363 relations: Active duty, Adolf Hitler, Aimo Cajander, Air supremacy, Airlift, Alexandra Kollontai, Alko, Allies of World War II, Andrei Zhdanov, Anglo-French Supreme War Council, Anti-communism, Anti-tank warfare, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, Armistice, Army of the Isthmus, Artillery, Aunus expedition, Autonomous administrative division, Åland Islands, Édouard Daladier, Baltic Fleet, Baltic Sea, Baltic states, Barents Sea, Barrage (artillery), Battalion, Battle of Kollaa, Battle of Petsamo (1939), Battle of Raate Road, Battle of Salla (1939), Battle of Summa, Battle of Suomussalmi, Battle of Taipale, Battle of Tolvajärvi, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Battleship, Bergen, Beryozovye Islands, Blitzkrieg, Bofors 40 mm gun, Bolsheviks, Bolshoy Tyuters, Bombardment, Border guard, Boris Rybkin, Boris Shaposhnikov, Brigade, BT tank, Buffer state, ..., Burnaya River, Business cycle, Cajander III Cabinet, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Casus belli, Caucasus, Ceasefire, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Europe, Chamberlain war ministry, Chief of staff, Christopher Lee, Coastal defence ship, Combustibility and flammability, Communist Party of Finland, Continuation War, Counter-battery fire, Courage, Covenant of the League of Nations, Creative Commons license, Cross-country skiing, Dan Reiter, Declaration of war, Defeat in detail, Defence Command (Finland), Defence in depth, Destroyer, Dirt road, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Division (military), Dmitry Pavlov (general), Dugout (shelter), East Karelia, East Karelian uprising and Soviet–Finnish conflict of 1921–22, Economy of force, Estonia, Evacuation of Finnish Karelia, False flag, Falsifiers of History, Fascism, Fighter aircraft, Finland, Finnic peoples, Finnish Air Force, Finnish Americans, Finnish Civil War, Finnish Declaration of Independence, Finnish Defence Forces, Finnish Democratic Republic, Finnish II Corps (Winter War), Finnish III Corps (Winter War), Finnish IV Corps (Winter War), Finnish Navy, Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, Finnish–Estonian defence cooperation, Finns, Fire support, Foreign support of Finland in the Winter War, Franco-British plans for intervention in the Winter War, Frostbite, Fuse (explosives), Georgy Zhukov, German occupation of Norway, Glasnost, Gloster Gladiator, Gogland, Government of Sweden, Grand Duchy of Finland, Greater Finland, Grigori F. Krivosheev, Grigori Shtern, Grigory Kravchenko, Grigory Kulik, Gromovo, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf of Finland, Gunboat, Gustaf V of Sweden, Hanko, Hanko Peninsula, Hannu Hannuksela, Harald Öhquist, Heavy cruiser, Hella Wuolijoki, Helsinki, Historiography, Historiography in the Soviet Union, Hjalmar Siilasvuo, Hugo Österman, Human wave attack, Hungarian volunteers in the Winter War, Icebreaker, Ilomantsi, Interim Peace, International relations (1919–1939), Invasion of Poland, Iron ore, Ivan Khabarov, Joensuu, John Langdon-Davies, Joseph Stalin, Juho Heiskanen, Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Kainuu, Karelia, Karelian Isthmus, Karelian question, Karjalan Liitto, Kemijärvi, Khaki, Khiytola, Kirill Meretskov, Kliment Voroshilov, Kuhmo, Kurt Martti Wallenius, Kyösti Kallio, Lake Ladoga, Lake Sukhodolskoye, Lake Tolvayarvi, Lake Yaglyayarvi, Landing craft, Lapland (Finland), Lapland Group, Lapua Movement, Latvia, Lauri Tiainen, Layered clothing, League of Nations, Leningrad Military District, Library of Congress, Lieksa, Liepāja, List of Finnish corps in the Winter War, List of Finnish divisions in the Winter War, List of wars involving Finland, Lithuania, Lotta Svärd, Maginot Line, Maneuver warfare, Mannerheim Line, Mantsinsaari Island, Materiel, Matti Aarnio, Max Manus, Mäntsälä rebellion, Merchant vessel, Mikkeli, Military academy, Military air base, Military base, Military exercise, Military history of Finland during World War II, Military history of the Soviet Union, Military tactics, Minelayer, Minesweeper, Mobilization, Mockup, Molotov bread basket, Molotov cocktail, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moscow Peace Treaty, Mosin–Nagant, Motor Torpedo Boat, Murmansk, Namsos (town), Naval gunfire support, Naval mine, Nazi Germany, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolay Kuznetsov (officer), NKVD, Nomonhan, Non-aggression pact, North Finland Group, Norway, Norwegians, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Ohto Manninen, Oil field, Olive (color), Operation Barbarossa, Operation Weserübung, Order of battle, Otto Wille Kuusinen, Oulu, Paavo Talvela, Paldiski, Parliament of Finland, Patriotic People's Movement (Finland), Pavel Rychagov, Pechenga (urban-type settlement), Murmansk Oblast, Pelkosenniemi, Perestroika, Petsamo Province, Phoney War, Pillbox (military), Pocket (military), Polar night, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Political commissar, Pork mutiny, Porosozero, Port, Pravda, Primorsk, Leningrad Oblast, Puppet state, Reconnaissance, Red Army, Refresher training (military), Reginald Drax, Reinforced concrete, Renault FT, Repola, Reservist, Revanchism, Ridge, Right of passage, Risto Ryti, Rovaniemi, Rudolf Holsti, Russarö, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russification, Russification of Finland, Rybachy Peninsula, Ryti I Cabinet, Saint Petersburg, Salla, Saturation fire, Scandinavia, Sea lane, Semyon Timoshenko, Senate of Finland, Shelling of Mainila, Simo Häyhä, Sisu, Ski suit, Ski warfare, Social Democratic Party of Finland, Solovyovo, Priozersky District, Leningrad Oblast, Sortavala, Sovereignty, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet Navy, Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet prisoners of war in Finland, Soviet Union, Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact, Spanish Civil War, Sphere of influence, Spirit of the Winter War, Stavka, Stockholm, Strategic bombing, Submarine, Suomussalmi, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Sweden, Sweden and the Winter War, Swedish iron-ore mining during World War II, Swedish Volunteer Corps (Winter War), T-26, Tallinn, Timeline of the Winter War, Track (rail transport), Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Finnish), Trench warfare, Trondheim, Tupolev SB, Turkey, Turku, Ukrayinska Pravda, Ultimatum, Uniform, Väinö Tanner, Vickers 6-Ton, Viena expedition, Viipuri Province, Vladimir Putin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Vyborg, Vyborg Bay, Warship, Weapon, White Guard (Finland), Whites (Finland), Wiljo Tuompo, William R. Trotter, Windsock, Winston Churchill, Winter War in popular culture, Woldemar Hägglund, World War I, World War II, Yle, Yuri Kilin, Zelenogorsk, Saint Petersburg, 139th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 13th Army (Soviet Union), 14th Army (Soviet Union), 150th Rifle Division (Russia), 44th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 56th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 7.62×54mmR, 7th Army (Soviet Union), 8th Army (Soviet Union), 9th Army (Soviet Union). Expand index (313 more) » « Shrink index
Active duty is a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (4 April 1879 in Uusikaupunki – 21 January 1943 in Helsinki) was, outside of botany, best known as Prime Minister of Finland up to the Winter War.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — née Domontovich, Домонто́вич; – 9 March 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1915 on as a Bolshevik.
Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (p; – 31 August 1948) was a Soviet Communist Party leader and cultural ideologist.
The Anglo-French Supreme War Council (SWC) was established to oversee joint military strategy at the start of the Second World War.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The Army of the Isthmus (Kannaksen Armeija) was a formation of the Finnish Army during the Winter War.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
A barrage is massed artillery fire aimed at points, typically apart, along one or more lines that can be from a few hundred to several thousand yards long.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Kollaa was fought from December 7, 1939, to March 13, 1940, in Ladoga's Karelia, Finland, as a part of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War.
The Battle of Petsamo was fought between Finnish and Soviet troops in the area of Petsamo in the far north of Finland in 1939 and 1940.
The Battle of Raate Road was a battle fought during the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in January 1940, as a part of the Battle of Suomussalmi.
The Battle of Salla was fought between Finnish and Soviet troops near Salla in northern Finland during the Winter War.
The Battle of Summa was fought between the Soviet Union and Finland, in two phases, first in December 1939 and then in February 1940.
The Battle of Suomussalmi was a battle fought between Finnish and Soviet forces in the Winter War.
The Battle of Taipale was fought between Soviet and Finnish forces during the Winter War, 6–27 December 1939.
The Battle of Tolvajärvi (Tolvajärven–Ägläjärven taistelu, Битва при Толваярви) was fought on 12 December 1939 between Finland and the Soviet Union.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Beryozovye Islands (Берёзовые острова, Finnish: Koivisto, Swedish: Björkö; literally: "Birch Islands"), alternatively spelled Berezovye Islands, is an island group in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Bolshoi Tyuters (Большой Тютерс; Tytärsaari; Suur Tütarsaar; Tyterskär) is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located away from the coast of Finland, to the south-east from Hogland.
A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire or by dropping bombs from aircraft on fortifications, combatants, or towns and buildings.
A border guard of a country is a national security agency that performs border control, i.e., enforces the security of the country's national borders.
Boris Arkadyevich Rybkin (Борис Аркадьевич Рыбкин)born Boruch Aronovich Rivkin Борух Аронович Рывкин; 19 June 189927 November 1947) was a Soviet diplomat and a secret agent of NKVD. He worked as a junior diplomatic official named Boris Yartsev in the embassy of the Soviet Union in Helsinki.
Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov (Бори́с Миха́йлович Ша́пошников) (– March 26, 1945) was a Soviet military commander, Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The BT tanks (translit, lit. "fast moving tank" or "high-speed tank") were a series of Soviet light tanks produced in large numbers between 1932 and 1941.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
The Burnaya is a young rapid river in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, on the Karelian Isthmus, which emerged in 1818.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Aimo Cajander's third cabinet was the 22nd government of Republic of Finland.
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Neville Chamberlain formed the Chamberlain war ministry in 1939 after declaring war on Germany.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee (27 May 1922 – 7 June 2015) was an English character actor, singer, and author.
Coastal defence ships (sometimes called coastal battleships or coast defence ships) were warships built for the purpose of coastal defence, mostly during the period from 1860 to 1920.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
The Communist Party of Finland (Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue; Finlands Kommunistiska Parti; abbreviated SKP) was a communist political party in Finland.
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, rocket launchers, artillery and mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.
Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.
The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.
A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
Dan Reiter (born September 29, 1967, Ann Arbor, Michigan) is an American political scientist.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
Defeat in detail, or divide and conquer, is a military tactic of bringing a large portion of one's own force to bear on small enemy units in sequence, rather than engaging the bulk of the enemy force all at once.
Defence Command (Pääesikunta, Huvudstaben), organized as Headquarters (Päämaja, Huvudkvarter) during wartime, is the joint command headquarters of the Finnish Defence Forces and a central government agency.
Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
A dirt road or track is a type of unpaved road made from the native material of the land surface through which it passes, known to highway engineers as subgrade material.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Dmitry Grigoryevich Pavlov (Дми́трий Григо́рьевич Па́влов; October 23, 1897July 22, 1941) was a Soviet general who commanded the key Soviet Western Front during the initial stage of the German invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation ''Barbarossa'') in June 1941.
A dugout or dug-out, also known as a pit-house, earth lodge, is a shelter for humans or domesticated animals and livestock based on a hole or depression dug into the ground.
East Karelia (Itä-Karjala, Karelian: Idä-Karjala), also rendered as Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty of Stolbova in 1617 has remained Eastern Orthodox under Russian supremacy.
The East Karelian Uprising (Finnish: itäkarjalaisten kansannousu) and the Soviet–Finnish conflict 1921–1922 were an attempt by a group of East Karelian separatists to gain independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
Economy of force is one of the nine Principles of War, based upon Carl von Clausewitz's approach to warfare.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
As a result of the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty that concluded the Winter War, Finland ceded the area of Finnish Karelia and other territories to the Soviet Union.
A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.
Falsifiers of History was a book published by the Soviet Information Bureau, edited and partially re-written by Joseph Stalin, in response to documents made public in January 1948 regarding German–Soviet relations before and after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
The Finnish Air Force (FAF or FiAF) (Ilmavoimat ("Air Forces"), Flygvapnet) ("Air Arm") is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces.
Finnish Americans (Finnish: Amerikansuomalaiset) comprise Americans with ancestral roots from Finland or Finnish people who emigrated to and reside in the United States.
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917.
The Finnish Defence Forces (Puolustusvoimat, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland.
The Finnish Democratic Republic (Suomen kansanvaltainen tasavalta, also Suomen kansantasavalta, Demokratiska Republiken Finland, Russian: Финляндская Демократическая Республика) was a short-lived puppet government created and recognised only by the Soviet Union.
The II Corps was a unit of the Finnish Army during the Winter War.
The III Corps was a unit of the Finnish Army during the Winter War.
The IV Corps was a formation of the Finnish Army during the Winter War against the Soviet Union.
The Finnish Navy (Merivoimat, Marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces.
There were two waves of the Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union during World War II: POWs during the Winter War and the Continuation War.
The Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, more commonly referred to as Red Finland, was a theoretical precursor of an unrecognized Finnish socialist state.
Finnish–Estonian defence cooperation began in 1930 with a secret military pact between Finland and Estonia against the threat of the Soviet Union.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
Fire support is defined by the United States Department of Defense as "Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives." Typically, fire support is provided by artillery or close air support (usually directed by a forward observer), and is used to shape the battlefield or, more optimistically, define the battle.
The foreign support in the Winter War contained material, men and moral support to the Finnish struggle against the Soviet Union in the Winter War.
During the early stages of World War II, the British and French Allies made a series of proposals to send troops to assist Finland in the Winter War against the Soviet Union which started on 30 November 1939.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Gloster Gladiator (or Gloster SS.37) is a British-built biplane fighter.
Gogland or Hogland (Гогланд; Suursaari; Hogland, Suursaar, Hochland) is an island in the Gulf of Finland in the eastern Baltic Sea, about 180 km west from Saint Petersburg and 35 km from the coast of Finland (near Kotka).
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Greater Finland (Suur-Suomi; Suur-Soome; Storfinland) is an irredentist and nationalist idea that emphasized territorial expansion of Finland.
Grigoriy Fedotovich Krivosheyev (Григорий Федотович Кривошеев, born in 1929) is a Russian military historian and a retired Colonel General of the Russian military.
Grigori Mihailovich Shtern (Григорий Михайлович Штерн, 24 July (6 August) 1900 – 28 October 1941) was a Soviet officer in the Red Army and military advisor during the Spanish Civil War.
Grigory Panteleyevich Kravchenko (Григо́рий Пантеле́евич Кра́вченко) (1912-1943) was a lieutenant general of the Soviet Air Force and ace during the Great Patriotic War, twice Hero of the Soviet Union and recipient of several other awards.
Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (Григо́рий Ива́нович Кули́к) (9 November 1890 – 24 August 1950) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Gromovo (Гро́мово; Sakkola) is a settlement in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 18 km northwest of Sosnovo, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Kuznechnoye railway.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.
Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf 16 June 1858 – 29 October 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950.
Hanko (Hangö) is a bilingual port town and municipality on the south coast of Finland, west of Helsinki.
The Hanko Peninsula (Finnish: Hankoniemi, Swedish: Hangö udd), also spelled Hango, is the southernmost point of mainland Finland.
Hannu Esa Hannuksela (12 December 1893 – 12 May 1942) was a Finnish Major General during World War II.
Harald Öhquist (1 March 1891, Helsinki – 10 February 1971) was a Finnish Lieutenant General during World War II.
The heavy cruiser was a type of cruiser, a naval warship designed for long range and high speed, armed generally with naval guns of roughly 203mm calibre (8 inches in caliber) of whose design parameters were dictated by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
Hella Wuolijoki (née Ella Marie Murrik; 22 July 1886 – 2 February 1954), known by the pen name Juhani Tervapää, was an Estonian-born Finnish writer known for her Niskavuori series.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union (USSR).
Hjalmar Fridolf Siilasvuo (birthname: Hjalmar Fridolf Strömberg, 18 March 1892, Helsinki – 11 January 1947) was a Finnish lieutenant general who led troops in the Winter War, Continuation War and Lapland War.
Hugo Viktor Österman (5 September 1892, Helsinki – 17 February 1975) was a Finnish Lieutenant-General during World War II.
The human wave attack, also known as the human sea attack, is an offensive infantry tactic in which an attacker conducts an unprotected frontal assault with densely concentrated infantry formations against the enemy line, intended to overrun the defenders by engaging in melee combat.
The Hungarian Volunteers in the Winter War travelled to fight for the Finns after the Soviet invasion of Finland in 1939.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Ilomantsi (Ilomants) is municipality and a village of Finland.
The Interim Peace (Välirauha, Mellanfreden) was a short period in the history of Finland during the Second World War.
International relations (1919–1939) covers the main interactions shaping world history in this era, with emphasis on diplomacy and economic relations.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Ivan Nikitich Khabarov (Иван Никитич Хабаров 12 November 1888, in Ryazan Oblast – 1960) was a Soviet Army Commander during World War II.
Joensuu is a city and municipality in North Karelia in the province of Eastern Finland.
John Eric Langdon-Davies (18 March 1897 – 5 December 1971) was a British author and journalist.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juho Henrik Heiskanen (18 December 1889 Pielisensuu – 11 December 1950) was a Finnish major general during World War II.
Juho Kusti Paasikivi (27 November 1870 – 14 December 1956) was the seventh President of Finland (1946–1956).
Kainuu (Kajanaland) is one of the 19 regions of Finland (maakunta / landskap).
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas; Karelska näset) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).
The Karelian question or Karelian issue (Karjala-kysymys) is a dispute in Finnish politics over whether or not to try to regain control over Finnish Karelia and other territories ceded to the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War.
Karjalan Liitto (in English: Karelian Association) is an interest group for Karelian evacuees.
Kemijärvi (Kemijävri, Giemajávri) is a municipality of Finland.
Khaki (Canada and) is a color, a light shade of yellow-brown.
Khiytola (Хийтола; Hiitola) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia.
Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov (Кири́лл Афана́сьевич Мерецко́в; June 7, 1897 – December 30, 1968) was a Soviet military commander.
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era.
Kuhmo is a town and a municipality in Finland and is located at the south-eastern corner of the Kainuu region.
Kurt Martti Wallenius (July 25, 1893 in Kuopio – May 3, 1984 in Helsinki) was a Finnish Major General.
Kyösti Kallio (10 April 1873 – 19 December 1940) was the fourth President of Finland (1937–1940).
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Sukhodolskoye (Суходольское озеро; Suvanto) is a narrow 40 km long lake on the Karelian Isthmus located in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Lake Tolvajärvi (Толваярви; Tolvajärvi) is a group of lakes in the Republic of Karelia, in the Ladoga Karelia.
Lake Yaglyayarvi (Ягляярви; Ägläjärvi) is a multibranching lake in the Republic of Karelia, in the Ladoga Karelia.
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing vessels such as boats, and barges, used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault.
Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.
The Lapland Group (Lapin Ryhmä) was a formation of the Finnish Army during the Winter War between Finland and the Soviet Union.
The Lapua Movement (Lapuan liike, Lapporörelsen) was a Finnish radical nationalist and anti-communist political movement founded in and named after the town of Lapua.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lauri Taavetti Tiainen (18 September 1891 – 1958) was a Finnish Colonel during World War II.
Layered clothing is a term describing a way of dressing using many garments that are worn on top of each other.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Leningrad Military District was a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lieksa is a town and municipality of Finland.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
List of military corps – List of Finnish corps in the Winter War This is a list of Finnish corps that existed during the Winter War, 1939–1940.
List of military divisions – List of Finnish divisions in the Winter War This is a list of Finnish divisions that existed during the Winter War, 1939–1940.
This list only includes conflicts where Finnish forces took part in actual combat.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lotta Svärd was a Finnish voluntary auxiliary paramilitary organisation for women.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
The Mannerheim Line (Mannerheim-linja, Mannerheimlinjen) was a defensive fortification line on the Karelian Isthmus built by Finland against the Soviet Union.
Mantsinsaari Island (also Mantsi, Остров Мантсинсаари, Mantsinsaari) is an island on the North-East of Lake Ladoga in the Salmi settlement in the Pitkyaranta municipality in the Republic of Karelia.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
Matti Armas Aarnio, known as Motti-Matti (24 February 1901, Kouvola – 16 December 1984) was a Finnish military officer and a specialist in motti battles during World War II.
Maximo Guillermo "Max" Manus DSO, MC & Bar (9 December 1914 – 20 September 1996) was a Norwegian resistance fighter during World War II, specialising in sabotage in occupied Norway.
The Mäntsälä rebellion (Mäntsälän kapina) was a failed coup attempt by the Lapua Movement to overthrow the Finnish government.
A merchant vessel, trading vessel or merchantman is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire.
Mikkeli (S:t Michel official writing, short for Sankt Michel) is a town and municipality in Finland.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
A military air base (sometimes referred to as a military airfield, military airport, air force station, air force base or short air base) is an aerodrome (military base) used by a military force for the operation of military aircraft.
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.
Finland participated in the Second World War, twice battling the Soviet Union, and then against Nazi Germany.
The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
Minelaying is the act of deploying explosive mines.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
In manufacturing and design, a mockup, or mock-up, is a scale or full-size model of a design or device, used for teaching, demonstration, design evaluation, promotion, and other purposes.
The RRAB-3 ("rotationally dispersing aviation bomb"), nicknamed the Molotov bread basket, was a Soviet-made droppable bomb dispenser that combined a large high-explosive charge with a cluster of incendiary bombs.
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
The 3-line rifle M1891 (трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known as Mosin–Nagant (винтовка Мосина, ISO 9) is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations.
Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
Namsos is a town and the administrative center of Namsos municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
Naval gunfire support (NGFS) (also known as shore bombardment) is the use of naval artillery to provide fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov (Никола́й Гера́симович Кузнецо́в; July 24, 1904 – December 6, 1974) was a Soviet naval officer who achieved the rank of Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union and served as People's Commissar of the Navy during The Second World War.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Nomonhan is a small village in Mongolia, near the border between Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China, south of the city of Manzhouli.
A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.
The North Finland Group (Pohjois-Suomen Ryhmä) was a formation of the Finnish Army during the Winter War.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Ohto Heikki Sulevi Manninen (24 March 1943 in Helsinki), is a Finnish historian, PhD 1977.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Olive is a dark yellowish-green color, like that of unripe or green olives.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force.
Otto Wilhelm (Wille) Kuusinen (О́тто Вильге́льмович Ку́усинен, Otto Vilgelmovich Kuusinen) (4 October 1881 – 17 May 1964) was a Finnish and, later, Soviet politician, literary historian, and poet who, after the defeat of the Reds in the Finnish Civil War, fled to the Soviet Union, where he worked until his death.
Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
Paavo Juho Talvela (January 19, 1897 in Vantaa – September 30, 1973, Helsinki) was a Finnish soldier and a Knight of the Mannerheim Cross.
Paldiski is a town and Baltic Sea port situated on the Pakri peninsula of north-western Estonia.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
Patriotic People's Movement, (Isänmaallinen kansanliike, IKL, Fosterländska folkrörelsen) was a Finnish nationalist and anti-communist political party.
Pavel Vasilievich Rychagov (2 January 1911 – 28 October 1941) was the Commander of the Soviet Air Forces (VVS) for a brief time from 28 August 1940 to 14 April 1941.
Pechenga (Пече́нга; Finnish and Petsamo; Petsjenga; Beahcán; Peäccam) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Pechengsky District, Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
Pelkosenniemi (Pelkosnjargâ) is a municipality of Finland.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The Province of Petsamo (Petsamon lääni, Petsamo län) was a province of Finland from 1921 to 1922.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Pillboxes are concrete dug-in guard posts, normally equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons.
A pocket refers to combat forces that have been isolated by opposing forces from their logistical base and other friendly forces.
The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer (or politruk, from политический руководитель, "political leader"), is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
The Pork mutiny (Läskikapina Fläskrevolten) was an incident in Northern Finland in 1922.
Porosozero (Поросозеро; Porajärvi) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Suoyarvsky District of the Republic of Karelia, located along the Suna River.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
Primorsk (Примо́рск; Koivisto; Björkö) is a coastal town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia and is the second largest Russian port on the Baltic, after St. Petersburg.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Refresher training is a form of updating military knowledge of the reservist troops.
Admiral the Hon.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
The Renault FT (frequently referred to in post-World War I literature as the FT-17, FT17, or similar) was a French light tank that was among the most revolutionary and influential tank designs in history.
Reboly (Repola, Karelian Rebol´ä) is a settlement in the Republic of Karelia of the Russian Federation by the Finnish border.
A reservist is a person who is a member of a military reserve force.
Revanchism (from revanche, "revenge") is the political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement.
A ridge or mountain ridge are geological features consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side.The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline.
Right of passage, in international law, means (approximately) a country's right for its ships to pass through the territorial seas of foreign states and straits used for international navigation.
Risto Heikki Ryti (–) was the fifth president of Finland, from 1940 to 1944.
Rovaniemi is a city and municipality of Finland.
Eino Rudolf Woldemar Holsti (8 October 1881 in Jyväskylä – 3 August 1945 in Palo Alto, California) was a Finnish politician, journalist and diplomat.
Russarö is an island south of Hanko.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The policy of Russification of Finland (Finnish: sortokaudet/sortovuodet - times/years of oppression) was a governmental policy of the Russian Empire aimed at limiting the special status of the Grand Duchy of Finland and possibly the termination of its political autonomy and cultural uniqueness in 1899–1905 and in 1908–1917.
Rybachy Peninsula (полуо́стров Рыба́чий, poluostrov Rybachy; Giehkirnjárga; Fiskerhalvøya; Kalastajasaarento) is the northernmost part of continental European Russia.
Risto Ryti's first cabinet was the 23rd government of Republic of Finland.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salla (Kuolajärvi until 1936) is a municipality of Finland, located in Lapland.
Saturation fire is a highly intense level of artillery or machine gun fire which is designed to fill an enemy position with artillery shells or machine gun fire.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, Semën Konstantinovič Timošenko; Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, Semen Kostiantynovych Tymoshenko) (– 31 March 1970) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
The Senate of Finland (Suomen senaatti) combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1816 to 1917 and in the independent Republic of Finland from 1917 to 1918.
The Shelling of Mainila (Mainilan laukaukset) was a military incident on November 26, 1939, where the Soviet Union's Red Army shelled the Russian village of Mainila (located near Beloostrov), declared that the fire originated from Finland across the nearby border and claimed to have had losses in personnel.
Simo "Simuna" Häyhä (17 December 1905 – 1 April 2002), nicknamed "White Death" (Белая смерть,; valkoinen kuolema; den vita döden) by the Red Army, was a Finnish sniper.
Sisu is a Finnish concept and cultural construct that is described through a combination of various English terms including stoic determination, tenacity of purpose, grit, bravery, resilience, and hardiness and is held by Finns themselves to express their national character.
A ski suit is a suit made to be worn over the rest of the clothes when skiing or snowboarding.
Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century.
The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP, Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue, Finlands socialdemokratiska parti), shortened to the Social Democrats, is a social-democratic political party in Finland.
Solovyovo (Соловьёво; Taipale), formerly Taipale, is a rural locality (a settlement) in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the western shore of Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus about north of Saint Petersburg.
Sortavala (till 1918 Serdobol; Со́ртавала; Finnish and Sortavala; Sordavala) is a town in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located at the northern tip of Lake Ladoga.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.
Soviet prisoners of war in Finland during World War II were captured in two Soviet-Finnish conflicts of that period: the Winter War and the Continuation War.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact was a non-aggression treaty signed in 1932 by representatives of Finland and the Soviet Union.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
The Spirit of Winter War (Talvisodan henki) is the national unity which is credited with having saved Finland from disintegrating along class and ideological lines under the Soviet invasion during the Winter War of November 30, 1939 to March 13, 1940.
The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Suomussalmi is a municipality in Finland and is located in the Kainuu region.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Winter War was fought in the four months following the Soviet Union's invasion of Finland on November 30, 1939.
Swedish iron ore was an important economic factor in the European theatre of World War II.
The Swedish Volunteer Corps (Svenska frivilligkåren) during the Winter War numbered 9,640 officers and men.
The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The timeline of the Winter War is a chronology of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the Winter War.
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
The Treaty of Tartu (italic, Tarton rauha) between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed on 14 October 1920 after negotiations that lasted four months.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name Tupolev SB (Скоростной бомбардировщик – Skorostnoi Bombardirovschik – high speed bomber) and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three-seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.
Väinö Tanner (12 March 1881 – 19 April 1966; surname until 1895 Thomasson) was a leading figure in the Social Democratic Party of Finland, and a pioneer and leader in the cooperative movement in Finland.
The Vickers 6-Ton Tank or Vickers Mark E was a British light tank designed as a private project at Vickers.
The Viena expedition (Vienan retkikunta, Vienaexpeditionen) was a military expedition in March 1918 by Finnish volunteer forces to annex White Karelia (Vienan Karjala) from Bolshevist Russia.
The Viipuri Province (Viipurin lääni, commonly abbreviated Vpl, Viborgs län or Wiborgs län) was a province of Finland from 1812 to 1945.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Vyborg Bay is a deep inlet running northeastward near the eastern end of Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
The White Guard or Civil Guard (lit. protection corps) was a voluntary militia that emerged victorious over the socialist Red Guard as a part of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War of 1918.
The Whites (Valkoiset, De vita, Белофинны), or White Finland, was the name used to refer to the refugee government and forces under Pehr Evind Svinhufvud's first senate who opposed the "Reds", or the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, during the Finnish civil war (1918).
Viljo (Wiljo) Einar Tuompo (23 September 1893 in Pornainen – 1957) was a Finnish Lieutenant General during World War II.
William R. (Bill) Trotter (July 15, 1943 - February 28, 2018) was an American author and historian.
A windsock is a conical textile tube which resembles a giant sock.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The influence of the Winter War in popular culture has been deep and wide, both in Finnish culture and worldwide.
Johan Woldemar Hägglund (August 10, 1893 – February 12, 1963) was a lieutenant general in the Finnish Army in the Second World War, and an early volunteer in the Finnish Jäger troops in the Finnish Civil War 1918.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle (pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926.
Yuri Mihailovich Kilin (Юрий Михайлович Килин, born 1961) is a Russian historian and a professor of History Studies at the Petrozavodsk State University in Petrozavodsk.
Zelenogorsk (Зеленого́рск; before 1948 Terijoki, a name still used in Finnish and Swedish), is a municipal town in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located in part of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland.
The 139th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army, formed three times during World War II, in 1939 and twice in 1941.
The 13th Army (Russian: 13-я армия 13-ya armiya) was a name given to several field armies of the Soviet Union's Red Army, first created during the Russian Civil War.
The 14th Army was a field army of the Soviet Army, formed twice.
The 150th Idritsa-Berlin Order of Kutuzov 2nd Class Motor Rifle Division (Russian: 150-я Идрицко-Берлинская ордена Кутузова 2-й степени мотострелковая дивизия) of the Russian Ground Forces was re-instituted in 2016.
The 44th Kievskaya of the Red Banner Rifle Division of Nikolay Shchors, or 44th Kievskaya for short, was an elite military formation of the Soviet Union.
The 56th Rifle Division was a infantry division of the Red Army and later the Soviet Army of the Soviet Union, formed three times.
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891.
The Soviet Red Army's 7th Army first saw action in the 1939–40 Winter War against Finland.
The 8th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.
The 9th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was a Soviet field army, active from 1939 – 43.
Finland vs Russia, Finland vs russia, Finland vs ussr, Finnish Winter War, Finnish-Russian War, Finno-Russian Winter War, Invasion of Finland, Russian winter war, Russo finnish war, Russo-Finnish War, Russo-Finnish Winter War, Russo-Finnish war, Russo-Finno War, Soviet invasion of Finland, Soviet war in Finland, Soviet-Finnish War, Soviet-Finnish War (1939-1940), Soviet-Finnish War (1939–1940), Soviet-Finnish war, The Winter War, Winter war, Winterwar.