine Karkov notes, Emma is one of the most visually represented early medieval queens.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Eustace II, (&ndash), also known as Eustace aux Gernons (with moustaches) Heather J. Tanner, ‘Eustace (II), count of Boulogne (d. c.1087)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST).
Exning is a village in Suffolk, England.
Falaise is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Fécamp Abbey (Abbaye de la Trinité de Fécamp) is a Benedictine abbey in Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France.
An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
Fulbert of Falaise (fl. 11th century) was the father of Herleva, mother of the illegitimate William the Conqueror, the 11th-century Duke of Normandy and King of England.
Fulk IV (in French Foulques IV) (1043–14 April 1109), called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death.
García II (1041/April 104322 March 1090), King of Galicia and Portugal, was the youngest of the three sons and heirs of Ferdinand I, King of Castile and León, and Sancha of León, whose Leonese inheritance included the lands García would be given.
Geoffrey de Montbray (Montbrai, Mowbray) (died 1093), bishop of Coutances (Constantiensis), also known as Geoffrey of Coutances, a Norman nobleman, trusted adviser of William the Conqueror and a great secular prelate, warrior and administrator.
Geoffrey II, called Martel ("the Hammer"), was Count of Anjou from 1040 to 1060.
Geoffrey III of Anjou (in French Geoffroy III d' Anjou) (1040–1096), called le Barbu ("the Bearded"), was count of Anjou 1060-68.
Geoffrey the Elder (died September 1100) was an Italo-Norman nobleman.
Gerberoy is a commune in the Oise department in northern France, in the old pays of Beauvaisis.
Gesta Normannorum Ducum (Deeds of the Norman Dukes) is a chronicle originally created by the monk William of Jumièges just before 1060.
Gilbert (or Giselbert) de Brionne, 2nd Count of Eu, 2nd Count of Brionne (&ndash), was an influential Norman Nobleman in the Duchy of Normandy in Northern France.
Godwin of Wessex (Godƿin; 100115 April 1053) was one of the most powerful earls in England under the Danish king Cnut the Great and his successors.
Gospatric or Cospatric (from the Cumbric "Servant of Saint Patrick"), (died after 1073), was Earl of Northumbria, or of Bernicia, and later lord of sizable estates around Dunbar.
The Gregorian Reforms were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, c. 1050–80, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy.
Gunnora (or Gunnor) (circa 936 – 5 Jan 1031) was a Duchess of Normandy and the wife of Richard I of Normandy.
Gyrth Godwinson (Old English: Gyrð Godƿinson) (1032 – 14 October 1066) was the fourth son of Earl Godwin, and thus a younger brother of Harold Godwinson.
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
Harold I (1016 – 17 March 1040), also known as Harold Harefoot, was King of England from 1035 to 1040.
The Harrying of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–70 to subjugate northern England.
Harthacnut (Hardeknud; "Tough-knot";Lawson, Harthacnut c. 1018 – 8 June 1042), sometimes referred to as Canute III, was King of Denmark from 1035 to 1042 and King of England from 1040 to 1042.
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.
Henry de Beaumont, (alias de Newburgh), 1st Earl of Warwick (died 20 June 1119) was a Norman nobleman who rose to great prominence in England.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry I (4 May 1008 – 4 August 1060) was King of the Franks from 1031 to his death.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Herbert II (died 9 March 1062) was Count of Maine from 1051 to 1062.
Hereford is a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England.
Hereward the Wake (pronounced /ˈhɛrɪwəd/) (c. 1035 – c.1072), (also known as Hereward the Outlaw or Hereward the Exile), was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman and a leader of local resistance to the Norman Conquest of England.
Herleva (1003 – c. 1050) was a Norman woman of the 11th century, known for three sons: William I of England "the Conqueror", an illegitimate son fathered by Robert I, Duke of Normandy; and Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain, who were both fathered by her husband Herluin de Conteville.
Herluin de Conteville (1001–1066), also sometimes listed as Herlwin of Conteville, was the stepfather of William the Conqueror, and the father of Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain, both of whom became prominent during William's reign.
The hide was an English unit of land measurement originally intended to represent the amount of land sufficient to support a household.
The House of Normandy is the usual designation for the family that were the Counts of Rouen, Dukes of Normandy and Kings of England which immediately followed the Norman conquest of England and lasted until the House of Plantagenet came to power in 1154.
In medieval Scandinavia, husmän (húskarlar, singular húskarl; also anglicised as housecarl huscarl (Old English form) and sometimes spelled huscarle or houscarl) were either non-servile manservants or household troops in personal service of someone, equivalent to a bodyguard to Scandinavian lords and kings.
Hubert II de Beaumont-au-Maine, also known as Hubert de Sainte-Suzanne, was a French Viscount of Beaumont and Maine, and later of Vendôme.
Hugh IV (died 25 March 1051) was Count of Maine from 1036 to 1051.
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.
Huntingdon Castle was situated in the town of Huntingdon in Cambridgeshire.
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Judith of Flanders (1030-35 to 5 March 1095) was, by her successive marriages to Tostig Godwinson and Welf I, Countess of Northumbria and Duchess of Bavaria.
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
La Ferté-Macé is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France, in the region of Normandy.
Lanfranc (1005 1010 – 24 May 1089) was a celebrated Italian jurist who renounced his career to become a Benedictine monk at Bec in Normandy. He served successively as prior of Bec Abbey and abbot of St Stephen in Normandy and then as archbishop of Canterbury in England, following its Conquest by William the Conqueror. He is also variously known as (Lanfranco di Pavia), (Lanfranc du Bec), and (Lanfrancus Cantuariensis).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Leofwine Godwinson (c. 1035 – 14 October 1066) was a younger brother of King Harold Godwinson, the fifth son of Earl Godwin.
Lincoln Castle is a major Norman castle constructed in Lincoln, England during the late 11th century by William the Conqueror on the site of a pre-existing Roman fortress.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
This is a list of rulers of the Duchy of Brittany.
Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus Olavsson; c. 1024 – 25 October 1047), better known as Magnus the Good (Old Norse: Magnús góði, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus den gode), was the King of Norway from 1035 and King of Denmark from 1042, ruling over both countries until his death in 1047.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).
Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093) was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093.
Mantes-la-Jolie (often informally called Mantes) is a commune based in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Matilda of Flanders (Mathilde; Machteld) (1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen of England and Duchess of Normandy by marriage to William the Conqueror, and sometime Regent of these realms during his absence.
Matilda of Scotland (c. 1080 – 1 May 1118), originally christened Edith, was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry I. She acted as regent of England in the absence of her spouse on several occasions.
Matthew Parker (6 August 1504 – 17 May 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575.
Mauger (or Malger according to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum) was a younger son of Richard II, duke of Normandy, and his second wife, Papia of Envermeu, near Dieppe.
Maurilius (c. 1000–1067) was a Norman Archbishop of Rouen from 1055 to 1067.
Montreuil or Montreuil-sur-Mer is a sub-prefecture in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Morcar (or Morkere) (Mōrcǣr) (died after 1087) was the son of Ælfgār (earl of Mercia) and brother of Ēadwine.
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.
The New Forest is an area of southern England which includes one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land, heathland and forest in the heavily populated south-east of England.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
The Norman yoke refers to the oppressive aspects of feudalism in England attributed to the impositions of William the Conqueror, his retainers and their descendants.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norwich Castle is a medieval royal fortification in the city of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk.
Nottingham Castle is a castle in Nottingham, England.
The Oath of Salisbury refers to an event in August 1086 when William I of England summoned his tenants-in-chief and "landowning men of any account to William I, 'The Conqueror'" to Old Sarum where they swore allegiance to him and to be faithful against all other men.
Odo of Bayeux (died 1097), Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was, for a time, second in power after the King of England.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl (Old French) dialects.
Orderic Vitalis (Ordericus Vitalis; 1075 –) was an English chronicler and Benedictine monk who wrote one of the great contemporary chronicles of 11th- and 12th-century Normandy and Anglo-Norman England.
Osbern the Steward, known in French as Osbern de Crépon († about 1040), was the Steward of two Dukes of Normandy and the father of William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford, one of William the Conqueror's closest counsellors.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.
Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the famous West Front.
Pevensey is a village and civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England.
Philip I (23 May 1052 – 29 July 1108), called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Pope Alexander II (1010/1015 – 21 April 1073), born Anselm of Baggio (Anselmo da Baggio), was Pope from 30 September 1061 to his death in 1073.
Pope Leo IX (21 June 1002 – 19 April 1054), born Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg, was Pope from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054.
A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.
Sir Richard William Southern, FBA (8 February 1912 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne – 6 February 2001 in Oxford), who published under the name R. W. Southern, was a noted English medieval historian, based at the University of Oxford.
Ralph de Gaël (otherwise Ralph de Guader, Radulf Waders or Ralph Wader) (before 1042 – c. 1096) was the Earl of East Anglia (Norfolk and Suffolk) and Lord of Gaël and Montfort (Seigneur de Gaël et Montfort).
Rémalard is a former commune in the Orne department in north-western France.
Richard fitz Gilbert (bef. 1035–), was a Norman lord who participated in the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and was styled "de Bienfaite", "de Clare", and of "Tonbridge" from his holdings.
Richard II (unknown – 28 August 1026), called the Good (French: Le Bon), was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora.
Richard III (997/1001 – 6 August 1027) was the Duke of Normandy who reigned from August 1026 to his death.
Richard of Normandy (c. 1054 to between 1069 and 1075) was the second son of William the Conqueror, King of England, and Matilda of Flanders.
Richilde, Countess of Mons and Hainaut (– 15 March 1086), was a ruling countess of Hainaut from c. 1050 until 1076, in co-regency with her husband Baldwin VI, Count of Flanders and son Baldwin II, Count of Hainaut.
The River Ribble runs through North Yorkshire and Lancashire in Northern England.
The River Tees is in northern England.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The River Tweed, or Tweed Water (Abhainn Thuaidh, Watter o Tweid), is a river long that flows east across the Border region in Scotland and northern England.
Robert Curthose (3 February 1134), sometimes called Robert II or Robert III, was the Duke of Normandy from 1087 until 1106 and an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England.
Robert fitz Wimarc (died before 1075, Theydon Mount, Ongar, Essex) was a kinsman of both Edward the Confessor and William of Normandy, and was present at Edward's death bed.
Robert Guiscard (– 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily.
Robert I of Flanders (–1093), known as Robert the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to his death in 1093.
Robert the Magnificent (le Magnifique;He was also, although erroneously, said to have been called 'Robert the Devil' (le Diable). Robert I was never known by the nickname 'the devil' in his lifetime. 'Robert the Devil' was a fictional character who was confused with Robert I, Duke of Normandy sometime near the end of the Middle Ages. See: François Neveux, A Brief History of the Normans, trans. Howard Curtis (Constable & Robinson, Ltd. London, 2008), p. 97 & n. 5. 22 June 1000 – 1–3 July 1035), was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death in 1035.
Robert II or Robert the Dane, Archbishop of Rouen (bef. 989–1037),At that point in time the marriage of a secular Bishop was recognized, if not the usual practice.
Robert de Bellême (– after 1130), seigneur de Bellême (or Belèsme), seigneur de Montgomery, viscount of the Hiémois, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury and Count of Ponthieu, was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, and one of the most prominent figures in the competition for the succession to England and Normandy between the sons of William the Conqueror.
Robert of Jumièges (died between 1052 and 1055) was the first Norman Archbishop of Canterbury.
Robert FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (before 1100 – 31 October 1147David Crouch, ‘Robert, first earl of Gloucester (b. before 1100, d. 1147)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006) (alias Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England.
Robert, Count of Mortain, 2nd Earl of Cornwall (–) was a Norman nobleman and the half-brother (on his mother's side) of King William the Conqueror.
Roger de Beaumont (c. 1015 – 29 November 1094), feudal lord (French: seigneur) of Beaumont-le-Roger and of Pont-Audemer in Normandy, was a powerful Norman nobleman and close advisor to William the Conqueror.
Roger de Breteuil, 2nd Earl of Hereford (1056 – after 1087), succeeded in 1071 to the earldom of Hereford and the English estate of his father, William Fitz-Osbern.
Roger de Montgomery (died 1094), also known as Roger the Great de Montgomery, was the first Earl of Shrewsbury, and Earl of Arundel, Sussex.
Roger I of Mortemer (Roger de Mortemer, Roger de Mortimer, Roger Mortimer) (bef. 990 Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 39, Mortimer p. 130 - aft. 1078), founded the abbey of St. Victor en CauxBurke, J. A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerages of England, 1831, p. 371 in the Pays de Caux of Upper Normandy as early as 1074 CE.
Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; Rollon; 846 – 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen (Latin: Archidioecesis Rothomagensis; French: Archidiocèse de Rouen) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayeux and Lisieux (Latin: Dioecesis Baiocensis et Lexoviensis; French: Diocèse de Bayeux et Lisieux) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Le Mans (Latin: Dioecesis Cenomanensis; French: Diocèse du Mans) is a Roman Catholic diocese of France.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood", is an area of land with different definitions in England, Wales, and Scotland.
A royal household or imperial household in ancient and medieval monarchies, and papal household for popes, formed the basis for the general government of the country as well as providing for the needs of the sovereign and his relations.
The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animal's back by a girth.
Saint David (Dewi Sant; Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.
Saint Margaret of Scotland (Scots: Saunt Magret, c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), also known as Margaret of Wessex, was an English princess and a Scottish queen.
Saint-Valery-sur-Somme is a commune in the Somme department.
Sancho II (1036/1038 – 7 October 1072), called the Strong (el Fuerte), was King of Castile (1065–72), Galicia (1071–72) and León (1072).
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
The formation of a shield wall (Scildweall or Bordweall in Old English, Skjaldborg in Old Norse) is a military tactic that was common in many cultures in the Pre-Early Modern warfare age.
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.
The siege of the castle at Saint-Suzanne took place in a four-year period from 1083 to 1086, when the forces of William the Conqueror attempted to quell a rebellion led by Hubert de Beaumont-au-Maine and his liege lords against the rule of William.
The Siege of Thimert (1058–60) was the last military action in the war between King Henry I of France and Duke William II of Normandy.
Simon de Crépy (c. 1047 – 1081) was Count of Amiens, of the Vexin and of Valois from 1074 until 1077.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
Southwark is a district of Central London and part of the London Borough of Southwark.
St Davids or St David's (Tyddewi,, "David's house") is a city, a community (full name St David's and the Cathedral Close) and a parish in Pembrokeshire, Wales, lying on the River Alun.
Stafford Castle is an ancient Grade II listed building that lies two miles to the west of Stafford, just off the A518 Stafford-to-Newport Road.
Stephen II Henry (in French, Étienne Henri, in Medieval French, Estienne Henri; – 19 May 1102), Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Gersent of Le Mans.
Stigand (died 1072) was an Anglo-Saxon churchman in pre-Norman Conquest England who became Archbishop of Canterbury.
In English law, subinfeudation is the practice by which tenants, holding land under the king or other superior lord, carved out new and distinct tenures in their turn by sub-letting or alienating a part of their lands.
Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
Sweyn II Estridsson (Sveinn Ástríðarson, Svend Estridsen) (– 28 April 1076) was King of Denmark from 1047 until his death in 1076.
Sybilla of Conversano (d. 18 March 1103) was a wealthy Italian heiress and Duchess of Normandy as the wife of Robert Curthose.
The term thegn (thane or thayn in Shakespearean English), from Old English þegn, ðegn, "servant, attendant, retainer", "one who serves", is commonly used to describe either an aristocratic retainer of a king or nobleman in Anglo-Saxon England, or, as a class term, the majority of the aristocracy below the ranks of ealdormen and high-reeves.
Thimert-Gâtelles is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France.
Thomas of Bayeux (died 1100) was Archbishop of York from 1070 until 1100.
Tillières-sur-Avre is a commune of the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.
Tostig Godwinson (1026 – 25 September 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon Earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold Godwinson.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Abernethy was signed at the Scottish village of Abernethy in 1072 where king Malcolm III of Scotland paid homage to William I, King of England, acknowledging William as his feudal overlord.
Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.
The Vita Ædwardi Regis qui apud Westmonasterium Requiescit (Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster) or simply Vita Ædwardi Regis (Life of King Edward) is a historical manuscript completed by an anonymous author 1067 and commissioned by Queen Edith, wife of King Edward the Confessor.
Wallingford is an ancient market town and civil parish in the upper Thames Valley in England.
Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville, Normandy (a.k.a. 'Giffard of Barbastre'), was a Norman baron, a Tenant-in-chief in England, a Christian knight who fought against the Saracens in Spain during the Reconquista and was one of the 15 or so known companions of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
The Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross and St Lawrence is the parish church of the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northumbria (d. 31 May 1076) was the last of the Anglo-Saxon earls and the only English aristocrat to be executed during the reign of William I.
Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from an original built by William the Conqueror in 1068.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The White Tower is a central tower, the old keep, at the Tower of London.
Whitsun (also Whitsunday or Whit Sunday) is the name used especially in Britain and Ireland, and throughout the world among Anglicans and Methodists, for the Christian festival of Pentecost, the seventh Sunday after Easter, which commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Christ's disciples (Acts 2).
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, Lord of Lewes, Seigneur de Varennes (died 1088), was a Norman nobleman created Earl of Surrey under William II Rufus.
William FitzOsbern (c. 1020 – 22 February 1071), Lord of Breteuil, in Normandy, was a relative and close counsellor of William the Conqueror and one of the great magnates of early Norman England.
William II (Old Norman: Williame; – 2 August 1100), the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland.
William of Jumièges (Guillaume de Jumièges) was a contemporary of the events of 1066, and one of the earliest writers on the subject of the Norman conquest of England.
William of Malmesbury (Willelmus Malmesbiriensis) was the foremost English historian of the 12th century.
William of Poitiers (1020 1090) was a Frankish priest of Norman origin and chaplain of Duke William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) (Guillaume le Conquerant), for whom he chronicled the Norman Conquest of England in his Gesta VVillelmi ducis Normannorum et regis Anglorum ("The Deeds of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England") or Gesta Guillelmi II ducis Normannorum.
William Peverell (c. 1040 – c. 1115, Latinised to Gulielmus Piperellus), was a Norman knight granted lands in England following the Norman Conquest.
William Walcher (died 14 May 1080) was the bishop of Durham from 1071,Fryde, et al.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
Wulfstan (c. 1008 – 20 January 1095) was Bishop of Worcester from 1062 to 1095.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
York Castle in the city of York, England, is a fortified complex comprising, over the last nine centuries, a sequence of castles, prisons, law courts and other buildings on the south side of the River Foss.
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