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Working memory

Index Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing. [1]

78 relations: Ablation, Alan Baddeley, Alzheimer's disease, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Anterior cingulate cortex, Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism and working memory, Baddeley's model of working memory, Blood-oxygen-level dependent imaging, Brodmann area 10, Brodmann area 6, Brodmann area 8, Brodmann area 9, Catecholamine, Caudate nucleus, Causality, Chunking (psychology), Cognitive architecture, Cognitive psychology, David Ferrier, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Dyslexia, Eduard Hitzig, Episodic memory, Eugene Galanter, Executive functions, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Frontal lobe, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Fuzzy-trace theory, George Armitage Miller, Globus pallidus, Glutamic acid, Graham Hitch, Heritability, Huntington's disease, Intelligence quotient, Interference theory, Intermediate-term memory, Joaquin Fuster, K. Anders Ericsson, Karl H. Pribram, Long-term memory, Memory and aging, Memory rehearsal, ..., Memory span, N-back, Nelson Cowan, Neuroimaging, Neuroscience, Neurotransmitter, Old age, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Patricia Goldman-Rakic, Positron emission tomography, Posterior parietal cortex, Precuneus, Prefrontal cortex, Prefrontal cortex basal ganglia working memory, Reading span task, ROBO1, Salience (neuroscience), Short-term memory, Superior frontal gyrus, Superior frontal sulcus, TED (conference), Thalamus, The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two, Theta wave, Tim Shallice, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Working memory training. Expand index (28 more) »


Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.

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Alan Baddeley

Alan David Baddeley, CBE, FRS, FMedSci (born 23 March 1934) is a British psychologist.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology is an annual peer-reviewed review journal covering clinical psychology.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model

The Atkinson–Shiffrin model (also known as the multi-store model or modal model) is a model of memory proposed in 1968 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Autism and working memory

Autism is a variation of neural development diagnosed as impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior.

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Baddeley's model of working memory

Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to present a more accurate model of primary memory (often referred to as short-term memory).

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Blood-oxygen-level dependent imaging

Blood-oxygen-level dependent contrast imaging, or BOLD-contrast imaging, is a method used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe different areas of the brain or other organs, which are found to be active at any given time.

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Brodmann area 10

Brodmann area 10 (BA10, frontopolar prefrontal cortex, rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, or anterior prefrontal cortex) is the anterior-most portion of the prefrontal cortex in the human brain.

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Brodmann area 6

Brodmann area 6 (BA6) part of the frontal cortex in the human brain.

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Brodmann area 8

Brodmann area 8 is one of Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain.

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Brodmann area 9

Brodmann area 9, or BA9, is part of the frontal cortex in the brain of humans and other primates.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Chunking (psychology)

In cognitive psychology, chunking is a process by which individual pieces of information are bound together into a meaningful whole (Neath & Surprenant, 2003).

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Cognitive architecture

A cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of the human mind.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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David Ferrier

Sir David Ferrier FRS (13 January 1843 – 19 March 1928) was a pioneering Scottish neurologist and psychologist.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine receptor

Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).

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Dopamine receptor D1

Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.

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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.

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Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Eduard Hitzig

Eduard Hitzig (6 February 1838 – 20 August 1907) was a German neurologist and neuropsychiatrist of Jewish ancestry born in Berlin.

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Episodic memory

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

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Eugene Galanter

Eugene Galanter was one of the modern founders of cognitive psychology.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Fuzzy-trace theory

Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) is a theory of cognition originally proposed by Charles Brainerd and Valerie F. Reyna that draws upon dual-trace conceptions to predict and explain cognitive phenomena, particularly in the memory and reasoning domains.

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George Armitage Miller

George Armitage Miller (February 3, 1920 – July 22, 2012) was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field.

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Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Graham Hitch

Graham Hitch is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of York, best known for his work with Alan Baddeley in developing a Working Memory Model.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Interference theory

Interference theory is a theory regarding human memory.

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Intermediate-term memory

Intermediate-term memory (ITM) is a stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory.

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Joaquin Fuster

Joaquin M. Fuster (born 1930)* is a Spanish neuroscientist whose research has made fundamental contributions to the understanding of the neural structures underlying cognition and behavior.

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K. Anders Ericsson


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Karl H. Pribram

Karl H. Pribram (February 25, 1919 – January 19, 2015) was a professor at Georgetown University, in the United States, an emeritus professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and distinguished professor at Radford University.

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Long-term memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

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Memory and aging

Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.

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Memory rehearsal

Memory rehearsal is a term for the role of repetition in the retention of memories.

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Memory span

In psychology and neuroscience, memory span is the longest list of items that a person can repeat back in correct order immediately after presentation on 50% of all trials.

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The n-back task is a continuous performance task that is commonly used as an assessment in cognitive neuroscience to measure a part of working memory and working memory capacity.

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Nelson Cowan

Nelson Cowan (born March 7, 1951) is the Curators' Professor of Psychology at the University of Missouri.

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Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Patricia Goldman-Rakic

Patricia Goldman-Rakic (née Shoer, April 22, 1937 – July 31, 2003) was an American professor neuroscience, neurology, psychiatry and psychology at Yale University School of Medicine.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Posterior parietal cortex

The posterior parietal cortex (the portion of parietal neocortex posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex) plays an important role in planned movements, spatial reasoning, and attention.

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The precuneus is the portion of the superior parietal lobule on the medial surface of each brain hemisphere.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Prefrontal cortex basal ganglia working memory

Prefrontal cortex basal ganglia working memory (PBWM) is an algorithm that models working memory in the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia.

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Reading span task

The reading span task (RST) is a common memory span task widely cited in, and adapted for, investigations of working memory, cognitive processing, and reading comprehension that was first published by Meredyth Daneman and Patricia Carpenter in 1980.

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Roundabout homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ROBO1 gene.

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Salience (neuroscience)

The salience (also called saliency) of an item – be it an object, a person, a pixel, etc.

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Short-term memory

Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.

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Superior frontal gyrus

The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) makes up about one third of the frontal lobe of the human brain.

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Superior frontal sulcus

The superior frontal sulcus is a sulcus between the superior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus.

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TED (conference)

TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two

"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information" is one of the most highly cited papers in psychology.

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Theta wave

Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillatory pattern that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes attached to the scalp.

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Tim Shallice

Timothy Shallice (born 1940) is a professor of neuropsychology and past director of the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, part of University College London.

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.

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Working memory training

Working memory training is intended to improve a person's working memory.

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Immediate memory, Phonological similarity effect, Word-length effect, Working Memory, Working memory (WM).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_memory

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