407 relations: Acts of the Apostles, Age of Enlightenment, Agimat, Akkadian language, Al-Falaq, Alan Macfarlane, Albinism, Albrecht Dürer, Aleister Crowley, Alex Sanders (Wiccan), Alexandrian Wicca, Ali Hussain Sibat, Allegory, Amman, Amulet, Anastasia Romanovna, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Near East, Anthropology, Anti-balaka, Apostasy, Aradia, Arbularyo, Archetype, Assam, Astrology, Ælfric of Eynsham, Éva Pócs, Babylonia, Bacchanalia, Bacteria, Bahia, Barang (Visayan word), BBC News, Beatrice Grimshaw, Biblical law, Black magic, Blood libel, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Exodus, Book of Revelation, Books of Samuel, Bricket Wood coven, British North America, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Burkina Faso, Buruli ulcer, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cancer, Canon law, ..., Capital punishment, Cash, Casta, Catharism, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in the Philippines, Cebuano language, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Ceremonial magic, Charlemagne, Charles Cardell, Charles Godfrey Leland, Charles Mackay (author), Charmer (folklore), Chhattisgarh, Chile, Chilote mythology, China, Chinese Filipino, Christian views on magic, Christianity, Christianity and colonialism, Church of Satan, Cleromancy, CNN, Cochrane's Craft, Code of Hammurabi, Coloman, King of Hungary, Colonial Brazil, Colonialism, Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Saudi Arabia), Conflict between good and evil, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Cook Islands, Coven, Cross-cultural, Cultural framework, Cunning folk, Deal with the Devil, Deity, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Devil, Devil in Christianity, Diana (mythology), Divination, Djembe, Dog Latin, Dotdash, E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Early Modern English, Early modern period, Eastern Europe, Ebola virus disease, Elemental, Enchanted Feminism, Endangered species, Energy medicine, England, English language, Enlightenment (spiritual), Epidemic, Epidemiology, Epilepsy, Epistle to the Galatians, Essex County, Massachusetts, Ethical code, Ethnic groups in the Philippines, Ethnography, Etruscan mythology, Europe, Evil, Evil eye, Evocation, Exorcism, Exorcist, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, Fairy, Familiar spirit, Fawza Falih, Feminism, Feng shui, Feri Tradition, Folk healer, Folklore, Folklore of India, Fortune-telling, Fraud, Free will, Fundamentalism, Gardenia taitensis, Georg Luck, Gerald Gardner (Wiccan), Germany, Ghana, Girdle-measurers, God, God in Islam, Goetia, Grace Sherwood, Greek New Testament, Green politics, Hadith, Hajj, Halakha, Hanina, Harry Potter, Health care, Helen Duncan, Herb, Heresy, Highlands Region, History, History of colonialism, History of the Philippines (900–1521), HIV/AIDS, Homosociality, Hoshaiah, Ibn al-Nadim, Ideology, Idolatry, Incantation, India, Individualism, Infection, Initiation, Islam, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Isolation (health care), Italy, Ivan the Terrible, Jakaya Kikwete, James VI and I, Janus, Jesus, Jinn, John Milton, JSTOR, Judaism, Kalku, Keith Thomas (historian), Kenya, Key of Solomon, King James Version, Kinshasa, Kitsune, Koro (medicine), Kulam, Kuranko language, Latin, Leprosy, Letters from the Earth, Lincolnshire, List of fertility deities, Lizanne Henderson, Llewellyn Worldwide, London, Longman, Lucifer, Luciferianism, Luck, Lynching, Madeline Montalban, Madumo, A Man Bewitched, Magic (supernatural), Maimonides, Makaa people, Makea Takau Ariki, Malawi, Malawian kwacha, Maleficium (sorcery), Malleus Maleficarum, Mana, Manchester University Press, Mapuche religion, Maqlû, Marae, Margaret Murray, Margot Adler, Masoretic Text, Mass (liturgy), Massachusetts Bay Colony, Mastering Witchcraft, Maxine Sanders, Médecins Sans Frontières, Medical explanations of bewitchment, Medicine man, Mentalism, Mercado de Sonora, Mexican Inquisition, Middle Ages, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Mircea Eliade, Modern Paganism, Moral panic, Murder of Victoria Climbié, Native Appropriations, Navajo, Navajo language, Navajo song ceremonial complex, Necromancy, Nepal, Nettetal, New England, New Testament, Nigeria, Nile, Nottinghamshire, Nova (TV series), Occult, Old English, Old Testament, Oprichnina, Ordo Templi Orientis, Our Lady of Endor Coven, Oxford University Press, Paculla Annia, Pantheon (religion), Papua New Guinea, Paraíba, Paradise Lost, Patriarchy, Paul Huson, PBS, Pendle witches, Penn State University Press, Pentagram, Pernambuco, Philippines, Physical abuse, Polytheism, Poppet, Potion, Preternatural, Preventive healthcare, Primary Chronicle, Princess Anne County, Virginia, Prithee, Project Gutenberg, Prophecy, Protestantism, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Province of Massachusetts Bay, Pseudoscience, Psychological abuse, Psychological theories of magic, Publicly funded health care, Quran, Rabbi, Raven Grimassi, Reginald Scot, Regino of Prüm, Richard Kieckhefer, Ritual, Ritual child abuse, Robert Cochrane (witch), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon, Romanticism, Royal Navy, Runes, Russian language, Ruth Behar, Sacrament, Sahih al-Bukhari, Saint, Saint Boniface, Salem witch trials, Salem, Massachusetts, Santería, Satan, Satanic ritual abuse, Satanism, Saudi Arabia, Saul, Scapegoating, Science, Scientific method, Scrying, Second sight, Secret society, Secularity, Septuagint, Shabbat, Shaitan, Shamanism, Shunning, Sierra Leone, Sigil (magic), Snake, Social stigma, Solomon, Soviet Union, Spirit, Spirituality, Springfield, Massachusetts, Strigoi, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, Sunnah, Superstition, Supreme Court of the United States, Surah, Tagalog language, Tagati, Tanzania, Terminal illness, The American Economic Review, The Crucible, The Four Witches, The Guardian, The Independent, The Times of India, Theistic Satanism, Theosophy (Boehmian), Time of Troubles, Toad doctors, Tocharians, Torture, Traditional healers of South Africa, Traditional medicine, Trismus, Tuberculosis, United Kingdom, United States Agency for International Development, Universalism, University of Kansas, University of Toronto Press, Veneration of the dead, Vice News, Victim blaming, Violence against women, Vladimir the Great, Vulgate, Waldensians, Warlock, Warlock of Chiloé, Wasting, West Bengal, Wheel of the Year, Wicca, Wiley-Blackwell, William Kamkwamba, Wisdom, Witch camp, Witch doctor, Witch of Endor, Witch trials in the early modern period, Witch-cult hypothesis, Witch-hunt, Witchcraft, Witchcraft Today, Witches' Sabbath, World Health Organization, World view, Xinjiang, Yazidis, Zār, Zeira. 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Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agimat or bertud or anting-anting, is a Filipino word for "amulet" or "charm".
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Sūrat al-Falaq (سورة الفلق, "Dawn, Daybreak") is the 113th sura of the Qur'an.
Alan Donald James Macfarlane FBA FRHistS (born 20 December 1941 in Shillong, Meghalaya, India) is an anthropologist and historian and a Professor Emeritus of King's College, Cambridge.
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Aleister Crowley (born Edward Alexander Crowley; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer.
Alex Sanders (6 June 1926 – 30 April 1988), born Orrell Alexander Carter, who went under the craft name Verbius, was an English occultist and High Priest in the Pagan religion of Wicca, responsible for founding the tradition of Alexandrian Wicca during the 1960s.
Alexandrian Wicca or Alexandrian Witchcraft is a tradition of the Neopagan religion of Wicca, founded by Alex Sanders (also known as "King of the Witches") who, with his wife Maxine Sanders, established the tradition in the United Kingdom in the 1960s.
Ali Hussain Sibat is a Lebanese national and former host of the popular call-in show that aired on satellite TV across the Middle East.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina-Yurieva (1530 – 7 August 1560) was the first spouse of the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible and the first Russian Tsaritsa.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The Anti-balaka are militia and terrorist groups based in the Central African Republic said to be composed primarily of Christians.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Aradia is one of the principal figures in the American folklorist Charles Godfrey Leland's 1899 work Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, which he believed to be a genuine religious text used by a group of pagan witches in Tuscany, a claim that has subsequently been disputed by other folklorists and historians.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Ælfric of Eynsham (Ælfrīc; Alfricus, Elphricus) was an English abbot, as well as a consummate, prolific writer in Old English of hagiography, homilies, biblical commentaries, and other genres.
Éva Pócs (born 1936) is a Hungarian ethnographer and folklorist.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Bacchanalia were Roman festivals of Bacchus, based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
Barang is a Cebuano term taken to mean all forms of malignant magic or sorcery.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beatrice Ethel Grimshaw (3 February 1870 – 30 June 1953) was a writer and traveller of Irish origin, for many years based in Papua New Guinea.
Biblical law refers to the legal aspects of the Bible, the holy scriptures of Judaism and Christianity.
Black magic has traditionally referred to the use of supernatural powers or magic for evil and selfish purposes.
Blood libel (also blood accusation) is an accusationTurvey, Brent E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis, Academic Press, 2008, p. 3.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.
The Bricket Wood coven, or Hertfordshire coven Page 289 was a coven of Gardnerian witches founded in the 1940s by Gerald Gardner.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with later co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, and David Solomon.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in the Philippines (Simbahang Katólika, Simbahang Katóliko; Iglesia Católica) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Roman Pontiff.
The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Ceremonial magic or ritual magic, also referred to as high magic and as learned magic in some cases, is a broad term used in the context of Hermeticism or Western esotericism to encompass a wide variety of long, elaborate, and complex rituals of magic.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Cardell (1892–1977) was an English Wiccan who propagated his own tradition of the Craft, which was distinct from that of Gerald Gardner.
Charles Godfrey Leland (August 15, 1824 – March 20, 1903) was an American humorist, writer, and folklorist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Charles Mackay (27 March 1814 – 24 December 1889) was a Scottish poet, journalist, author, anthologist, novelist, and songwriter, remembered mainly for his book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds.
Charmers were English practitioners of a specific kind of folk magic, specialising in supernatural healing.
Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chilote mythology or Chilota mythology is formed by the myths, legends and beliefs of the people who live in the Chiloé Archipelago, in the south of Chile.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Filipinos (Filipino: Pilipinong Tsino, Tsinoy or Intsik) are Filipinos of Chinese descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.
Christian views on magic vary widely among denominations and among individuals.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity and colonialism are often closely associated because Catholicism and Protestantism were the religions of the European colonial powers and acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of those powers.
The Church of Satan is a religious organization dedicated to Satanism as codified in The Satanic Bible.
Cleromancy is a form of sortition, casting of lots, in which an outcome is determined by means that normally would be considered random, such as the rolling of dice, but are sometimes believed to reveal the will of God, or other supernatural entities.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Cochrane’s Craft, which is also known as Cochranianism, is a tradition of traditional witchcraft founded in 1951 by the English witch Robert Cochrane, who himself claimed to have been taught it by some of his elderly family members, a claim that is disputed by some historians such as Ronald Hutton and Leo Ruickbie.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (abbreviated CPVPV; هيئة الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر), also informally referred to as Hai’a, is the Saudi Arabian government agency employing “religious police” or Mutaween (مطوعين), to enforce Sharia Law within that Islamic nation.
The conflict between good and evil is one of the precepts of the Zoroastrian faith, first enshrined by Zoroaster over 3000 years ago.
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei; CDF) is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
A coven usually refers to a gathering of witches.
Cross-cultural may refer to.
Cultural framework is a term used in social science to explain traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society.
Cunning folk, also known as folk healers or (more rarely) as white witches, are practitioners of folk medicine, folk magic, and divination within the context of the various traditions of folklore in Christian Europe (from at least the 15th up until at least the early 20th century).
A deal with the devil (also known as compact or pact with the devil) is a cultural motif, best exemplified by the legend of Faust and the figure of Mephistopheles, but elemental to many Christian traditions.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
In mainstream Christianity, the Devil (or Satan) is a fallen angel who rebelled against God.
Diana (Classical Latin) was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature in Roman mythology, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
A djembe or jembe (from Malinke jembe) is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa.
Dog Latin, also known as Cod Latin, macaronic Latin, mock Latin, or Canis Latinicus, refers to the creation of a phrase or jargon in imitation of Latin,, Bartleby.com often by "translating" English words (or those of other languages) into Latin by conjugating or declining them as if they were Latin words.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Sir Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, FBA (21 September 1902 – 11 September 1973), known as E. E. Evans-Pritchard, was an English anthropologist who was instrumental in the development of social anthropology.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
Universally, an elemental is a type of magical entity who personifies a force of nature and controls natural powers derived from their element.
Enchanted Feminism: The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco is an anthropological study of the Reclaiming Wiccan community of San Francisco.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Energy medicine, energy therapy, energy healing, psychic healing, spiritual medicine or spiritual healing are branches of alternative medicine based on a pseudo-scientific belief that healers can channel healing energy into a patient and effect positive results.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enlightenment is the "full comprehension of a situation".
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions.
The Philippines is inhabited by more than 175 ethnolinguistic nations, the majority of whose languages are Malay in origin, then Han Chinese, then European (mostly Spanish).
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
The evil eye is a curse or legend believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware.
Evocation is the act of calling upon or summoning a spirit, demon, god or other supernatural agent, in the Western mystery tradition.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons.
Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds is an early study of crowd psychology by Scottish journalist Charles Mackay, first published in 1841.
A fairy (also fata, fay, fey, fae, fair folk; from faery, faerie, "realm of the fays") is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.
In European folklore and folk-belief of the Medieval and Early Modern periods, familiar spirits (sometimes referred to simply as "familiars" or "animal guides") were believed to be supernatural entities that would assist witches and cunning folk in their practice of magic.
Fawza Falih Muhammad Ali was a Saudi woman who made international headlines after she was condemned to death for practicing witchcraft in 2006.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
The Feri Tradition is an initiatory tradition of modern Pagan Witchcraft.
A folk healer is an unlicensed person who practices the art of healing using traditional practices, herbal remedies and even the power of suggestion.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
The folklore of India compasses the folklore of the nation of India and the Indian subcontinent.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.
Gardenia taitensis, also called Tahitian gardenia or Tiaré flower, is a species of plant in the Rubiaceae family.
Georg Hans Bhawani Luck (February 17, 1926 – February 17, 2013), Peaceful Alternatives Funeral and Cremation Center, retrieved 2013-02-24.
Gerald Brosseau Gardner (1884 – 1964), also known by the craft name Scire, was an English Wiccan, as well as an author and an amateur anthropologist and archaeologist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Girdle-measurers were practitioners of a specific type of curative English folk magic.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
Goetia or Goëtia (Medieval Latin; anglicised as goety) is a practice that includes the conjuration of demons, specifically the ones summoned by the Biblical figure, King Solomon.
Grace White Sherwood (1660–1740), called the Witch of Pungo, is the last person known to have been convicted of witchcraft in Virginia.
The Greek New Testament is the original form of the books that make up the New Testament as they appeared in Koine Greek, the common dialect from 300 BC to 300 AD.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Victoria Helen McCrae Duncan (25 November 1897 – 6 December 1956) was a Scottish medium best known as the last person to be imprisoned under the British Witchcraft Act of 1735.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Highlands Region is one of four regions of Papua New Guinea.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time.
The recorded History of the Philippines begins with the creation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI) in 900, the first written document found in an ancient Philippine language.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In sociology, homosociality means same-sex relationships that are not of a romantic or sexual nature, such as friendship, mentorship, or others.
Hoshaiah or Oshaya (Also spelled: Oshaia;,; died ca. 350 CE) was a Jewish amora of the 3rd and 4th amoraic generations.
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born 7 October 1951) was the fourth President of Tanzania, in office from 2005 to 2015.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (IANVS (Iānus)) is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kalku or Calcu, in Mapuche mythology, is a sorcerer or witch who works with black magic and negative powers or forces.
Sir Keith Vivian Thomas, (born 2 January 1933) is a British historian of the early modern world based at Oxford University.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Key of Solomon (Latin: Clavicula Salomonis, Hebrew: Mafteah Shelomoh) is a pseudepigraphical grimoire attributed to King Solomon.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
is the Japanese word for the fox.
Koro is a culture-specific syndrome delusional disorder in which an individual has an overpowering belief that one's genitalia are retracting and will disappear, despite the lack of any true longstanding changes to the genitals.
Kulam or "Pagkukulam" is a form of folk magic, specifically natural magic, practiced in the Philippines.
Kuranko is a Mande language spoken by approximately 350,000 people in Sierra Leone and Guinea.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Letters from the Earth is a posthumously published work of celebrated American author Mark Twain (1835–1910).
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
A fertility deity is a god or goddess associated with sex, fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth.
Lizanne Henderson is a lecturer in history at the University of Glasgow in Dumfries.
Llewellyn Worldwide (formerly Llewellyn Publications) is a New Age publisher, currently based in Woodbury, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Lucifer is a name that, according to dictionaries of the English language, refers either to the Devil or to the planet Venus when appearing as the morning star.
Luciferianism is a belief system that venerates the essential characteristics that are affixed to Lucifer.
Luck is the experience of notably positive, negative, or improbable events.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Madeline Montalban (born Madeline Sylvia Royals; 8 January 1910 – 11 January 1982) was an English astrologer and ceremonial magician.
Madumo, a Man Bewitched is a 2000 non-fiction anthropology book written by Australian social scientist and professor Adam Ashforth.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
The Maka or Makaa are an ethnic group inhabiting the southern rain forest zone of Cameroon.
Makea Takau Ariki (1839–1911) was a sovereign of the Cook Islands.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
The kwacha (ISO 4217: MWK, official name Malawi Kwacha) is the currency of Malawi as of 1971, replacing the Malawian pound.
Maleficium (plural: maleficia) as a Latin term, "An act of witchcraft performed with the intention of causing damage or injury; the resultant harm." It comes from the, "Early 17th century; earliest use found in George Abbot (1562–1633), archbishop of Canterbury.
The Malleus Maleficarum, usually translated as the Hammer of Witches, is the best known and the most important treatise on witchcraft.
Mana, in Austronesian languages, means "power", "effectiveness", and "prestige".
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
The mythology and religion of the indigenous Mapuche people of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina is an extensive and ancient belief system.
The Maqlû, “burning,” series is an Akkadian incantation text which concerns the performance of a rather lengthy anti-witchcraft, or kišpū, ritual.
A marae (in New Zealand Māori, Cook Islands Māori, Tahitian), malae (in Tongan), meae (in Marquesan), and malae (in Samoan) is a communal or sacred place that serves religious and social purposes in Polynesian societies.
Margaret Alice Murray (13 July 1863 – 13 November 1963) was an Anglo-Indian Egyptologist, archaeologist, anthropologist, historian, and folklorist.
Margot Susanna Adler (April 16, 1946 – July 28, 2014) was an American author, journalist, lecturer, Wiccan priestess, and New York correspondent for National Public Radio (NPR).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Mastering Witchcraft: A Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks and Covens is a book written by Paul Huson and published in 1970 by G.P. Putnams- the first mainstream publisher to produce a do-it-yourself manual for the would-be witch or warlock.
Maxine Sanders (born Arline Maxine Morris on 30 December 1946 in Cheshire) is a key figure in the development of modern pagan witchcraft and Wicca and, along with her late husband, Alex Sanders, the co-founder of Alexandrian Wicca.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
Medical explanations of bewitchment, especially as exhibited during the Salem witch trials but in other witch-hunts as well, have emerged because it is not widely believed today that symptoms of those claiming affliction were actually caused by bewitchment.
A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas.
Mentalism is a performing art in which its practitioners, known as mentalists, appear to demonstrate highly developed mental or intuitive abilities.
Mercado de Sonora (Sonora Market) is a city-established traditional market, located just southeast of the historic center of Mexico City in the Colonia Merced Balbuena neighborhood.
The Mexican Inquisition was an extension of the Spanish Inquisition to New Spain.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middlesex County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United States.
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
A moral panic is a feeling of fear spread among a large number of people that some evil threatens the well-being of society.
In 2000 in London, an eight-year-old Ivorian girl, Victoria Adjo Climbié (2 November 1991 – 25 February 2000), was tortured and murdered by her guardians.
Native Appropriations is a blog that critically discusses the ways that Indigenous people are depicted in mainstream, Euro-American dominated, culture.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
The Navajo song ceremonial complex is a spiritual practice used by certain Navajo ceremonial people to restore and maintain balance and harmony in the lives of the people.
Necromancy is a practice of magic involving communication with the deceased – either by summoning their spirit as an apparition or raising them bodily – for the purpose of divination, imparting the means to foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge, to bring someone back from the dead, or to use the deceased as a weapon, as the term may sometimes be used in a more general sense to refer to black magic or witchcraft.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nettetal is a municipality in the district of Viersen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nottinghamshire (pronounced or; abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west.
Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The oprichnina (опри́чнина) was a state policy implemented by Tsar Ivan the Terrible in Russia between 1565 and 1572.
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) ('Order of the Temple of the East' or 'Order of Oriental Templars') is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century by Carl Kellner and Theodor Reuss.
Our Lady of Endor Coven, also known as Ophite Cultus Sathanas, was a Satanic cult claimed to have been founded in 1948 by Herbert Arthur Sloane (born September 3, 1905, died June 16, 1975) in Cleveland, Ohio, though some argue that it was not conceived of until 1968, after Sloane's contact with the Church of Satan.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paculla Annia was a Campanian priestess of Bacchus.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paraíba (Tupi: pa'ra a'íba: "bad for navigation") is a state of Brazil.
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Paul Huson (born 19 September 1942) is a British-born author and artist currently living in the United States.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The trials of the Pendle witches in 1612 are among the most famous witch trials in English history, and some of the best recorded of the 17th century.
Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.
A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
In folk magic and witchcraft, a poppet (also known as poppit, moppet, mommet and pippy) is a doll made to represent a person, for casting spells on that person or to aid that person through magic.
A potion (from Latin potio "drink") is a magical medicine, drug in liquid form.
The preternatural or praeternatural is that which appears outside or beside (Latin præter) the natural.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
County of Princess Anne is a county which was created in the British Colony of Virginia and the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States in 1691.
Prithee is an archaic English interjection formed from a corruption of the phrase pray thee (ask you), which was initially an exclamation of contempt used to indicate a subject's triviality.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Psychological abuse (also referred to as psychological violence, emotional abuse, or mental abuse) is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychological theories of magic treat magic as a personal phenomenon intended to meet individual needs, as opposed to a social phenomenon serving a collective purpose.
Publicly funded healthcare is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Raven Grimassi (born 1951) is an Italian-American author of over 20 books, and is a Pagan scholar with over 40 years of research and study in the genre of Wicca, Stregheria, Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism.
Reginald Scot (or Scott) (– 9 October 1599) was an English country gentleman and Member of Parliament, now remembered as the author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which was published in 1584.
Regino of Prüm (Regino Prumiensis, Regino von Prüm; died 915) was a Benedictine monk, who served as abbot of Prüm (892–99) and later of Saint Martin's at Trier, and chronicler, whose Chronicon is an important source for late Carolingian history.
Richard Kieckhefer is an American medievalist, religious historian, scholar of church architecture, and author.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Rituals are a principal aspect of many cultures and subcultures.
Robert Cochrane (26 January 1931 – 3 July 1966), who was born as Roy Bowers, was an English occultist who founded the tradition of Pagan Witchcraft known as Cochrane's Craft.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon (Latin: Archidioecesis Lugdunensis; French: Archidiocèse de Lyon), formerly the Archdiocese of Lyon–Vienne–Embrun, is a Roman Catholic Metropolitan archdiocese in France.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Ruth Behar (born 1956) is a Cuban-American anthropologist and writer.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Boniface (Bonifatius; 675 – 5 June 754 AD), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the kingdom of Wessex in Anglo-Saxon England, was a leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of the Frankish Empire during the 8th century.
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.
Salem is a historic, coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts' North Shore.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Satanic ritual abuse (SRA, sometimes known as ritual abuse, ritualistic abuse, organised abuse, sadistic ritual abuse, and other variants) was the subject of a moral panic (often referred to as the Satanic Panic) that originated in the United States in the 1980s, spreading throughout many parts of the world by the late 1990s.
Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on Satan.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saul (meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Saul; طالوت, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Scapegoating is the practice of singling out a person or group for unmerited blame and consequent negative treatment.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scrying (also known by various names such as "seeing" or "peeping") is the practice of looking into a suitable medium in the hope of detecting significant messages or visions.
Second sight is a form of extrasensory perception, the supposed power to perceive things that are not present to the senses, whereby a person perceives information, in the form of a vision, about future events before they happen (precognition), or about things or events at remote locations (remote viewing).
A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
(شيطان, plural: شياطين) is a malevolent creature in Islamic theology and mythology.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shunning can be the act of social rejection, or emotional distance.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
A sigil (pl. sigilla or sigils) is a symbol used in magic.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Springfield is a city in western New England, and the historical seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.
In Romanian mythology, strigoi (English: striga, poltergeist) are the troubled spirits of the dead rising from the grave.
Suffolk County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United States.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
In South African English, a tagati is a wizard, witch, or a spiteful person who operates in secret to harm others or who uses poisons and familiar spirits to carry out harmful deeds.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Terminal illness is an incurable disease that cannot be adequately treated and is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient.
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The Crucible is a 1953 play by American playwright Arthur Miller.
The Four Witches (German: Die Vier Hexen, or Four Naked WomenHutchison, 241 or Four SorceressesBrion, 129) is a 1497 engraving by the German Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Theistic Satanism or spiritual Satanism is an umbrella term for religious beliefs that consider Satan as an objectively existing supernatural being or force worthy of supplication, with whom individuals may contact, convene and even praise, rather than him being just an archetype, symbol or idea as in LaVeyan Satanism.
Theosophy, also known as Christian theosophy and Boehmian theosophy, refers to a range of positions within Christianity which focus on the attainment of direct, unmediated knowledge of the nature of divinity and the origin and purpose of the universe.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Toad doctors were practitioners of a specific tradition of medicinal folk magic, operating in western England until the end of the 19th century.
The Tocharians or Tokharians were Indo-European peoples who inhabited the medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China) in ancient times.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Traditional healers of South Africa are practitioners of traditional African medicine in Southern Africa.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion).
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vice News (stylized as VICE News) is Vice Media, Inc.'s current affairs channel, producing daily documentary essays and video through its website and YouTube channel.
Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially at fault for the harm that befell them.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
A warlock is a non-gender specific practitioner of evil magic (distinguished from a wizard or sorcerer, whose magic may be benign).
The Warlocks of Chiloé ("Brujo de Chiloé" or "Brujo chilote" in the Spanish language) are semi-mythical characters in Chilote mythology and folklore who are equivalent to "male witches", and considered very powerful warlocks and sorcerers.
In medicine, wasting, also known as wasting syndrome, refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to "waste" away.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The Wheel of the Year is an annual cycle of seasonal festivals, observed by many modern Pagans.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Kamkwamba (born August 5, 1987) is a Malawian innovator, engineer and author.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
A witch camp is a settlement where women suspected of being witches can flee for safety, usually in order to avoid being lynched by neighbours.
A witch doctor was originally a type of healer who treated ailments believed to be caused by witchcraft.
In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor is a woman who summons the prophet Samuel's spirit, at the demand of King Saul of the Kingdom of Israel in the First Book of Samuel.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 16th to 18th centuries.
The witch-cult hypothesis is a discredited theory that the witch trials of the Early Modern period were an attempt to suppress a pre-Christian, pagan religion that had survived the Christianisation of Europe.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
Witchcraft Today is a non-fiction book written by Gerald Gardner.
The Witches' Sabbath is a meeting of those who practice witchcraft and other rites.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
In the cultures of the Horn of Africa and adjacent regions of the Middle East, Zār (زار, ዛር) is the term for a demon or spirit assumed to possess individuals, mostly women, and to cause discomfort or illness.
Rabbi Zeira (רבי זירא), known before his semicha as Rav Zeira (רב זירא) and known in the Jerusalem Talmud as Rabbi Ze'era (רבי זעירא), was a Jewish Talmudist, known as an Amora, who lived in the Land of Israel, of the third generation.
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