122 relations: Apollo Computer, Apple Inc., AutoCAD, Autodesk 3ds Max, Avid (company), Bank switching, Car, Central processing unit, Commoditization, Commodity, Complex instruction set computer, Computational fluid dynamics, Computational science, Computer keyboard, Computer mouse, Computer network, Computer-generated imagery, DARPA, Dell, Desktop computer, Die (integrated circuit), Digital Equipment Corporation, Diskless node, ECC memory, Economies of scale, Fibre Channel, Floating-point arithmetic, FLOPS, Form factor (design), Fortran, FreeBSD, Fujitsu, GeForce 256, GNU, Graphics processing unit, Graphics tablet, Hewlett-Packard, HP 9000, HP Inc., IBM, IBM 1130, IBM 1620, IBM IntelliStation, IBM Personal Computer, Industry Standard Architecture, Intel, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Intel 80486, Interlisp, ..., Lenovo, Linux, Linux distribution, Lisp machine, Lisp Machines, List of computer system manufacturers, Local area network, Macintosh, MacOS, Mainframe computer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Memory management unit, Microprocessor, Microsoft Windows, Minicomputer, Motorola 68000, Multi-user software, Music workstation, Network Computer, NeXT, Nvidia, Nvidia Quadro, OpenVMS, Operating system, Opteron, Oracle Corporation, PARC (company), PDP-8, PERQ, Personal computer, POWER4, Profit margin, Proprietary software, Protected mode, Random-access memory, Reduced instruction set computer, Remote Graphics Software, SCSI, Serial ATA, Server (computing), SGI Fuel, SGI Tezro, SGI Virtu, Silicon Graphics, Solaris (operating system), SPARC, Sun Microsystems, Sun Ray, Sun Ultra series, Symbolics, Terak 8510/a, Texas Instruments, Thin client, TI Explorer, Total cost of ownership, Unix, Unix-like, Videotelephony, Visualization (graphics), VLSI Project, X terminal, X86, Xeon, Xerox, Xerox Alto, Xerox Star, 32-bit, 3Com, 3D computer graphics, 3M computer, 3Station, 64-bit computing. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
Apollo Computer Inc., founded 1980 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer) and others, developed and produced Apollo/Domain workstations in the 1980s.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
AutoCAD is a commercial computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting software application.
Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images.
Avid Technology (often known and styled as Avid) is an American technology and multimedia company founded in August 1987 by Bill Warner, based in Burlington, Massachusetts.
Bank switching is a technique used in computer design to increase the amount of usable memory beyond the amount directly addressable by the processor.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
In business literature, commoditization is defined as the process by which goods that have economic value and are distinguishable in terms of attributes (uniqueness or brand) end up becoming simple commodities in the eyes of the market or consumers.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
A diskless node (or diskless workstation) is a workstation or personal computer without disk drives, which employs network booting to load its operating system from a server.
Error-correcting code memory (ECC memory) is a type of computer data storage that can detect and correct the most common kinds of internal data corruption.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Fibre Channel, or FC, is a high-speed network technology (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data, primarily used to connect computer data storage to servers.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.
Form factor is an aspect of hardware design which defines and prescribes the size, shape, and other physical specifications of components, particularly in consumer electronics and electronic packaging.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
The GeForce 256 is the original release in Nvidia's "GeForce" product-line.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
A graphic tablet (also known as a digitizer, drawing tablet, digital drawing tablet, pen tablet, or digital art board) is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images, animations and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
HP 9000 is a line of workstation and server computer systems produced by the Hewlett-Packard Company (HP).
HP (also known as HP Inc. and stylized as hp) is an American technology company which develops personal computers (PCs), printers and related supplies, as well as 3D Printing solutions.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.
The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".
The IBM IntelliStation was originally a workstation-class personal computer announced on March 1997 as the follow-on to the IBM PC Series 360 and 365.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a retronym term for the 16-bit internal bus of IBM PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286 and its immediate successors during the 1980s.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
The Intel 80486, also known as the i486 or 486, is a higher performance follow-up to the Intel 80386 microprocessor.
Interlisp (also seen with a variety of capitalizations) is a programming environment built around a version of the Lisp programming language.
Lenovo Group Ltd. or Lenovo PC International, often shortened to Lenovo (formerly stylized as lenovo), is a Chinese multinational technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China and Morrisville, North Carolina.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language, usually via hardware support.
Lisp Machines, Inc. was a company formed in 1979 by Richard Greenblatt of MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to build Lisp machines.
The following is a list of notable computer system manufacturers.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A memory management unit (MMU), sometimes called paged memory management unit (PMMU), is a computer hardware unit having all memory references passed through itself, primarily performing the translation of virtual memory addresses to physical addresses.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.
Multi-user software is software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.
A music workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of.
The Network Computer (or NC) was a diskless desktop computer device made by Oracle Corporation from about 1996 to 2000.
NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
Quadro is Nvidia's brand for graphics cards intended for use in workstations running professional computer-aided design (CAD), computer-generated imagery (CGI), and digital content creation (DCC) applications.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Opteron is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64).
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
The PERQ, also referred to as the Three Rivers PERQ or ICL PERQ, was a pioneering workstation computer produced in the late 1970s through the early 1980s.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
The POWER4 is a microprocessor developed by International Business Machines (IBM) that implemented the 64-bit PowerPC and PowerPC AS instruction set architectures.
Profit margin, net margin, net profit margin or net profit ratio is a measure of profitability.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs).
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
HP Remote Graphics Software or HP RGS is a client-server remote desktop software solution developed by HP Inc. and initially launched in 2003.
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices.
Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
The SGI Fuel is a mid-range workstation developed and manufactured by Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI).
The SGI Tezro is a series of high-end computer workstations sold by SGI from 2003 until 2006.
SGI Virtu is a computer product line from Silicon Graphics dedicated to visualization, announced in April 2008.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
The Sun Ray from Oracle is a stateless thin client solution aimed at corporate environments, originally introduced by Sun Microsystems in September 1999 and discontinued by Oracle in 2014.
The Sun Ultra series is a discontinued line of workstation and server computers developed and sold by Sun Microsystems, comprising two distinct generations.
Symbolics refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer Symbolics, Inc., and a privately held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system.
The Terak 8510/a of 1976 or 1977 was the first graphics desktop personal computer.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
A thin client is a lightweight computer that has been optimized for remoting into a server-based computing environment.
The Texas Instruments Explorer is a family of Lisp Machine computers.
Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a financial estimate intended to help buyers and owners determine the direct and indirect costs of a product or system.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.
Visualization or visualisation (see spelling differences) is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message.
DARPA's VLSI (very-large-scale integration) Project provided research funding to a wide variety of university-based teams in an effort to improve the state of the art in microprocessor design, then known as VLSI.
In computing, an X terminal is a display/input terminal for X Window System client applications.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets.
Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.
The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.
The Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
3Com Corporation was a digital electronics manufacturer best known for its computer network products.
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.
3M was a goal first proposed in the early 1980s by Raj Reddy and his colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) as a minimum specification for academic/technical workstations: at least a megabyte of memory, a megapixel display and a million instructions per second (MIPS) processing power.
The 3Station was a diskless workstation, developed by Bob Metcalfe at 3Com and first available in 1986.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
Computer graphics workstation, Computer workstation, Computer workstations, Display station, Graphical workstation, Graphics workstation, Graphics workstations, Personal workstation, UNIX workstation, Unix workstation, Unix workstations, Workstation (computer hardware), Workstation computers, Workstations, Workstaton.