314 relations: Abortion, Acid throwing, Adolescence, Adult, Adultery, Afghanistan, Akkadian Empire, Alcoholic drink, Ali Khamenei, All-female band, Amnesty International, Ancient Egypt, Androgen, Anne Commire, Aphrodite, Archaism, Art, Artificial insemination, Asexual reproduction, Audio engineer, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Baranamtarra, Biology, Birth, Birth control, Birthday, Blood, Bone, Brain, Breast, Breast cancer, Burqa, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden, Capital punishment, Central African Republic, Cervical cancer, Child, Childbirth, Christianity, Cigarette, Civil and political rights, Clara Schumann, Classical music, Clitoris, Cohabitation, Colombian conflict, Coming of age, Composer, Compulsory sterilization, ..., Conducting, Conscription, Continuum International Publishing Group, Copper, Criminal law, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Directive (European Union), Doctorate, Domestic violence, Dowry death, East Timor, Eclampsia, Economics, Egg cell, Egypt, Engineering, England and Wales, Enheduanna, Equal opportunity, Estrogen, Ethnic conflict, European Union, Extended family, Extramarital sex, Extreme metal, Family law, Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, Female, Female genital mutilation, Feminine psychology, Femininity, Feminism, Feminization (sociology), Fertilisation, First Dynasty of Egypt, Foot binding, Forced abortion, Forced marriage, Forced pregnancy, Forced prostitution, France, French ban on face covering, Gender equality, Gender identity, Gender role, Gender studies, Gender symbol, Gene, Genetics, George Eliot, George Sand, Girl, Gonad, Guinea, Gynaecology, Health, Heavy metal music, Hiberno-English, Hijab, Historian, HIV/AIDS, Homemaking, Honor killing, Honour, Hormone, Housewife, Human, Human body, Human development (biology), Human hair growth, Human mitochondrial genetics, Human penis, Human reproduction, Human reproductive system, Hunter-gatherer, Indonesia, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Intersex, Iran, Iraq, Islam and clothing, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Jordan, Judaism, Judicial functions of the House of Lords, Karyotype, Kimono, Kish (Sumer), Kubaba, Labia, Lagash, Laos, Libido, Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein women's suffrage referendum, 1984, List of female composers by birth date, List of female explorers and travelers, Lists of women, Literature, Lugalanda, Lupus erythematosus, Malaria, Male, Mali, Mammal, Mammary gland, Man, Mari, Syria, Marital rape, Marriage, Maternal death, Matriarchy, Matter, Menarche, Menopause, Menstruation, Merit-Ptah, Merneith, Middle class, Military occupation, Miniskirt, Mirror, Misogyny, Mitochondrial Eve, Mixing console, Modesty, Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Mother, Muscle, Music criticism, Music education, Music journalism, Musician, Musicology, Narmer, Natural and legal rights, Neithhotep, Neologism, Niger, Nigeria, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Nippur, Norman conquest of England, Nuclear family, Obstetrics, OECD, Old English, Ovarian cancer, Ovary, Overpopulation, Pakistan, Peseshet, Pew Research Center, Physician, Popular music, Population ageing, Population decline, Postgraduate education, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Pregnancy from rape, Prehistory, Professional, Psychology, Puabi, Puberty, Queen consort, Quinceañera, Rape, Rape during the Armenian Genocide, Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War, Rape during the Bosnian War, Rape during the Rwandan Genocide, Record producer, Reproductive health, Reproductive rights, Reproductive technology, Rite of passage, Rudaw Media Network, Sargon of Akkad, Sati (practice), Saudi Arabia, Secondary sex characteristic, Sex assignment, Sex chromosome, Sex differences in humans, Sex differences in medicine, Sex organ, Sex ratio, Sex trafficking, Sexism, Sexual harassment, Sexual intercourse, Sexual jihad, Sexual reproduction, Sexual selection, Sexual slavery, Sexual violence in the Iraqi insurgency, Sharia, Shibtu, Sin (mythology), Singapore, Singing, Single parent, Sinjar Mountains, Skin, Sleeveless shirt, Sociology, Songwriter, South Asia, Spermatozoon, Spirit, Stoning, Sub-replacement fertility, Sub-Saharan Africa, Suffrage, Suicide, Sumer, Switzerland, Tashlultum, Testicle, Testosterone, The Independent, The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Total fertility rate, Trans woman, Transgender, Transsexual, Triple X syndrome, Turner syndrome, UNICEF, United Nations, Ur, Urethra, Uterus, Uzbekistan, Vagina, Venus, Vienna Philharmonic, Virginity, Virility, Voting, Vulva, War, Wartime sexual violence, Western canon, Widow, Witch trials in the early modern period, Witch-hunt, Witchcraft, Women as theological figures, Women in science, Women in space, Women in World History, Women's rights, Women's suffrage in the United States, Womyn, Working class, Working parent, World Health Organization, X chromosome, Yemen, Zimri-Lim. Expand index (264 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Acid throwing, also called an acid attack, a vitriol attack or vitriolage, is a form of violent assault defined as the act of throwing acid or a similarly corrosive substance onto the body of another "with the intention to disfigure, maim, torture, or kill".
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
An all-female band is a musical group in popular music which is exclusively composed of female musicians.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Anne Commire (11 August 1939 – 23 February 2012) was an American playwright and editor.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.
Baranamtarra was the Queen of Lagash during the 24th century BCE.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
A burqa (برقع), also known as chadri or paranja in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
The canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (in English sometimes Appenzell Inner-Rhodes) is the smallest canton of Switzerland by population and the second smallest by area, with canton of Basel-City being the smallest.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Clara Schumann (née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together.
The Colombian conflict began in the mid-1960s and is a low-intensity asymmetric war between Colombian governments, paramilitary groups, crime syndicates, and far-left guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN), fighting each other to increase their influence in Colombian territory.
Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was adopted without vote by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Dowry deaths are deaths of women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Eclampsia is the onset of seizures (convulsions) in a woman with pre-eclampsia.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.
Extramarital sex occurs when a married person engages in sexual activity with someone other than his or her spouse.
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (Bundesgericht, Tribunal fédéral, Tribunale federale, Tribunal federal) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Feminine psychology is an approach that focuses on social, economic, and political issues confronting women all throughout their lives.
Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman to become pregnant, often as part of a forced marriage, or as part of a programme of breeding slaves, or as part of a programme of genocide.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French ban on face covering (LOI n° 2010-1192: Loi interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public, "Law of 2010-1192: Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space") is an act of parliament passed by the Senate of France on 14 September 2010, resulting in the ban on the wearing of face-covering headgear, including masks, helmets, balaclavas, niqābs and other veils covering the face in public places, except under specified circumstances.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
A gender symbol is a pictogram or glyph used to represent either biological sex or sociological gender (a terminological distinction originating in 1950s sociology) in either biology, medicine, genealogy or selective breeding, or in sociology, gender politics, LGBT subculture and identity politics.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her nom de plume George Sand, was a French novelist and memoirist.
A girl is a young female human, usually a child or an adolescent.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Homemaking is a mainly American term for the management of a home, otherwise known as housework, housekeeping, or household management.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A housewife (also known as a homekeeper) is a woman whose work is running or managing her family's home—caring for her children; buying, cooking, and storing food for the family; buying goods that the family needs in everyday life; housekeeping and maintaining the home; and making clothes for the family—and who is not employed outside the home.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The growth of human hair occurs everywhere on the body except for the soles of the feet, the lips, palms of the hands, some external genital areas, the navel, scar tissue, and, apart from eyelashes, the eyelids.
Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria).
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman.
The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, usually just FIGO ("fee'go") as the acronym of its French name Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique, is a worldwide NGO organisation representing obstetricians and gynaecologists in over one hundred territories.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Islam says that the believing women should lower their gaze, guard their modesty, not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, Foster brother, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
The is a traditional Japanese garment.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
Kubaba (in the Weidner or Esagila Chronicle; Sumerian: Kug-Bau) is the only queen on the Sumerian King List, which states she reigned for 100 years – roughly in the Early Dynastic III period (ca. 2500-2330 BC) of Sumerian history.
The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
A referendum on the introduction of women's suffrage in national elections was held in Liechtenstein on 1 July 1984.
The following is a list of female composers in the Western concert tradition, ordered by their year of birth.
This is a list of women who explored or travelled the world in a pioneering way.
This is an index of lists about women.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lugalanda (also Lugal-anda) was a Sumerian king of Lagash during the 24th century BC.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
A man is a male human.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Merit-Ptah ("Beloved of the god Ptah"; c. 2700 BCE) the chief physician of the pharaoh's court during the Second Dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Merneith (also written Meritneith and Meryt-Neith) was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt during the first dynasty.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
A miniskirt (sometimes hyphenated as mini-skirt or separated as mini skirt) is a skirt with a hemline well above the knees, generally at mid-thigh level, normally no longer than below the buttocks; and a dress with such a hemline is called a minidress or a miniskirt dress.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals.
Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others.
Orchestre symphonique de Montréal (OSM; English translation, Montreal Symphony Orchestra) is a Canadian symphony orchestra based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
A mother is the female parent of a child.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The Oxford Companion to Music defines music criticism as 'the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole groups or genres'.
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music.
Music journalism (or "music criticism") is media criticism and reporting about popular music topics, including pop music, rock music, and related styles.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Neithhotep or Neith-hotep was an Ancient Egyptian queen consort living and ruling during the early 1st dynasty.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Overpopulation occurs when a species' population exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Peseshet, who lived under the Fourth Dynasty (albeit a date to the Fifth Dynasty is also possible), is often credited with being the earliest known female physician in ancient Egypt, though another, Merit-Ptah lived earlier.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy.
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnancy is a potential result of rape.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Puabi (Akkadian: "Word of my father"), also called Shubad due to a misinterpretation by Sir Charles Leonard Woolley, was an important person in the Sumerian city of Ur, during the First Dynasty of Ur (c. 2600 BC).
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
The fiesta de quince años (also fiesta de quinceañera, quince años and quince) is a celebration of a girl's 15th birthday.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
During the Armenian Genocide which occurred in the Ottoman Empire, led at the time by the Young Turks, the Turkish armed forces, militias, and members of the public engaged in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape against female Armenians and children of both sexes.
During the 1971 Bangladesh war for independence, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat e Islami raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.
Violence assumed a gender-targeted form through the use of rape during the Bosnian War.
Violence during the Rwandan Genocide of 1994 took a gender-specific form when, over the course of 100 days, up to half a million women and children were raped, sexually mutilated, or murdered.
A record producer or track producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
Reproductive technology encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
Rudaw Media Network (تۆڕی میدیایی ڕووداو), also known as Rudaw (Rûdaw ڕووداو), is a KDP-affiliated media group in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases or conditions which occur only in people of one sex (for example, prostate cancer in males or uterine cancer in females); sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more common to one sex (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus occurs predominantly in females); and diseases which occur at similar rates in males and females but manifest differently according to sex (for example, peripheral artery disease).
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Sex trafficking is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual jihad (جهاد النكاح, jihad al-nikah) refers to the purported practice in which Sunni women sympathetic to Salafi jihadism travel to warzones such as Syria and voluntarily offer themselves to be "married" to jihadist militants, often repeatedly and in temporary marriages, serving sexual comfort roles to help boost the fighters' morale.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has employed sexual violence against women and men in a manner that has been described as "terrorism".
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shibtu (reigned 1775 BC – 1761 BC) was the wife of Zimrilim and queen consort of the ancient city-state of Mari in modern-day Syria.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
A single parent is a parent that parents alone without the other parent's support, meaning this particular parent is the only parent to the child, responsible for all financial, material, and emotional needs.
The Sinjar Mountains (Çiyayên Şengalê چیای شەنگال/شەنگار; جبل سنجار; also Shingal\Shengar Mountains) are a mountain range that runs east to west, rising above the surrounding alluvial steppe plains in northwestern Iraq to an elevation of.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
A sleeveless shirt is a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been cut off.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
A songwriter is a professional who is paid to write lyrics for singers and melodies for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tashlultum was a wife of King Sargon of Akkad.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is an etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The Vienna Philharmonic (VPO; Wiener Philharmoniker), founded in 1842, is an orchestra considered to be one of the finest in the world.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
Virility (from the Latin virilitas, manhood or virility, derived from Latin vir, man) refers to any of a wide range of masculine characteristics viewed positively.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 16th to 18th centuries.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
Women as theological figures have played a significant role in the development of various religions and religious hierarchies.
Women have made significant contributions to science from the earliest times.
Women of many nationalities have worked in space.
Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia is a 16-volume reference work of biographies of notable women.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Women's suffrage in the United States of America, the legal right of women to vote, was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, and then nationally in 1920.
The word womyn is one of several alternative spellings of the English word women used by some feminists.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
A working parent is a father or a mother who engages in a work life, aside from their duties as a childcare provider.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zimri-Lim was king of Mari from about 1775 to 1761 BC.
Female Human, Female human, Female humans, Human Female, Human female, Human females, WOMAN, WOMEN, Woman in 1911 Brittanica, Woman in 1911 brittanica, Womanhood, Womankind, Women, Women's, Womens, Wonmen, Young Woman, Young woman, 👩, 👩🏻, 👩🏼, 👩🏽, 👩🏾, 👩🏿, 🚺.