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William the Silent

Index William the Silent

William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. [1]

272 relations: Act of Abjuration, Adolf van Nieuwenaar, Adriaen Thomasz Key, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Alkmaar, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, Amsterdam, Anabaptism, Anna of Eppstein-Königstein, Anna of Saxony, Anna of Saxony, Landgravine of Hesse, Anna van Egmont, António, Prior of Crato, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Antwerp, Arlay, Éléonore de Bourbon, Balthasar Gérard, Baron, Battle of Heiligerlee (1568), Battle of Jemmingen, Battle of Mookerheyde, Bayonne, Bütgenbach, Beeldenstorm, Beilstein, Hesse, Besançon, Bodo VIII, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Bois de Vincennes, Breda, Brielle, Brussels, Buren, Calvinism, Captain (armed forces), Captain general, Catherine de' Medici, Catholic Church, Cavalry, Chalon-Arlay, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charlotte of Bourbon, Charlotte Stanley, Countess of Derby, Civilization (series), Civilization III: Conquests, Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword, Civilization V: Gods & Kings, Claude de Berlaymont, Claude de La Trémoille, Coat of arms, ..., Cognatic kinship, Compromise of Nobles, Council of State (Netherlands), Countess Anna of Nassau, Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau, Countess Charlotte Brabantina of Nassau, Countess Charlotte Flandrina of Nassau, Countess Elisabeth of Nassau, Countess Emilia Antwerpiana of Nassau, Countess Emilia of Nassau, Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau, Countess Maria of Nassau (1556–1616), Counts of Vianden, County of Buren, County of Holland, County of Katzenelnbogen, County of Loon, County of Nassau, County of Stolberg, County of Zeeland, Cuijk, Dasburg, Declaration of independence, Delft, Deventer, Diest, Diez, Germany, Dillenburg, Duchy of Żagań, Duchy of Brabant, Dutch Republic, Dutch Revolt, Edict of 1577, Eighty Years' War, Electoral Palatinate, Elizabeth I of England, Engelbert I of Nassau, Enkhuizen, European wars of religion, Father of the Nation, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Flag of the Netherlands, Flanders, France, Franche-Comté, Francis, Duke of Anjou, Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, Frederick Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Landsberg, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Frederick I of Prussia, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, Frederick V of the Palatinate, French Fury, Gaspard II de Coligny, Geertruidenberg, George de Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg, George I of Great Britain, Germany, Geuzen, Grave, Netherlands, Groningen (province), Handgun, Hanged, drawn and quartered, Head of state, Heinsberg, Hendrick de Keyser, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne, Henry II of France, Henry III of France, Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse, Herbert H. Rowen, Herstal, Hesse, Hof van Holland, Holland, Holy Roman Empire, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, House of Habsburg, House of La Marck, House of Mansfeld, House of Nassau, House of Orange-Nassau, House of Schwarzburg, House of Stolberg, Houtrijk en Polanen, Huguenots, Huygens Institute for the History of the Netherlands, Iconoclasm, IJsselstein, Inquisition of the Netherlands, Italian War of 1551–1559, James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Jan IV of Nassau, Jean de Ligne, Duke of Arenberg, Jean Taffin, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Johann V of Nassau-Vianden-Dietz, Johanna van Polanen, John II of Loon, John Lothrop Motley, John of Austria, Juan de Jáuregui (assassin), Juliana of Stolberg, Justinus van Nassau, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Klundert, Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Leerdam, Legitimacy (family law), Leiden, Leiden University, Leuven, Lingen, Germany, Lisa Jardine, List of French monarchs, List of governors of the Habsburg Netherlands, List of minor planets: 12001–13000, List of monarchs of the Netherlands, List of Portuguese monarchs, List of rulers of Württemberg, Lord, Lords of Eppstein, Lordship of Frisia, Lordship of Utrecht, Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse, Louis of Nassau, Louise de Coligny, Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga, Lutheranism, Luxembourg, Manuel, Hereditary Prince of Portugal, Margaret of Parma, Maria of Loon-Heinsberg, Marquess, Marquis of Veere and Flushing, Mary II of England, Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Maurice, Prince of Orange, Maximiliaan van Egmond, Maximilian of Burgundy, Maximilien de Hénin, 3rd Count of Bossu, Mechelen, Mennonites, Mercenary, Meuse, Middelburg, Monarchy of the Netherlands, Monastery, Mons, Montigny-Montfort, Museum Het Prinsenhof, Naaldwijk, Namur, National anthem, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Nieuwe Kerk (Delft), Nobility, Nozeroy, Order of the Black Eagle, Order of the Golden Fleece, Outlaw, Pacification of Ghent, Patrilineality, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Peter Paul Rubens, Petrus Johannes Blok, Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn, Philip II of Spain, Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, Philip of Noircarmes, Philip William, Prince of Orange, Philipp I, Count of Katzenelnbogen, Philipp Ludwig II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg, Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Prince of Orange, Principality of Orange, Privateer, Protestantism, René of Chalon, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Roermond, Rombertus van Uylenburgh, Rubens family, Rutgers University, Sack of Antwerp, Saxony, Seventeen Provinces, Siege of Haarlem, Solms-Braunfels, Spanish Netherlands, St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, St. Vith, Stadtholder, States General of the Netherlands, Steenbergen, Ten Commandments, Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours, Union of Arras, Union of Utrecht, Utrecht (province), Veere, Vianden, Viglius, Viscount, Vlissingen, Warneton, Belgium, Westminster Abbey, Wheellock, Wilhelmus, Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, Willemstad, North Brabant, William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, William II, Prince of Orange, William III of England, William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, William the Silent (statue), Zeeland, Zutphen. Expand index (222 more) »

Act of Abjuration

The Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, literally 'placard of abjuration'), is de facto the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands from Spain in 1581, during the Dutch Revolt.

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Adolf van Nieuwenaar

Adolf van Nieuwenaar, Count of Limburg and Moers (also: Adolf von Neuenahr) (c. 1545 – 18 October 1589) was a statesman and soldier, who was stadtholder of Overijssel, Guelders and Utrecht for the States-General of the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War.

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Adriaen Thomasz Key

Adriaen Thomasz Key (c. 1544, Antwerp – c. 1599, Antwerp), was a Flemish Renaissance portrait painter.

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Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese (Alessandro Farnese, Alejandro Farnesio) (27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was an Italian noble who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592.

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Alkmaar

Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland.

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Amalia of Solms-Braunfels

Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (31 August 1602, Braunfels – 8 September 1675, The Hague), was Princess consort of Orange by marriage to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange.

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Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Anabaptism

Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.

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Anna of Eppstein-Königstein

Anna of Eppstein-Königstein (1481 in Königstein – 7 August 1538 in Stolberg) was the daughter of Philip I of Eppstein-Königstein and his wife, Louise de la Marck.

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Anna of Saxony

Anna of Saxony (23 December 1544 – 18 December 1577) was the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse.

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Anna of Saxony, Landgravine of Hesse

Anna of Saxony (5 June 1420 – 17 September 1462, Spangenberg) was a princess of Saxony and by marriage landgravine of Hesse.

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Anna van Egmont

Anna van Egmont (March 1533 – 24 March 1558) was a wealthy Dutch heiress who became the first wife of William the Silent, Prince of Orange.

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António, Prior of Crato

António, Prior of Crato (153126 August 1595; sometimes called The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal and claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 dynastic crisis.

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Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (20 August 151721 September 1586), Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century".

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Arlay

Arlay is a commune in the Jura department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Éléonore de Bourbon

Éléonore de Bourbon (30 April 1587 – 20 January 1619) was the daughter of Henri I de Bourbon and his second wife Charlotte Catherine de la Tremoille.

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Balthasar Gérard

Balthasar Gérard (alternative spellings Gerards or Gerardts; c. 1557 – 14 July 1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William I of Orange (William the Silent).

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Baron

Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.

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Battle of Heiligerlee (1568)

Not to be confused with the earlier Battle of Heiligerlee (1536) The Battle of Heiligerlee (Heiligerlee, Groningen, 23 May 1568) was fought between Dutch rebels and the Spanish army of Friesland.

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Battle of Jemmingen

After the Battle of Heiligerlee, the Dutch rebel leader Louis of Nassau (brother of William the Silent) failed to capture the city Groningen.

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Battle of Mookerheyde

In the Battle of Mookerheyde, Spanish forces defeated Dutch forces composed of German mercenaries on 14 April 1574 during the Eighty Years' War near the village Mook and the river Meuse not far from Nijmegen in Gelderland.

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Bayonne

Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

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Bütgenbach

Bütgenbach (Butgenbach) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège.

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Beeldenstorm

Beeldenstorm in Dutch, roughly translatable to "statue storm", or Bildersturm in German ("image/statue storm"), also the Great Iconoclasm or Iconoclastic Fury, is a term used for outbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century.

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Beilstein, Hesse

Beilstein is a town in the German municipality Greifenstein, in the state Hesse.

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Besançon

Besançon (French and Arpitan:; archaic Bisanz, Vesontio) is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

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Bodo VIII, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode

Count Bodo VIII of Stolberg-Wernigerode (nicknamed the Blissful; 4 January 1467 − 22 June 1538) was Count of Stolberg and Hohnstein and Lord of Wernigerode from 1511 until his death.

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Bois de Vincennes

The Bois de Vincennes, located on the eastern edge of Paris, is the largest public park in the city.

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Breda

Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.

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Brielle

Brielle, also called Den Briel (Brill in English) is a town, municipality and historic seaport in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, on the north side of the island of Voorne-Putten, at the mouth of the New Maas.

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Brussels

Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Buren

Buren is a town and municipality in the Betuwe region of the Netherlands.

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Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Captain general

Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a gubernatorial title.

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Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Chalon-Arlay

This page is a list of the lords of Chalon-Arlay (in the county of Burgundy) and the principality of Orange. The lords of Chalons and Arlay were a cadet branch of the ruling house of the county of Burgundy, the Anscarids or House of Ivrea.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Charlotte of Bourbon

Charlotte of Bourbon (1546/1547 – 5 May 1582) was a Princess consort of Orange as the third spouse of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish.

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Charlotte Stanley, Countess of Derby

Charlotte Stanley, Countess of Derby (December 1599– March 31st, 1664), born Charlotte de La Trémoille, is famous for her robust defence of Lathom House during the English Civil War.

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Civilization (series)

Civilization is a series of turn-based strategy video games, its first release in 1991.

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Civilization III: Conquests

Civilization III: Conquests is the second expansion for Civilization III.

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Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword

Sid Meier's Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword is the second expansion pack of the turn-based strategy video game Civilization IV.

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Civilization V: Gods & Kings

Sid Meier's Civilization V: Gods & Kings is the first official expansion pack for the turn-based strategy video game Civilization V. It was released on June 19, 2012 in North America, and on June 22, 2012 in the rest of the world.

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Claude de Berlaymont

Claude de Berlaymont (or Claudius van Barlaymont), lord of Haultpenne (ca. 1550 – 14 July 1587) was a Flemish military commander in Spain's Army of Flanders during the Eighty Years' War.

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Claude de La Trémoille

Claude de La Trémoille, 2nd Duke of Thouars (1566 – 25 October 1604) was a sixteenth-century French nobleman of the La Tremoille family.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Cognatic kinship

Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother.

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Compromise of Nobles

The Compromise of Nobles ('''Eedverbond der Edelen'''.; '''Compromis des Nobles'''.) was a covenant of members of the lesser nobility in the Habsburg Netherlands who came together to submit a petition to the Regent Margaret of Parma on 5 April 1566, with the objective of obtaining a moderation of the placards against heresy in the Netherlands.

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Council of State (Netherlands)

The Council of State (Raad van State) is a constitutionally established advisory body in the Netherlands to the government and States General that officially consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic or military experience.

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Countess Anna of Nassau

Countess Anna of Nassau (5 November 1563 – 13 June 1588) was a daughter of William the Silent and his second wife, Anna of Saxony.

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Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau

Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau (31 July 1578 – 12 April 1648) was a countess of Hanau-Münzenberg by marriage to Philip Louis II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg, and regent of Hanau-Münzenberg from 1612 until 1626.

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Countess Charlotte Brabantina of Nassau

Countess Charlotte Brabantina of Nassau (Antwerp, 17 September 1580 – Château-Renard, August 1631) was the fifth daughter of William the Silent and his third spouse, Charlotte of Bourbon.

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Countess Charlotte Flandrina of Nassau

Countess Charlotte Flandrina of Nassau (Antwerp, 18 August 1579 – St.Croix (near Poitiers), 16 April 1640) was the fourth daughter of William the Silent and his third spouse Charlotte of Bourbon.

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Countess Elisabeth of Nassau

Countess Elisabeth of Nassau (Elisabeth Flandrika) (Middelburg, 26 April 1577 – Sedan, 3 September 1642) was the second daughter of prince William of Orange and his third spouse Charlotte of Bourbon.

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Countess Emilia Antwerpiana of Nassau

Countess Emilia Antwerpiana of Nassau (Antwerp, 9 December 1581 - Landsberg, 28 September 1657) was the sixth and youngest daughter of William the Silent and his third wife, Charlotte of Bourbon.

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Countess Emilia of Nassau

Countess Emilia of Nassau (10 April 1569 – 16 March 1629) was the third and youngest daughter of William the Silent and his second wife Anna of Saxony.

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Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau

Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau (31 March 1576 in Delft – 15 March 1644 in Königsberg) was a countess of the Palatinate by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, and regent during the minority of her son from 1610 until 1611.

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Countess Maria of Nassau (1556–1616)

Countess Maria of Nassau (7 February 1556, Breda – 10 October 1616, Buren) was the second daughter of William the Silent by his first wife Anna of Egmond and Buren.

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Counts of Vianden

The Counts of Vianden, ancestors of the House of Orange-Nassau, were associated with the castle of Vianden (Vianden Castle) in Luxembourg.

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County of Buren

The Buren County was a territory situated in what is now the Dutch province of Gelderland.

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County of Holland

The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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County of Katzenelnbogen

The County of Katzenelnbogen (named after Chatti Melibokus) was an immediate state of the Holy Roman Empire.

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County of Loon

The County of Loon was a province of the ancien regime Holy Roman Empire, which by 1190 came under the overlordship of the Prince-bishop of Liège.

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County of Nassau

The County of Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later part of the German Confederation.

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County of Stolberg

The County of Stolberg (Grafschaft Stolberg) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire located in the Harz mountain range in present-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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County of Zeeland

The County of Zeeland (Graafschap Zeeland) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries.

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Cuijk

Cuijk is a municipality and a town in upper southeastern Netherlands of pre-historic origin.

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Dasburg

Dasburg is a municipality in the district of Bitburg-Prüm, in Rhineland-Palatinate, western Germany.

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Declaration of independence

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.

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Delft

Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Deventer

Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.

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Diest

Diest is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant.

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Diez, Germany

Diez an der Lahn is a town in Germany's Rhein-Lahn district in Rhineland-Palatinate, on the borders of Hesse.

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Dillenburg

Dillenburg is a town in Hesse's Gießen region in Germany.

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Duchy of Żagań

The Duchy of Żagań (Księstwo Żagańskie, Zaháňské knížectví) or Duchy of Sagan (Herzogtum Sagan) was one of the duchies of Silesia ruled by the Silesian Piasts.

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Duchy of Brabant

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Dutch Revolt

The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.

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Edict of 1577

The Edict of 1577 (also known as the Perpetual Edict or the Eternal Edict) was signed on 12 February 1577 in Marche-en-Famenne by the new Spanish governor-general of the Habsburg Netherlands, Don John of Austria.

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Eighty Years' War

The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Electoral Palatinate

The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Engelbert I of Nassau

Engelbert I of Nassau (in Dillenburg3 May 1442, in Breda) was a son of Count Johan I of Nassau and Countess Margaretha of the Marck, daughter of Count Adolph II of the Marck.

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Enkhuizen

Enkhuizen is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia.

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European wars of religion

The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged mainly in central and western, but also northern Europe (especially Ireland) in the 16th and 17th century.

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Father of the Nation

The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.

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Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR (29 October 150711 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat.

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Flag of the Netherlands

The flag of the Netherlands (Vlag van Nederland) is a horizontal tricolor of red, white, and blue.

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Flanders

Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franche-Comté

Franche-Comté (literally "Free County", Frainc-Comtou dialect: Fraintche-Comtè; Franche-Comtât; Freigrafschaft; Franco Condado) is a former administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France.

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Francis, Duke of Anjou

Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (Hercule François; 18 March 1555 – 10 June 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.

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Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne

Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon (22 October 1605 – 9 August 1652) was ruler of the independent principality of Sedan, and a general in the French royal army.

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Frederick Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Landsberg

Frederick Casimir (Friedrich Kasimir) (10 June 1585 – 30 September 1645) was the Duke of Landsberg from 1604 until 1645.

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Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange

Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch (29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647), was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647.

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Frederick I of Prussia

Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).

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Frederick IV, Elector Palatine

Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (Kurfürst Friedrich IV.; 5 March 1574 – 19 September 1610), only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous" (Friedrich Der Aufrichtige; French: Frédéric IV le juste).

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Frederick V of the Palatinate

Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.

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French Fury

The "French Fury" was a failed attempt by Francis, Duke of Anjou, to conquer the city of Antwerp by surprise on 17 January 1583.

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Gaspard II de Coligny

Gaspard de Coligny, Seigneur de Châtillon (16 February 1519 – 24 August 1572) was a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and a close friend and advisor to King Charles IX of France.

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Geertruidenberg

Geertruidenberg is a city and municipality in the province North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands.

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George de Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg

George de Lalaing count Rennenberg (c. 1550 – 23 July 1581), was stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel in the service of Philip II of Spain from 1577 to 1581.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Geuzen

Geuzen (French: Les Gueux, English: the Beggars) was a name assumed by the confederacy of Calvinist Dutch nobles, who from 1566 opposed Spanish rule in the Netherlands.

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Grave, Netherlands

Grave (formerly De Graaf) is a municipality in the Dutch province North Brabant.

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Groningen (province)

Groningen (Gronings: Grunn; Grinslân) is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands.

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Handgun

A handgun is a short-barreled firearm designed to be fired with only one hand.

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Hanged, drawn and quartered

To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Heinsberg

Heinsberg is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Hendrick de Keyser

Hendrick de Keyser (15 May 1565 – 15 May 1621) was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, Netherlands, who was instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism in Amsterdam.

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Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne (titular Duke of Bouillon, jure uxoris, comte de Montfort et Negrepelisse, vicomte de Turenne, Castillon, et Lanquais) (28 September 1555 – 25 March 1623) was a member of the powerful (then Huguenot) House of La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince of Sedan and a marshal of France.

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Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, often called simply Turenne (11 September 161127 July 1675) was a French Marshal General and the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family.

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Henry II of France

Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.

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Henry III of France

Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.

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Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse

Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse, called "the Rich" (15 October 1440Morby, John. Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 135. – 13 January 1483) was the second son of Louis I of Hesse and his wife Anna of Saxony.

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Herbert H. Rowen

Herbert Harvey Rowen (22 October 1916 in Brooklyn, New York – 31 March 1999 in Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania), was a noted American historian of Early Modern Europe and "arguably the most important English-speaking historian of the Dutch Republic since John Lothrop Motley.".

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Herstal

Herstal, formerly known as Heristal, or Héristal, is a municipality of Belgium.

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Hesse

Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.

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Hof van Holland

The Hof van Holland, Zeeland en West-Friesland (usually shortened to Hof van Holland in the literature, and translated in English literature as "(High) Court of Holland") was the High Court of the provinces of Holland (including West Friesland) and Zeeland, instituted as a separate entity of the government of the Counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1428, under the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands, and continued with little change under the Dutch Republic, Batavian Republic, and the Kingdom of Holland, until its dissolution in 1811 by the First French Empire.

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Holland

Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe

Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe was a municipality in the Dutch province of North Brabant.

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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.

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House of La Marck

La Marck, original German name von der Mar(c)k, was a noble family, which from about 1200 appeared as the Counts of Mark.

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House of Mansfeld

The House of Mansfeld was a princely German house, which took its name from the town of Mansfeld in the present-day state of Saxony-Anhalt.

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House of Nassau

The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe.

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House of Orange-Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

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House of Schwarzburg

Schwarzburg is one of the oldest noble families of Thuringia.

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House of Stolberg

The princes and counts of Stolberg are members of a large German family of the higher aristocracy (Hoher Adel) in the Holy Roman Empire.

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Houtrijk en Polanen

Houtrijk en Polanen is a former municipality in the Dutch province of North Holland.

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Huguenots

Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.

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Huygens Institute for the History of the Netherlands

The Huygens Institute for the History of the Netherlands was formed on January 1, 2011 through a merger of the Institute of Dutch History ('Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis', ING) a research institute of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the Huygens Instituut of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded in 1808).

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Iconoclasm

IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.

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IJsselstein

IJsselstein is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht.

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Inquisition of the Netherlands

The Inquisition of the Netherlands was an extension of the Spanish Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands, established during the reign of Charles V. Because the idea of an Inquisition was uncongenial to the Flemish temperament, the process of introduction was a slow and gradual one from the onset.

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Italian War of 1551–1559

The Italian War of 1551 (1551–1559), sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War and the Last Italian War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded Francis I to the throne, declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs.

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James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray

James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. 1531 – 23 January 1570) a member of the House of Stewart as the illegitimate son of King James V, was Regent of Scotland for his half-nephew, the infant King James VI, from 1567 until his assassination in 1570.

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Jan IV of Nassau

Count Jan (Johann) IV of Nassau (1 August 1410, Dillenburg3 February 1475, Breda) was Count of Nassau, Dietz and Dillenburg.

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Jean de Ligne, Duke of Arenberg

Jean de Ligne, Duke of Arenberg (ca. 1525 – 1568) was Baron of Barbançon, founder of the House of Arenberg and stadtholder of the Dutch provinces of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel from 1549 until his death.

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Jean Taffin

Jean Taffin (1529–1602), was a Dutch Walloon minister and theologian.

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Johan van Oldenbarnevelt

Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Lord of Berkel en Rodenrijs (1600), Gunterstein (1611) and Bakkum (1613) (14 September 1547 – 13 May 1619) was a Dutch statesman who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain.

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Johann V of Nassau-Vianden-Dietz

Johann V of Nassau-Vianden-Dietz (Breda, 9 November 1455 – Dillenburg, 30 July 1516) was count of Nassau (in Siegen, Dillenburg, Hadamar and Herborn), Vianden and Diez, and Lord of Breda.

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Johanna van Polanen

Johanna van Polanen (also spelled as Jehenne; 10 January 1392 – 15 May 1445 in Breda) was a Dutch noblewoman.

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John II of Loon

John II (Johann II), (d. 1438), Lord of Jülich, Heinsberg and Löwenberg (Herr zu Julich und Heinsberg), son of Godfrey de Heinsberg, Count of Looz, and Philippa of Jülich, daughter of William V, Duke of Jülich, and Joanna of Hainaut.

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John Lothrop Motley

John Lothrop Motley (April 15, 1814 – May 29, 1877) was an American author, best known for his two popular histories The Rise of the Dutch Republic and The United Netherlands.

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John of Austria

John of Austria (Juan, Johann; 24 February 1547 – 1 October 1578) was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, King Philip II of Spain, and is best known for his role as the admiral of the Holy Alliance fleet at the Battle of Lepanto.

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Juan de Jáuregui (assassin)

Juan de Jáuregui (1562 – March 18, 1582) was killed trying to assassinate Prince William I of Orange.

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Juliana of Stolberg

Juliana, Countess of Stolberg-Wernigerode (15 February 1506 in Stolberg, Saxony-Anhalt – 18 June 1580) was the mother of William the Silent, the leader of the successful Dutch Revolt against the Spanish in the 16th century.

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Justinus van Nassau

Justinus van Nassau (1559 – 1631) was the only extramarital child of William the Silent.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Klundert

Klundert (population as of 2016: 7,328) is a city in the Dutch province of North Brabant.

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Lamoral, Count of Egmont

Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Prince of Gavere (November 18, 1522 – June 5, 1568) was a general and statesman in the Spanish Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands.

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Leerdam

Leerdam (population: in) is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland.

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Legitimacy (family law)

Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.

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Leiden

Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Leiden University

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.

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Leuven

Leuven or Louvain (Louvain,; Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium.

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Lingen, Germany

Lingen is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Lisa Jardine

Lisa Anne Jardine (née Bronowski; 12 April 1944 – 25 October 2015) was a British historian of the early modern period.

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List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

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List of governors of the Habsburg Netherlands

The Governor (Landvoogd) or Governor-General (Gouverneur-Generaal) ruled the Habsburg Netherlands as a representative of the Dukes of Burgundy (until 1506), the Kings of Castile (1506-1598; 1621-1706), and the Archdukes of Austria (1716-1794).

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List of minor planets: 12001–13000

#fefefe | 12448 Mr.

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List of monarchs of the Netherlands

This is a list of monarchs of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koningen der Nederlanden).

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List of Portuguese monarchs

The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

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List of rulers of Württemberg

This article lists the Counts, Dukes, Electors, and Kings who ruled over different territories named Württemberg from the beginning of the County of Württemberg in the 11th century to the end of the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1918.

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Lord

Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.

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Lords of Eppstein

The Lords of Eppstein were a family of German nobility in the Middle Ages.

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Lordship of Frisia

The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland (Hearlikheid Fryslân, Heerlijkheid Friesland) was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands.

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Lordship of Utrecht

The Lordship of Utrecht was formed in 1528 when Charles V of Habsburg conquered the Bishopric of Utrecht, during the Guelders Wars.

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Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse

Louis I of Hesse (Ludwig) (6 February 1402, Spangenberg - 17 January 1458), called "the Peaceful" was Landgrave of Lower Hesse (Hesse) from 1413-1458.

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Louis of Nassau

Louis of Nassau (Dutch: Lodewijk van Nassau, January 10, 1538 – April 14, 1574) was the third son of William, Count of Nassau and Juliana of Stolberg, and the younger brother of Prince William of Orange Nassau.

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Louise de Coligny

Louise de Coligny (23 September 1555 – 9 November 1620) was a Princess consort of Orange as the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent.

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Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga

Luis de Requeséns y Zúñiga also known as Luis de Zúñiga y Requeséns (1528 – 5 March 1576) was a Spanish politician and diplomat.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Manuel, Hereditary Prince of Portugal

Manuel of Portugal (c. 1568–22 June 1638) was the illegitimate son of António, Prior of Crato, pretender to the Portuguese throne during the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis.

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Margaret of Parma

Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 – 18 January 1586) was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582.

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Maria of Loon-Heinsberg

Maria of Loon-Heinsberg (1426 – 20 April 1502) was the daughter of John II of Loon, Lord of Jülich, Heinsberg and Löwenberg.

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Marquess

A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.

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Marquis of Veere and Flushing

Marquis of Veere and Flushing (Markies van Veere en Vlissingen) is one of the titles of the kings and queens of the Netherlands.

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Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.

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Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands)

Mary of Austria (15 September 1505 – 18 October 1558), also known as Mary of Hungary, was queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of King Louis II, and was later Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Maurice, Prince of Orange

Maurice of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625.

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Maximiliaan van Egmond

Maximiliaan of Egmont (1509–1548) was Count of Buren and Leerdam, and Stadtholder of Friesland (succeeding George Schenck) from 1540 until 1548.

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Maximilian of Burgundy

Maximilian of Burgundy (1514–1558), marquis of Veere and Lord of Beveren, was a noble from the Low Countries in the service of the Habsburgs.

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Maximilien de Hénin, 3rd Count of Bossu

Maximilien de Hénin-Liétard, Count of Boussu (1542 – Antwerp, 21 December 1578) was a soldier and statesman from the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Mechelen

Mechelen (Malines, traditional English name: MechlinMechelen has been known in English as Mechlin, from where the adjective Mechlinian is derived. This name may still be used, especially in a traditional or historical context. The city's French name Malines had also been used in English in the past (in the 19th and 20th century) however this has largely been abandoned. Meanwhile, the Dutch derived Mechelen began to be used in English increasingly from late 20th century onwards, even while Mechlin remained still in use (for example a Mechlinian is an inhabitant of this city or someone seen as born-and-raised there; the term is also the name of the city dialect; as an adjective Mechlinian may refer to the city or to its dialect.) is a city and municipality in the province of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel (adjacent) and Battel (a few kilometers away), as well as the villages of Walem, Heffen, Leest, Hombeek, and Muizen. The Dyle (Dijle) flows through the city, hence it is often referred to as the Dijlestad ("City on the river Dijle"). Mechelen lies on the major urban and industrial axis Brussels–Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. Inhabitants find employment at Mechelen's southern industrial and northern office estates, as well as at offices or industry near the capital and Zaventem Airport, or at industrial plants near Antwerp's seaport. Mechelen is one of Flanders' prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden.

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Mennonites

The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).

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Mercenary

A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Meuse

The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.

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Middelburg

Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland.

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Monarchy of the Netherlands

The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

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Monastery

A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Mons

Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.

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Montigny-Montfort

Montigny-Montfort is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.

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Museum Het Prinsenhof

The Prinsenhof ("The Court of the Prince") in Delft in the Netherlands is an urban palace built in the Middle Ages as a monastery.

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Naaldwijk

Naaldwijk is a town in the Dutch province of South Holland.

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Namur

Namur (Dutch:, Nameur in Walloon) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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New Brunswick, New Jersey

New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area.

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Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)

The Nieuwe Kerk (New Church) is a Protestant church in the city of Delft in the Netherlands.

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Nobility

Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Nozeroy

Nozeroy is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Order of the Black Eagle

The Order of the Black Eagle (Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler) was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Order of the Golden Fleece

The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.

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Outlaw

In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.

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Pacification of Ghent

The Pacification of Ghent, signed on 8 November 1576, was an alliance of the provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands for the purpose of driving mutinying Spanish mercenary troops from the country and promoting a peace treaty with the rebelling provinces of Holland and Zeeland.

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Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.

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Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort

Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort (20 July 1517 – 22 May 1604) was an Imperial and Spanish army commander of German origin and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1592 to 1594.

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Peter Paul Rubens

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.

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Petrus Johannes Blok

Petrus Johannes Blok (Den Helder, 10 January 1855 – Leiden, 24 October 1929) was a Dutch historian.

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Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn

Philip de Montmorency (died 5 June 1568 in Brussels), also known as Count of Horn or Hoorne or Hoorn, was a victim of the Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein

Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (17 February 1550 – 6 March 1606), Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, was an army commander in service of the Dutch Republic.

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Philip of Noircarmes

Philippe René Nivelon Louis de Sainte-Aldegonde, Lord of Noircarmes (c. 1530 – Utrecht, 5 March 1574) was a statesman and soldier from the Habsburg Netherlands in the service of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Philip II of Spain.

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Philip William, Prince of Orange

Philip William, Prince of Orange (19 December 1554 in Buren, Gelderland – 20 February 1618) was the eldest son of William the Silent by his first wife Anna van Egmont.

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Philipp I, Count of Katzenelnbogen

Philipp I of Katzenelnbogen (1402–1479), also known "Philipp the Elder" was Count of Katzenelnbogen from 1444 to 1479 and was the last male descendant of the Counts of Katzenelnbogen (his two sons died before him).

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Philipp Ludwig II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg

Philipp Ludwig II of Hanau-Münzenberg (18 November 1576, in Hanau – 9 August 1612, in Hanau), was one of the most notable counts of Hanau of the early modern period, his policies bringing about sweeping changes.

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Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde

Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Lord of West-Souburg (Dutch: Filips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde, heer van West-Souburg, French: Philippe de Marnix, seigneur de Sainte-Aldegonde; Brussels, 7 March/20 July 1540 – Leiden, 15 December 1598) was a Flemish and Dutch writer and statesman, and the probable author of the text of the Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus.

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Prince of Orange

Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France.

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Principality of Orange

The Principality of Orange (la Principauté d'Orange) was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin.

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Privateer

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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René of Chalon

René of Châlon (5 February 1519 – 15 July 1544), also known as Renatus of Châlon, was a Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre.

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Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester (24 June 1532 – 4 September 1588) was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth I's, from her first year on the throne until his death.

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Roermond

Roermond (Remunj) is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.

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Rombertus van Uylenburgh

Rombertus van Uylenburgh or Rombout van Uylenborgh (1554 – 4 June 1624) is best known as the father of Saskia van Uylenburgh, the wife of Rembrandt.

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Rubens family

The Rubens family is a Flemish noble family that resided in Antwerp.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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Sack of Antwerp

The Sack of Antwerp, often known as the Spanish Fury at Antwerp, was an episode of the Eighty Years' War.

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Saxony

The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Seventeen Provinces

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

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Siege of Haarlem

The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years' War.

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Solms-Braunfels

Solms-Braunfels was a County with Imperial immediacy in what is today the federal Land of Hesse in Germany.

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Spanish Netherlands

Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.

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St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

The St.

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St. Vith

St.

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Stadtholder

In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.

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States General of the Netherlands

The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).

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Steenbergen

Steenbergen is a municipality and a town in the province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands.

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Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.

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Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours

The Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours was signed on 29 September 1580 between the Dutch Staten Generaal (with the exception of Zeeland and Holland) and François, Duke of Anjou (supported by William the Silent).

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Union of Arras

The Union of Arras (Dutch: Unie van Atrecht, Spanish: Unión de Arrás) was an accord signed on 6 January 1579 in Arras, under which the southern states of the Netherlands, today in the Wallonia region of Belgium and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) régions in France, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized his Governor-General, Don Juan of Austria.

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Union of Utrecht

The Union of Utrecht (Unie van Utrecht) was a treaty signed on 23 January 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under the control of Habsburg Spain.

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Utrecht (province)

Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands.

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Veere

Veere (Zeelandic: Ter Veere) is a municipality with a population of 22,000 and a town with a population of 1,500 in the southwestern Netherlands, in the region of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland.

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Vianden

Vianden (Veianen) is a commune with town status in the Oesling, north-eastern Luxembourg, with over 1,800 inhabitants.

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Viglius

Viglius (October 19, 1507, Swichum – May 5, 1577), was the name taken by Wigle Aytta van Zwichem, a Dutch statesman and jurist, a Frisian by birth.

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Viscount

A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.

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Vlissingen

Vlissingen (Zeelandic: Vlissienge; historical name in Flushing) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren.

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Warneton, Belgium

Warneton (in Dutch Waasten, in Picard Varnetån or Warneuton) is a section of the Belgian municipality of Comines-Warneton in Wallonia in the province of Hainaut.

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Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.

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Wheellock

A wheellock, wheel-lock or wheel lock, is a friction-wheel mechanism to cause a spark for firing a firearm.

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Wilhelmus

"Wilhelmus van Nassouwe", usually known just as the "Wilhelmus" (Het Wilhelmus;; English translation: "The William"), is the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Willem-Alexander (born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.

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Willemstad, North Brabant

Willemstad is a city in the Dutch province of North Brabant.

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William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (nicknamed William the Rich,; 10 April 1487 – 6 October 1559) was a count of Nassau-Dillenburg from the House of Nassau.

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William II, Prince of Orange

William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

William Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg (Willem Lodewijk; Willem Loadewyk; 13 March 1560, Dillenburg, Hesse – 13 July 1620, Leeuwarden, Netherlands) was Count of Nassau-Dillenburg from 1606 to 1620, and stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe.

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William the Silent (statue)

A bronze statue of William the Silent (also known as Willie the Silent and Still Bill) was installed in 1928 on the Voorhees Mall section of Rutgers Universitys College Avenue Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

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Zeeland

Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.

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Zutphen

Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.

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Redirects here:

Anna I von Nassau, Anna von Nassau, Maria of Nassau (1553-1554), Maria of Nassau (1553–1554), Maurits August Philips von Nassau, Prince William I of Orange, Prince William of Orange I, Wilhelm I, Prince of Orange, Will de Zwijg, Will de Zwijger, Willem I of Orange, Willem Van Orange, Willem de Zwijger, Willem the Silent, Willem van Oranje, Willem van oranje, William I (of Orange), William I Prince of Orange, William I of Orange, William I of Orange-Nassau, William I, Prince of Orange, William I, Prince of Orange-Nassau, William The Silent, William the Taciturn.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Silent

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