107 relations: Aerobatics, Aerodynamic force, Aerodynamics, Aileron, Aircraft, Aircraft carrier, Airfoil, Angle of attack, Animal locomotion, Auk, Auto racing, Autorotation, Bat, Bernoulli's principle, Bird, Bird flight, Blade solidity, Boomerang, Camber (aerodynamics), Cormorant, Cross section (geometry), Dihedral (aeronautics), Domina Jalbert, Downforce, Drag (physics), Eider, Evolution, FanWing, Fin, Fixed-wing aircraft, Flap (aeronautics), Flettner airplane, Flight, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Flight feather, Flightless bird, Fluid dynamics, Fluid mechanics, Flying and gliding animals, Foil (fluid mechanics), Folding wing, Forces on sails, Formula One car, Francis Rogallo, Free flight (model aircraft), General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, Glenn Research Center, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Guillemot, Gull wing, ..., Hang gliding, Hangar, Helicopter, Hydrofoil, Hydroplane (boat), Insect flight, Insect wing, Kite types, Laughing gull, Leading edge, Leading edge slot, Leading-edge extension, Leading-edge slat, Lift (force), Lift-to-drag ratio, Limb (anatomy), List of soaring birds, Mikoyan MiG-27, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, NASA, Navier–Stokes equations, Order of magnitude, Ornithopter, Otto Lilienthal, Panavia Tornado, Parachute, Paragliding, Penguin, Petrel, Physics, Propeller, Pterosaur, Rockwell B-1 Lancer, Sail, Sailboat, Samara (fruit), Shearwater, Space Shuttle, Spaceplane, Spoiler (aeronautics), Stall (fluid mechanics), Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines, Submarine, Supercritical airfoil, Supersonic speed, Swept wing, Thrust, Trailing edge, Transonic, Tupolev Tu-160, Variable-sweep wing, Vortex generator, Wing configuration, Wing fence, Wingsail, Wingsuit flying, Wingtip device. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Aerobatics (a portmanteau of aerial-acrobatics) is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.
The aerodynamic force is the force exerted on a body by the air (or some other gas) in which the body is immersed, and is due to the relative motion between the body and the gas.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).
In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
Autorotation is a state of flight in which the main rotor system of a helicopter or similar aircraft turns by the action of air moving up through the rotor, as with an autogyro, rather than engine power driving the rotor.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species.
Blade solidity is an important design parameter for the axial flow impeller and is defined as the ratio of blade chord length to pitch.
A boomerang is a thrown tool, typically constructed as a flat airfoil, that is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight.
In aeronautics and aeronautical engineering, camber is the asymmetry between the two acting surfaces of an aerofoil, with the top surface of a wing (or correspondingly the front surface of a propeller blade) commonly being more convex (positive camber).
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
Dihedral angle is the upward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of a fixed-wing aircraft.
Domina Jalbert (1904-1991) invented the ram-air inflated flexible wing often called the "Jalbert parafoil".
Downforce is a downwards thrust created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a car.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Eiders are large seaducks in the genus Somateria.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The FanWing is an aircraft configuration in which a horizontal-axis cross-flow fan is used in close conjunction with a fixed wing.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.
Flaps are a type of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed.
A flettner airplane is a type of rotor airplane which uses a Flettner rotor to provide lift.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.
Flight feathers (Pennae volatus) are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired pennaceous feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges, singular remex, while those on the tail are called rectrices, singular rectrix.
Flightless birds are birds that through evolution lost the ability to fly.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.
A foil is a solid object with a shape such that when placed in a moving fluid at a suitable angle of attack the lift (force generated perpendicular to the fluid flow) is substantially larger than the drag (force generated parallel to the fluid flow).
A folding wing is a wing configuration design feature of aircraft to save space, and is typical of carrier-based aircraft that operate from the limited deck space of aircraft carriers.
Forces on sails result from movement of air that interacts with sails and gives them motive power for sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and sail-powered land vehicles.
A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, and an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events.
Francis Melvin Rogallo (January 27, 1912 – September 1, 2009) was an American aeronautical engineer inventor born in Sanger, California, U.S.; he is credited with the invention of the Rogallo wing, or "flexible wing", a precursor to the modern hang glider and paraglider.
Free flight is the segment of model aviation involving aircraft with no active external control after launch.
The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark was a supersonic, medium-range interdictor and tactical attack aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic nuclear bomber, aerial reconnaissance, and electronic-warfare aircraft in its various versions.
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
Guillemots is the common name for several species of seabird in the auk family (part of the order Charadriiformes).
The gull wing is an aircraft wing configuration with a prominent bend in the wing inner section towards the wing root.
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider.
A hangar is a closed building structure to hold aircraft, or spacecraft.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water.
A hydroplane (or hydro, or thunderboat) is a fast motorboat, where the hull shape is such that at speed, the weight of the boat is supported by planing forces, rather than simple buoyancy.
Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.
Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.
Kites are tethered flying objects which fly by using aerodynamic lift, requiring wind, (or towing), for generation of airflow over the lifting surfaces.
The laughing gull (Leucophaeus atricilla) is a medium-sized gull of North and South America.
The leading edge is the part of the wing that first contacts the air;Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 305.
A leading edge slot is a fixed aerodynamic feature of the wing of some aircraft to reduce the stall speed and promote good low-speed handling qualities.
A leading-edge extension is a small extension to an aircraft wing surface, forward of the leading edge.
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
This is a list of soaring birds, which are birds that can maintain flight without wing flapping, using rising air currents.
The Mikoyan MiG-27 (Микоян МиГ-27; NATO reporting name: Flogger-D/J) is a variable-geometry ground-attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union and later license-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the Bahadur ("Valiant").
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-23; NATO reporting name: Flogger) is a variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos "bird" and pteron "wing") is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings.
Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the flying man.
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing multirole combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
The Rockwell B-1 LancerThe name "Lancer" is only applied to the B-1B version, after the program was revived.
A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sail-powered land vehicles.
A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails smaller than a sailing ship.
A samara is a winged achene, a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall.
Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
In aeronautics, a spoiler (sometimes called a lift spoiler or lift dumper) is a device intended to intentionally reduce the lift component of an airfoil in a controlled way.
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.
Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge rejoins.
In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air through which the vehicle is traveling.
The Tupolev Tu-160 (White Swan; NATO reporting name: Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
A variable-sweep wing, colloquially known as a "swing wing", is an airplane wing, or set of wings, that may be swept back and then returned to its original position during flight.
A vortex generator (VG) is an aerodynamic device, consisting of a small vane usually attached to a lifting surface (or airfoil, such as an aircraft wing) or a rotor blade of a wind turbine.
The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft (including both gliders and powered aeroplanes or airplanes) is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces.
Wing fences, also known as boundary layer fences and potential fences are fixed aerodynamic devices attached to aircraft wings.
A wingsail is a variable-camber aerodynamic structure that is fitted to a marine vessel in place of conventional sails.
Wingsuit flying (or wingsuiting) is the sport of flying through the air using a wingsuit which adds surface area to the human body to enable a significant increase in lift.
Wingtip devices are intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft by reducing drag.