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Word (computer architecture)

Index Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. [1]

145 relations: Addison-Wesley, Analytical Engine, Apollo Guidance Computer, Application programming interface, Arithmetic shift, ARM architecture, ARRA (computer), Assembly language, Atanasoff–Berry computer, Autonetics Recomp II, Backward compatibility, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Binary number, Binary-code compatibility, Binary-coded decimal, Bit, Biting, Block (data storage), Bus (computing), Byte, CDC 1604, CDC 6600, Central Air Data Computer, Central processing unit, Character (computing), Character encoding, Charles Babbage, Computer architecture, Computer memory, Computing, CPU cache, Cray, Cray-1, D-17B, D-37C, Data (computing), DEC Alpha, Decimal computer, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital signal processor, Electrologica X1, Electrologica X8, Elliott 803, Embedded system, ENIAC, Exponentiation, Extended Unix Code, Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2, Fixed-point arithmetic, Floating-point arithmetic, ..., Four-Phase Systems, GE-600 series, Gemini Guidance Computer, Groupe Bull, Harvard architecture, Harvard Mark I, IA-32, IA-64, IAS machine, IBM, IBM 1401, IBM 1410, IBM 1620, IBM 305 RAMAC, IBM 650, IBM 700/7000 series, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM 704, IBM 7070, IBM 7080, IBM 7090, IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator, IBM System/360, ILLIAC IV, Instruction set architecture, Integer (computer science), Intel, Intel 4004, Intel 8008, Intel 80386, Intel 8080, Intel 8086, Intel 8087, John Wiley & Sons, Joint Computer Conference, LGM-30 Minuteman, Machine code, Memory address, Memory hierarchy, MIPS architecture, MOS Technology 6502, Motorola 6800, Motorola 68000 series, NCR 315, Numerical digit, PDP-1, PDP-10, PDP-11, PDP-6, PDP-8, Porting, Power of two, PowerPC, Processor register, Programming language, Reduced instruction set computer, Remington Rand 409, S&P Global, Saturn Launch Vehicle Digital Computer, SDS 9 Series, SDS Sigma series, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, Setun, Shift JIS, Significand, Software portability, Source-code compatibility, Springer Gabler, Springer Science+Business Media, Syllable, Syllable (computing), Ternary numeral system, Titan (computer), UNIVAC 1050, UNIVAC 1100/2200 series, UNIVAC I, UNIVAC II, UNIVAC III, UNIVAC LARC, UTF-16, UTF-8, VAX, Webster's Dictionary, Windows API, Word (computer architecture), Word mark (computer hardware), Writing system, X86, X86-64, Z3 (computer), Zilog Z80, 12-bit, 36-bit. Expand index (95 more) »


Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

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Apollo Guidance Computer

The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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Arithmetic shift

In computer programming, an arithmetic shift is a shift operator, sometimes termed a signed shift (though it is not restricted to signed operands).

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ARM architecture

ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

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ARRA (computer)

The ARRA (for "Automatische Relais Rekenmachine Amsterdam", Automatic Relay Calculator Amsterdam) was the first Dutch computer, and was built from relays for the Dutch Mathematical Centre (Dutch: Mathematisch Centrum), which later became the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI).

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Atanasoff–Berry computer

The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first automatic electronic digital computer, an early electronic digital computing device that has remained somewhat obscure.

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Autonetics Recomp II

The Autonetics RECOMP II was an early transistorized computer attached to a desk that housed the input/output devices.

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Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

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Ballistic Research Laboratory

The Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland was the center for the United States Army's research efforts in ballistics (interior, exterior, and terminal) as well as vulnerability/lethality analysis.

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Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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Binary-code compatibility

Binary-code compatibility (binary compatible or object-code-compatible) is a property of computer systems meaning that they can run the same executable code, typically machine code for a general-purpose computer CPU.

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Binary-coded decimal

In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.

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The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Biting is a common behaviour which involves the opening and closing of the jaw found in many animals.

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Block (data storage)

In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block, sometimes called a physical record, is a sequence of bytes or bits, usually containing some whole number of records, having a maximum length, a block size.

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Bus (computing)

In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.

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The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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CDC 1604

The CDC 1604 was a 48-bit computer designed and manufactured by Seymour Cray and his team at the Control Data Corporation (CDC).

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CDC 6600

The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation.

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Central Air Data Computer

A Central Air Data Computer computes altitude, vertical speed, air speed, and mach number from sensor inputs such as pitot and static pressure and temperature.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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CPU cache

A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.

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Cray Inc. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.

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The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.

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The D-17B computer was used in the Minuteman I NS-1OQ missile guidance system.

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The D-37C is the computer component of the all-inertial NS-17 Missile Guidance Set (MGS) for accurately navigating to its target thousands of miles away.

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Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

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DEC Alpha

Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.

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Decimal computer

Decimal computers are computers which can represent numbers and addresses in decimal as well as providing instructions to operate on those numbers and addresses directly in decimal, without conversion to a pure binary representation.

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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Electrologica X1

The Electrologica X1 was a digital computer designed and manufactured in the Netherlands from 1958 to 1965.

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Electrologica X8

The Electrologica X8 (or EL X8) was a digital computer designed as a successor to the Electrologica X1 and manufactured in the Netherlands by Electrologica NV between 1964 and 1968.

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Elliott 803

The Elliott 803 is a small, medium-speed transistor digital computer which was manufactured by the British company Elliott Brothers in the 1960s.

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Embedded system

An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

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ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

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Extended Unix Code

Extended Unix Code (EUC) is a multibyte character encoding system used primarily for Japanese, Korean, and simplified Chinese.

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Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2

The M-2 was a computer developed at the Laboratory of Electrical Systems in the Institute of Energy of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

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Fixed-point arithmetic

In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).

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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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Four-Phase Systems

Four-Phase Systems was a computer company, founded by Lee Boysel and others, which built one of the earliest computers using semiconductor main memory and LSI MOS logic.

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GE-600 series

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE).

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Gemini Guidance Computer

The Gemini Guidance Computer (sometimes Gemini Spacecraft On-Board Computer (OBC)) was a digital, serial computer designed for Project Gemini, America's second manned space project.

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Groupe Bull

Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.

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Harvard architecture

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.

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Harvard Mark I

The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II.

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IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.

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IA-64 (also called Intel Itanium architecture) is the instruction set architecture (ISA) of the Itanium family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors.

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IAS machine

The IAS machine was the first electronic computer to be built at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 1401

The IBM 1401 is a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959.

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IBM 1410

The IBM 1410, a member of the IBM 1400 series, was a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on September 12, 1960 and marketed as a midrange "Business Computer".

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IBM 1620

The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".

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The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first commercial computer that used a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.

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IBM 650

The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.

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IBM 700/7000 series

The IBM 700/7000 series is a series of large-scale (mainframe) computer systems that were made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s.

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IBM 701

The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.

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IBM 702

The IBM 702 was IBM's response to the UNIVAC—the first mainframe computer using magnetic tapes.

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IBM 7030 Stretch

The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.

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IBM 704

The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware.

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IBM 7070

IBM 7070 was a decimal architecture intermediate data processing system that was introduced by IBM in 1958.

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IBM 7080

The IBM 7080 was a variable word length BCD transistor computer in the IBM 700/7000 series commercial architecture line, introduced in August 1961, that provided an upgrade path from the vacuum tube IBM 705 computer.

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IBM 7090

The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".

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IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator

The IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) was a one-of-a-kind first-generation (vacuum tube) computer built by IBM for the United States Navy's Bureau of Ordnance.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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The ILLIAC IV was the first massively parallel computer.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Integer (computer science)

In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Intel 4004

The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.

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Intel 8008

The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.

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Intel 80386

The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.

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Intel 8080

The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.

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Intel 8086

The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.

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Intel 8087

The Intel 8087, announced in 1980, was the first x87 floating-point coprocessor for the 8086 line of microprocessors.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Joint Computer Conference

The Joint Computer Conferences were a series of computer conferences in the USA held under various names between 1951 and 1987.

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LGM-30 Minuteman

The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Memory address

In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.

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Memory hierarchy

In computer architecture, the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time.

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MIPS architecture

MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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Motorola 6800

The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.

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Motorola 68000 series

The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.

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NCR 315

The NCR 315 Data Processing System, released in January 1962 by NCR, is an obsolete second-generation computer.

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Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

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The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.

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The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.

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The PDP-6 (Programmed Data Processor-6) was a computer model developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1963.

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The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).

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In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).

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Power of two

In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.

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PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Reduced instruction set computer

A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).

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Remington Rand 409

The Remington Rand 409 control panel programmed punched card calculator, designed in 1949, was sold in two models: the UNIVAC 60 (1952) and the UNIVAC 120 (1953).

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S&P Global

S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.

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Saturn Launch Vehicle Digital Computer

The Saturn Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) was a computer that provided the autopilot for the Saturn V rocket from launch to Earth orbit insertion.

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SDS 9 Series

The SDS 9 Series computers are a backward compatible line of transistorized computers produced by Scientific Data Systems in the 1960s and 1970s.

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SDS Sigma series

The SDS Sigma series is a series of computers that were introduced by Scientific Data Systems in 1966.

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Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.

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Setun (Сетунь) was a computer developed in 1958 at Moscow State University.

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Shift JIS

--> Shift JIS (Shift Japanese Industrial Standards, also SJIS, MIME name Shift_JIS) is a character encoding for the Japanese language, originally developed by a Japanese company called ASCII Corporation in conjunction with Microsoft and standardized as JIS X 0208 Appendix 1.

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The significand (also mantissa or coefficient) is part of a number in scientific notation or a floating-point number, consisting of its significant digits.

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Software portability

Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.

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Source-code compatibility

Source-code compatibility (source-compatible) means that a program can run on computers (or operating systems), independently of binary-code compatibility and that the source code is needed for portability.

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Springer Gabler

Springer Gabler (formerly Gabler Verlag) is a German publishing house in the fields of economy.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Syllable (computing)

In computing, a syllable is a name for a platform-dependent unit of information storage.

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Ternary numeral system

The ternary numeral system (also called base 3) has three as its base.

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Titan (computer)

Titan was the prototype of the Atlas 2 computer developed by Ferranti and the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in Cambridge, England.

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The UNIVAC 1050 was a variable word-length (one to 16 characters) decimal and binary computer.

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UNIVAC 1100/2200 series

The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand.

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The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.

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The UNIVAC II was an improvement to the UNIVAC I that UNIVAC first delivered in 1958.

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The UNIVAC III, designed as an improved transistorized replacement for the vacuum tube UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II computers, was introduced in June 1962, with Westinghouse agreeing to furnish system programing and marketing on June 1, 1962.

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The UNIVAC LARC, short for the Livermore Advanced Research Computer, is a mainframe computer designed to a requirement published by Edward Teller in order to run hydrodynamic simulations for nuclear weapon design.

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UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode.

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UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.

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VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.

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Webster's Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.

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Windows API

The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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Word mark (computer hardware)

In computer hardware, a word mark or flag is a bit in each memory location on some variable word length computers (e.g., IBM 1401, 1410, 1620) used to mark the end of a word.

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.

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Z3 (computer)

The Z3 was a German electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse.

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Zilog Z80

The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.

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Possibly the best-known 12-bit CPU is the PDP-8 and its relatives, such as the Intersil 6100 microprocessor produced in various incarnations from August 1963 to mid-1990.

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Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_(computer_architecture)

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