519 relations: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, A. N. Sherwin-White, Abortion in Canada, Abortion law, Abstinence, Abuse during childbirth, Activism, Adam and Eve, Adultery, Aemilius Papinianus, African Union, Age of Enlightenment, Agnes Smedley, Akkadian Empire, Alemannic German, All Pakistan Women's Association, Amnesty International, Ancient Rome, Andorra, Anna Trapnell, Annemarie Schimmel, Archaic Greece, Argentina, Aristotle, Arthur Goldberg, Association for the Protection and Defense of Women's Rights in Saudi Arabia, Assyria, Athenian democracy, Augustus, Aurelia Cotta, Australia, Austria, Autonomy, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Battery (crime), Baugrygr, Bavaria, Beijing Declaration, Berlin, Bill of rights, Birka female Viking warrior, Birth control, Bolsheviks, Bosniaks, Brazil, Bride kidnapping, Bride price, British Hong Kong, Cairo, Cambodia, ..., Canada, Canadians, Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden, Catharine Macaulay, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, Central Asia, Charles Spurgeon, Childbirth, China, Christian right, Christianity, City-state, Civil and political rights, Civil society, Classical Athens, Clinical trial, Coercion, Cohabitation, Comparative law, Compulsory sterilization, Confucianism, Conscientious objector, Consent, Constantine the Great, Constitution Act, 1867, Constitution of Japan, Consumerism, Contract, Convention against Discrimination in Education, Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Copenhagen, Cornelia Africana, Cornell University Press, Council of Agde, Council of Europe, Coverture, Crimes against humanity, Crown colony, Culture of Japan, Cynicism (philosophy), Cyril of Alexandria, Czechoslovakia, Damaris Cudworth Masham, De facto, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Delphi, Department store, Discrimination, Divorce, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Medicine, Domestic violence, Dominican Republic, Dorothea Erxleben, Dowry, Dowry death, Early social changes under Islam, East Semitic languages, Ecuador, Edo period, Education, Education in Canada, Edwards v Canada (AG), Egalitarianism, El Salvador, Elaine Fantham, Eleanor Roosevelt, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Emilia Lanier, Emily Murphy, Emmeline Pankhurst, English law, Enheduanna, Entitlement, Environmentalism, Equal Opportunities Commission (United Kingdom), Equal pay for equal work, Equal Rights Amendment, Ernestine Rose, Ethics, Eugenics, European Court of Human Rights, European Economic Community, European Union, Eva Cantarella, Evangelicalism, Exoticism, Family law, Family planning, Female education, Female genital mutilation, Female infanticide, Femen, Feminist movement, Fiqh, First Babylonian dynasty, Foča, Foot binding, Forced abortion, Forced marriage, Forced pregnancy, Forced prostitution, France, Freedom of movement, Freedom of religion, French Revolution, Frostating, Gaius Musonius Rufus, Gandharva marriage, Gang rape, Gender, Gender apartheid, Gender equality, Gendercide, Geneva Conventions, Genocidal rape, Genocide, Genocide Convention, Georgia (country), Germany, Girl, Gortyn, Gray Goose Laws, Greece, Green paper, Guatemala, Gulating, Gynaeceum, Harald Bluetooth, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Head and Master law, Health, Healthcare in Canada, Heian period, Heinrich Kramer, Helen Kendrick Johnson, Hellenistic period, Henrietta Edwards, Herennius Modestinus, History of feminism, HIV/AIDS, Honor killing, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Human nature, Human reproduction, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Human trafficking, Humanism, Hypatia, Iceland, IIDA Women's Development Organisation, Inanna, Incest, Index of feminism articles, India, Indonesia, Infamia, International Conference on Population and Development, International Council of Women, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, International Criminal Court, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, International human rights law, International humanitarian law, International law, International Women's Year, Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi Americans, Irene Parlby, Islamic inheritance jurisprudence, Islamic marriage contract, Jacques de Vitry, Jane Anger, Japan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Akayesu, John Esposito, John F. Kennedy, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Josef Mengele, Joseph-François Lafitau, Judaism and abortion, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Julius Caesar, Jus trium liberorum, Justinian I, Kaibara Ekken, Karakalpakstan, Kazakhstan, Kātyāyana, Khmer Rouge, Kirchberg v. Feenstra, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Kyrios, Labor rights, Labour law, League of Nations, Legal rights of women in history, Letter and spirit of the law, Lex Aquilia, Lex Julia, Liberia, Library and Archives Canada, Liechtenstein, List of civil rights leaders, List of feminists, List of governors of Roman Egypt, List of suffragists and suffragettes, List of women's organizations, List of women's rights activists, Lombards, Louise McKinney, Luxembourg, Majid Khadduri, Malleus Maleficarum, Mao Zedong, Maputo, Maputo Protocol, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, Marital power, Marital rape, Marriage bar, Marriage law, Married Women's Property Act 1870, Married Women's Property Act 1882, Married Women's Property Acts in the United States, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary, mother of Jesus, Maternal death, Matrilineality, Medieval Scandinavian law, Medimnos, Megara, Meiji period, Men's rights movement, Mexico City, Microstate, Middle Ages, Millicent Fawcett, Misogyny, Monaco, Moral evil, Mortal sin, Mos maiorum, Muhammad, Mui tsai, Municipal Corporations Act 1835, Myth, Nairobi, National Council of Women of Canada, National Organization for Women, Natural and legal rights, Natural law, Natural theology, Navi Pillay, Neglect, Nellie McClung, Netherlands, New Marriage Law, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nigeria, Niue, Non-governmental organization, Nordic countries, Norwegians, October Revolution, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Oikos, Olympe de Gouges, Onna Daigaku, Orient, Ottawa, Palermo protocols, Parental leave, Parental Leave Directive 2010, Patanjali, Pater familias, Patriarch of Alexandria, Patriarchy, Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis, Peacebuilding, Peregrinus (Roman), Peter the Great, Physical abuse, Plato, Pol Pot, Poland, Polygyny, Population control, Population Council, Portugal, Pre-Islamic Arabia, Pregnancy, Pregnant patients' rights, Pregnant Workers Directive 1992, Prenatal care, Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, Prince Edward Island, Private property, Privy examination, Property, Property law, Prostitution in ancient Rome, Protocol (diplomacy), Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Psychological abuse, Purdah, Quakers, Quebec, Quran, Radovan Karadžić, Rape, Rationality, Reform Act 1832, Reformation, Reproduction, Reproductive coercion, Reproductive health, Reproductive rights, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rhodes University, Right to education, Right to property, Right to work, Rights, Roman citizenship, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman law, Roman magistrate, Roman Republic, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Runemaster, SAGE Publications, Salian Franks, San Marino, Sargon of Akkad, Saudi Arabia, Select committee (United Kingdom), Seneca the Younger, Separate spheres, Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sex and the law, Sex education, Sex workers' rights, Sexual abuse, Sexual assault, Sexual harassment, Sexual intercourse, Sexual penetration, Sexual reproduction, Sexual slavery, Sexual violence, Sexuality in ancient Rome, Sexually transmitted infection, Shield-maiden, Simone de Beauvoir Prize, Single parent, Slave breeding in the United States, Slavery, Slavery in ancient Rome, Social class, Social class in ancient Rome, Society of Jesus, Somalia, Somalis, South Australia, Soviet Union, Spain, Sparta, Stoicism, Studies in Family Planning, Suffrage, Sui iuris, Sumer, Summis desiderantes affectibus, Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Supreme court, Supreme Court of Canada, Swayamvara, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadeusz Swietochowski, Taiwan, The Famous Five (Canada), The History and Culture of the Indian People, The Holocaust, The Subjection of Women, Thessaly, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Three Obediences and Four Virtues, Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting), Timeline of women's suffrage, Toronto, Torture, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tutsi, Uganda, Ukraine, Ummah, UN Women, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, United Nations Development Fund for Women, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Human Rights Committee, United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, United States, United States Department of State, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Universal suffrage, Uzbekistan, Vedic period, Vienna, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Viking Age, Violence against women, Visigoths, W. Montgomery Watt, Wajeha al-Huwaider, Wali (Islamic legal guardian), War, War crime, Wartime sexual violence, Weregild, West Germany, WGBH Educational Foundation, Wiley-Blackwell, William Wilberforce, Willie Hamilton, Witch-hunt, Woman, Women for Women International, Women in Anglo-Saxon society, Women in Arab societies, Women in Classical Athens, Women's health, Women's property rights, Women's rights in 2014, Women's rights in Saudi Arabia, Women's Social and Political Union, Women's suffrage, World Conference on Human Rights, World Conference on Women, 1995, World War I, Yemen, Zainab Salbi, Zeid Raad Al Hussein, Zeno of Citium. Expand index (469 more) » « Shrink index
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
Adrian Nicholas Sherwin-White, FBA (10 August 1911 – 1 November 1993) was a British academic and ancient historian.
Abortion in Canada is legal at all stages of pregnancy, and is governed by the Canada Health Act.
Abortion law permits, prohibits, restricts, or otherwise regulates the availability of abortion.
Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure.
Abuse during childbirth (or obstetric violence) is the neglect, physical abuse and lack of respect during childbirth.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Aemilius Papinianus (Αιμίλιος Παπινιανός) (142–212), also known as Papinian, was a celebrated Roman jurist, magister libellorum, attorney general (advocatus fisci) and, after the death of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus in 205, praetorian prefect.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agnes Smedley (February 23, 1892 – May 6, 1950) was an American journalist and writer, well known for her semi-autobiographical novel Daughter of Earth as well as for her sympathetic chronicling of the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
The All Pakistan Women's Association, or APWA, آل پاکستان ویمنز ایسوسی ایشن as it is commonly known, is a voluntary, non-profit and non-political Pakistani organisation whose fundamental aim is the promotion of moral, social and economic welfare of the women of Pakistan.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Anna Trapnell (sometimes Trapnel) was an alleged prophetess active in England in the 1650s, associated with the Fifth Monarchists whom she joined in 1652.
Annemarie Schimmel (7 April 1922 – 26 January 2003) was an influential German Orientalist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908January 19, 1990) was an American statesman and jurist who served as the 9th U.S. Secretary of Labor, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the 6th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
The Association for the Protection and Defense of Women's Rights in Saudi Arabia is a Saudi Non-governmental organization founded to provide activism for women's rights.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (May 21, 120 – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BC).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Battery is a criminal offense involving the unlawful physical acting upon a threat, distinct from assault which is the act of creating apprehension of such contact.
Baugrygr or Ringkvinna was the term for an unmarried woman who had inherited the position of head of the family, usually from her father or brother, with all the tasks and rights associated with the position.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Beijing Declaration was a resolution adopted by the UN at the end of the Fourth World Conference on Women on 15 September 1995.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.
The Birka female Viking warrior was a woman buried with the accoutrements of an elite professional Viking warrior in a 10th century chamber-grave in Birka, Sweden.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
The canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (in English sometimes Appenzell Inner-Rhodes) is the smallest canton of Switzerland by population and the second smallest by area, with canton of Basel-City being the smallest.
Catharine Macaulay (née Sawbridge; 23 March 1731 – 22 June 1791), later Catharine Graham, was an English Whig republican historian.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Charles Haddon Spurgeon (19 June 1834 – 31 January 1892) was an English Particular Baptist preacher.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christian right or religious right is a term used mainly in the United States to label conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative policies.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together.
Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.
The is the fundamental law of Japan.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Convention against Discrimination in Education is a multilateral treaty adopted by UNESCO on 14 December 1960 in Paris and came into effect on 22 May 1962, which aims to combat discrimination cultural or religious assimilation or racial segregation in the field of education.
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) is a Council of Europe convention against violence against women and domestic violence which was opened for signature on 11 May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cornelia Africana (c. 190 – c. 100 BC) was the second daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the hero of the Second Punic War, and Aemilia Paulla.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Council of Agde was a regional synod held in September 506 at Agatha or Agde, on the Mediterranean coast east of Narbonne, in the Septimania region of the Visigothic Kingdom, with the permission of the Visigothic King Alaric.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Coverture (sometimes spelled couverture) was a legal doctrine whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights and obligations were subsumed by those of her husband, in accordance with the wife's legal status of feme covert.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.
Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).
Cyril of Alexandria (Κύριλλος Ἀλεξανδρείας; Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ also ⲡⲓ̀ⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲕⲓⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲥ; c. 376 – 444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Damaris Cudworth, Lady Masham (18 January 1659 – 20 April 1708) was an English theological writer and advocate for women's education who is characterized as a proto-feminist.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (French: Déclaration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne), also known as the Declaration of the Rights of Woman, was written on 5 September in 1791 by French activist, feminist, and playwright Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women is a human rights proclamation issued by the United Nations General Assembly, outlining that body's views on women's rights.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was adopted without vote by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993.
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Dorothea Christiane Erxleben née Leporin (13 November 1715, Quedlinburg – 13 June 1762 in Quedlinburg) was the first female medical doctor in Germany.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Dowry deaths are deaths of women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
Many social changes took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammad's mission and the rule of his four immediate successors who established the Rashidun Caliphate.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.
Edwards v Canada (AG)also known as the Persons Caseis a famous Canadian constitutional case that decided that women were eligible to sit in the Senate of Canada.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elaine Fantham (née Crosthwaite, 25 May 1933 – 11 July 2016) was a British-Canadian classicist.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.
Emilia Lanier (also spelled Aemilia (or Amelia) Lanyer) (1569–1645), née Bassano, was a British poet in the early modern English era.
Emily Murphy (born Emily Gowan Ferguson; 14 March 186827 October 1933) was a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author.
Emmeline Pankhurst (née Goulden; 15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.
An entitlement is a provision made in accordance with a legal framework of a society.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
The Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) was an independent non-departmental public body, (NDPB) in the United Kingdom, which tackled sex discrimination and promoted gender equality.
Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labor rights that individuals in the same workplace be given equal pay.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
Ernestine Louise Rose (January 13, 1810 – August 4, 1892) was a Jewish suffragist, abolitionist, and freethinker.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eva Cantarella (born 1936 in Roma) is an Italian classicist.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Exoticism (from 'exotic') is a trend in European art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations from the late 19th-century.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".
Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Female infanticide is the deliberate killing of newborn female children.
Femen (Фемен), stylized as FEMEN, is a Ukrainian radical feminist activist group intended to protect women's rights.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
Foča (Фоча) is a town and a municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman to become pregnant, often as part of a forced marriage, or as part of a programme of breeding slaves, or as part of a programme of genocide.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Frostating was an early Norwegian court.
Gaius Musonius Rufus (Μουσώνιος Ῥοῦφος) was a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD.
A Gandharva Marriage (Sanskrit: गन्धर्व विवाह, pronounced gənd̪ʱərvə vɪvaːhə) is one of the eight classical types of Hindu marriage.
Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gender apartheid (also called sexual apartheid or sex apartheid) is the economic and social sexual discrimination against individuals because of their gender or sex.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Genocidal rape is a term used to describe the actions of a group who have carried out acts of mass rape during wartime against their perceived enemy as part of a genocidal campaign.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A girl is a young female human, usually a child or an adolescent.
Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.
The Gray (Grey) Goose Laws (Grágás) are a collection of laws from the Icelandic Commonwealth period.
In the European Union, the Commonwealth countries, Hong Kong and the United States, a green paper is a tentative government report and consultation document of policy proposals for debate and discussion.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Gulating (Gulaþing) is the name of both one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or things and one of the present-day law courts of western Norway.
In Ancient Greece, the gynaeceum (γυναικεῖον gynaikeion, from Ancient Greek γυναικεία gynaikeia "part of the house reserved for the women"; literally "of or belonging to women, feminine") or the gynaeconitis (γυναικωνῖτις gynaikōnitis "women's apartments in a house") was a building or the portion of a house reserved for women, generally the innermost apartment.
Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson (Haraldr Gormsson, Harald Blåtand Gormsen, died c. 985/86) was a king of Denmark and Norway.
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author.
"Head and Master" laws were a set of American property laws that permitted a husband to have final say regarding all household decisions and jointly owned property without his wife's knowledge or consent, until 1979 when Louisiana became the final state to repeal them.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Healthcare in Canada is delivered through thirteen provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
Heinrich Kramer (1430 – 1505), also known under the Latinized name Henricus Institor, was a German churchman and inquisitor.
Helen Kendrick Johnson (January 4, 1844 – January 3, 1917) was an American writer, poet, and prominent activist opposing the women's suffrage movement.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henrietta Muir Edwards (18 December 184910 November 1931) was a Canadian women's rights activist and reformer.
Herennius Modestinus, or simply Modestinus, was a celebrated Roman jurist, a student of Ulpian who flourished about 250 AD.
The history of feminism is the chronological narrative of the movements and ideologies aimed at equal rights for women.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hypatia (born 350–370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
IIDA Women's Development Organisation is a non-governmental organisation based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
This is an index of articles related to the issue of feminism, women's liberation, the women's movement, and women's rights.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In ancient Roman culture, infamia (in-, "not," and fama, "reputation") was a loss of legal or social standing.
The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt, on 5–13 September 1994.
The International Council of Women (ICW) is a women's organization working across national boundaries for the common cause of advocating human rights for women.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
The United Nations General Assembly has designated November 25 as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women (Resolution 54/134).
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International Women's Year (IWY) was the name given to 1975 by the United Nations.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iraqi Americans are Americans who identify as being of Iraqi ancestry.
Mary Irene Parlby (née Marryat; 9 January 186812 July 1965) was a Canadian women's farm leader, activist and politician.
Islamic Inheritance jurisprudence is a field of Islamic jurisprudence (فقه) that deals with inheritance, a topic that is prominently dealt with in the Qur'an.
An Islamic marriage contract is an Islamic prenuptial agreement.
Jacques de Vitry (Jacobus de Vitriaco, c. 1160/70 – 1 May 1240) was a French canon regular who was a noted theologian and chronicler of his era.
Jane Anger was an English author of the sixteenth century and the first woman to publish a full-length defense of her gender in English.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Paul Akayesu (born 1953) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican Democratic Movement (MDR) politician from Rwanda.
John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Joseph-François Lafitau (May 31, 1681 – July 3, 1746) was a French Jesuit missionary, ethnologist, and naturalist who works in Canada.
In Judaism, views on abortion draw primarily upon the legal and ethical teachings of the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the case-by-case decisions of responsa, and other rabbinic literature.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The ius trium liberorum, meaning “the right of three children” in Latin, was a privilege rewarded to Roman citizen women who had borne at least three children or freedwomen who had borne at least four children.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
or Ekiken, also known as Atsunobu (篤信) was a Japanese Neo-Confucianist philosopher and botanist.
Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan / Қарақалпақстан), officially the Republic of Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / Қарақалпақстан Республикасы) is an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) (c. 300 BC) was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
Kirchberg v. Feenstra,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held a Louisiana Head and Master law, which gave sole control of marital property to the husband, unconstitutional.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Kyrios or kurios (translit) is a Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master".
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women.
The letter of the law versus the spirit of the law is an idiomatic antithesis.
The lex Aquilia was a Roman law which provided compensation to the owners of property injured by someone's fault, set in the 3rd century BC, in the Roman Republic.
A Lex Julia (or: Lex Iulia, plural: Leges Juliae/Leges Iuliae) is an ancient Roman law that was introduced by any member of the Julian family.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (in Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.
This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, originally sorted by surname within each period.
During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor.
This list of suffragists and suffragettes includes noted individuals active in the worldwide women's suffrage movement who have campaigned or strongly advocated for women's suffrage, the organizations which they formed or joined, and the publications which publicized – and, in some nations, continue to publicize – their goals.
This is a list of women's organizations by geography.
This article is a list of notable women's rights activists, arranged alphabetically by modern country names and by the names of the persons listed.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Louise McKinney née Crummy (22 September 186810 July 1931) was a Canadian politician and women's rights activist from Alberta, Canada.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Majid Khadduri (Arabic: مجيد خدوري) (September 27, 1909 – January 25, 2007) was an Iraqi–born academic.
The Malleus Maleficarum, usually translated as the Hammer of Witches, is the best known and the most important treatise on witchcraft.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.
The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the Maputo Protocol, guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political equality with men, improved autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation.
Margaret Higgins Sanger (born Margaret Louise Higgins, September 14, 1879September 6, 1966, also known as Margaret Sanger Slee) was an American birth control activist, sex educator, writer, and nurse.
Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women's rights.
In civil law jurisdictions, marital power (potestas maritalis, maritale macht, maritale mag) was a doctrine in terms of which a wife was legally an incapax under the usufructory tutorship (tutela usufructuaria) of her husband.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
A marriage bar is the custom and practice of restricting the employment of married women in general or in particular professions or occupations; and sometimes the practice called for the termination of employment of a woman on her marriage, especially in teaching, clerical and other occupations, and sometimes widowed women with children were still considered to be married preventing them from being hired.
Marriage law refers to the legal requirements that determine the validity of a marriage, and which vary considerably among countries.
The Married Women's Property Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict. c.93) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed married women to be the legal owners of the money they earned and to inherit property.
The Married Women's Property Act 1882 (45 & 46 Vict. c.75) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that significantly altered English law regarding the property rights of married women, which besides other matters allowed married women to own and control property in their own right.
The Married Women's Property Acts are laws enacted by the individual states of the United States beginning in 1839, usually under that name and sometimes, especially when extending the provisions of a Married Women's Property Act, under names describing a specific provision, such as the Married Women's Earnings Act.
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Medieval Scandinavian law, a subset of Germanic law, was originally memorized by lawspeakers, but after the end of the Viking Age they were committed to writing, mostly by Christian monks after the Christianization of Scandinavia.
A medimnos (μέδιμνος, médimnos, plural μέδιμνοι,médimnoi) was an Ancient Greek unit of volume, which was generally used to measure dry food grain.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
The men's rights movement (MRM) is a part of the larger men's movement.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett (11 June 1847 – 5 August 1929) was a British intellectual, political leader, activist and writer.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Moral evil is the result of any morally negative event caused by the intentional action or inaction of an agent, such as a person.
A mortal sin (peccatum mortale), in Catholic theology, is a gravely sinful act, which can lead to damnation if a person does not repent of the sin before death.
The mos maiorum ("ancestral custom" or "way of the ancestors," plural mores, cf. English "mores"; maiorum is the genitive plural of "greater" or "elder") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mui tsai, which means "little sister"Yung, Unbound Feet, 37.
The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm. IV., c.76), sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales.
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.
The National Council of Women of Canada (NCWC, Conseil national des femmes du Canada, (CNFC)) is a Canadian advocacy organization based in Ottawa, Ontario aimed at improving conditions for women, families, and communities.
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist organization founded in 1966.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
Neglect is a form of abuse where the perpetrator, who is responsible for caring for someone who is unable to care for themselves, fails to do so.
Nellie Letitia McClung (born Helen Letitia Mooney; 20 October 18731 September 1951), was a Canadian suffragette, politician, author, and social activist.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Marriage Law (also First Marriage Law) was a civil marriage law passed in the People's Republic of China on May 1, 1950.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
The ancient Greek word oikos (ancient Greek: οἶκος, plural: οἶκοι; English prefix: eco- for ecology and economics) refers to three related but distinct concepts: the family, the family's property, and the house.
Olympe de Gouges (7 May 1748 – 3 November 1793), born Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.
The Onna Daigaku, (or "The Great Learning for Women") is a 17th-century Japanese educational text advocating for neo-Confucian values in education.
The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The Palermo protocols are three protocols that were adopted by the United Nations to supplement the 2000 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Convention).
Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.
The Parental Leave Directive is a European Union Directive, which concerns the basic rights of all parents to leave in the European Union.
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
The pater familias, also written as paterfamilias (plural patres familias), was the head of a Roman family.
The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis (August 7, 1813 – August 24, 1876) was an American abolitionist, suffragist, and educator.
Peacebuilding is an intervention technique or method that is designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict by creating a sustainable peace.
Peregrinus was the term used during the early Roman empire, from 30 BC to AD 212, to denote a free provincial subject of the Empire who was not a Roman citizen.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
Population control is the practice of artificially maintaining the size of any population.
The Population Council is an international, nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnant patients rights refers to the choices and legal rights available to a mother experiencing pregnancy or childbirth.
The Pregnant Workers Directive is a European Union Directive.
Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare.
The Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) was established to advise the President of the United States on issues concerning the status of women.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
A privy examination, or "separate examination", was a United States legal practice in which a married woman who wished to sell her property had to be separately examined by a judge or justice of the peace outside of the presence of her husband and asked if her husband was pressuring her into signing the document.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
Prostitution in ancient Rome was legal and licensed.
In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or UN TIP Protocol) is a protocol to the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.
Psychological abuse (also referred to as psychological violence, emotional abuse, or mental abuse) is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Pardah or pardah is the term used primarily in South Asia, (from پرده, meaning "curtain") to describe in the South Asian context, the global religious and social practice of female seclusion that is associated with Muslim communities.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић,; born 19 June 1945) is a Bosnian Serb former politician and convicted war criminal who served as the President of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War and sought the direct unification of that entity with Serbia.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Reproductive coercion (also called coerced reproduction) is threats or acts of violence against a partner's reproductive health or reproductive decision-making and is a collection of behaviors intended to pressure or coerce a partner into initiating or terminating a pregnancy.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Rhodes University is a public research university located in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.
The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which recognizes a right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment, and may not be prevented from doing so.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
A runemaster or runecarver is a specialist in making runestones.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
In British politics, parliamentary select committees can be appointed from the House of Commons, like the Foreign Affairs Select Committee, from the House of Lords, like the Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee, or as a "Joint Committee" drawn from both, such as the Joint Committee on Human Rights.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Terms such as separate spheres and domestic–public dichotomy refer to a social phenomenon, within modern societies that feature, to some degree, an empirical separation between a domestic or private sphere and a public or social sphere.
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbian and Bosnian: Срби у Босни и Херцеговини / Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (State-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.
Sex and the law deals with the regulation by law of human sexual activity.
Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.
The term sex workers' rights encompasses a variety of aims being pursued globally by individuals and organizations that specifically involve the human, health, and labor rights of sex workers and their clients.
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual penetration is the insertion of a body part or other object into a body orifice, such as the vagina, anus or mouth, as part of human sexual activity or animal sexual behavior.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim.
Sexuality in ancient Rome, and more broadly, sexual attitudes and behaviors in ancient Rome, are indicated by Roman art, literature and inscriptions, and to a lesser extent by archaeological remains such as erotic artifacts and architecture.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
A shield-maiden (skjaldmær), in Scandinavian folklore and mythology was a female warrior.
The Simone de Beauvoir Prize (Prix Simone de Beauvoir pour la liberté des femmes) is an international human rights prize for women's freedom, awarded since 2008 to individuals or groups fighting for gender equality and opposing breaches of human rights.
A single parent is a parent that parents alone without the other parent's support, meaning this particular parent is the only parent to the child, responsible for all financial, material, and emotional needs.
Slave breeding in the United States includes any practice of slave ownership that aimed to systematically influence the reproduction of slaves in order to increase the wealth of slaveholders.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual's relative position in one might be higher or lower than in another.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Studies in Family Planning is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Population Council.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Sui iuris, commonly also spelled sui juris, is a Latin phrase that literally means "of one's own right".
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Summis desiderantes affectibus, (Latin for Desiring with supreme ardor), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 5, 1484.
The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the full title of which is the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, is a 1956 United Nations treaty which builds upon the 1926 Slavery Convention, which is still operative and which proposed to secure the abolition of slavery and of the slave trade, and the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, which banned forced or compulsory labour, by banning debt bondage, serfdom, child marriage, servile marriage, and child servitude.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
Swayamvara (स्वयंवर, IAST: svayaṃvara), in ancient India, was a practice of choosing a husband, from among a list of suitors, by a girl of marriageable age.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tadeusz Swietochowski (Tadeusz Świętochowski; 1932 – 15 February 2017) was a Polish historian and Caucasologist.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Famous Five, or The Valiant Five, were five Alberta women who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?" in the case Edwards v Canada. The five women, Emily Murphy, Irene Marryat Parlby, Nellie Mooney McClung, Louise Crummy McKinney and Henrietta Muir Edwards, created a petition to ask this question.
The History and Culture of the Indian People is a series of eleven volumes on the history of India, from prehistoric times to the establishment of the modern state in 1947.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Subjection of Women is an essay by English philosopher, political economist and civil servant John Stuart Mill published in 1869, with ideas he developed jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
The Three Obediences and Four Virtues were a set of basic moral principles specifically for women in Confucianism.
Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting) represents formal changes and reforms regarding women's rights.
Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, also known as UN Women, is a United Nations entity working for the empowerment of women.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW or UNCSW) is a functional commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), one of the main UN organs within the United Nations.
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is a 2000 United Nations-sponsored multilateral treaty against transnational organized crime.
The United Nations Development Fund for Women, commonly known as UNIFEM (from the French "Fonds de développement des Nations unies pour la femme") was established in December 1976 originally as the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade for Women in the International Women's Year.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week sessions (spring session at UN headquarters in New York, summer and fall sessions at the UN Office in Geneva) to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by 169 UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR, and any individual petitions concerning 116 States parties to the Optional Protocol.
Since 1979, the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW; Instituto Internacional de Investigación y Capacitación de las Naciones Unidas para la Promoción de la Mujer ; Institut International de Recherche et de Formation pour la Promotion de la Femme) has been the leading United Nations body of the research, knowledge management and capacity development of gender equality and women's empowerment.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (S/RES/1325), on women, peace, and security, was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on 31 October 2000, after recalling resolutions 1261 (1999), 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), and 1314 (2000).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, also known as VDPA, is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.
Wajeha al-Huwaider (وجيهة الحويدر) (born 1962 or 1963) is a Saudi activist and writer, who played key roles in the anti male-guardianship and women to drive campaigns during the early twenty-first century.
Walī (ولي, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء) is an Arabic word with a number of meanings, including "custodian", "protector", "helper", "a man close to God", or "holy man", etc.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price, was a value placed on every being and piece of property, for example in the Frankish Salic Code.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The WGBH Educational Foundation was established in 1951 in Boston, Massachusetts as an American nonprofit organization that oversees all of the PBS member stations licensed to the state of Massachusetts: the WGBH stations in Boston (WGBH-TV, the foundation's flagship property, and WGBX-TV) and WGBY-TV in Springfield.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
William Winter Hamilton (26 June 1917 – 26 January 2000) was a British politician who served as a Labour Member of Parliament for constituencies in Fife, Scotland between 1950 and 1987.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
A woman is an adult female human being.
Women for Women International (WfWI) is a nonprofit humanitarian organization that provides practical and moral support to women survivors of war.
The study of the role of women in particular in the society of Anglo-Saxon England has been a topic of academic research in history and gender studies since the 1980s.
The Feminist (history as gender struggle) view of women in the Arab world, and in other areas of the world, is that such women have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights.
The study of the lives of women in Classical Athens has been a significant part of classical scholarship since the 1970s.
Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways.
Women's property rights are property and inheritance rights enjoyed by women as a category within society at any point in time.
2014 was described as a watershed year for women's rights, by newspapers such as The Guardian.
During the late 20th and early 21st centuries, women's rights in Saudi Arabia were limited in comparison to the rights of women in many of its neighbor countries due to the strict sharia law in place in Saudi Arabia.
The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) was a women-only political movement and leading militant organisation campaigning for women's suffrage in the United Kingdom from 1903 to 1917.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
The World Conference on Human Rights was held by the United Nations in Vienna, Austria, on 14 to 25 June 1993.
The Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace was the name given for a conference convened by the United Nations during 4–15 September 1995 in Beijing, China.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zainab Salbi (Arabic: زينب سلبي; born 1969) is a humanitarian, media host, author, and founder and former CEO (1993-2011) of Washington-based Women for Women International.
Prince Zeid bin Ra’ad Zeid al-Hussein (زيد ابن رعد حسین; born 26 January 1964) is the current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, having taken up this post in September 2014.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.
Equal rights for women, Equality of women, Legal rights of women, Right of women, Rights of women, Status of women, Woman's Rights, Woman's right, Woman's rights, Womans rights, Women Rights, Women rights, Women's Rights, Women's emancipation, Women's right, Women's rights activism, Women's rights activist, Women's rights movement, Women's status, Womens rights, Womens' rights, Women’s rights, Womyn's rights.