78 relations: Altitude, Astronautics, Austria, Cartography, Center of mass, Cold War, Degree Confluence Project, Doppler radar, Earth, ED50, EGM96, Elevation, Ellipsoid, Equator, Equipotential, Eurocontrol, European Terrestrial Reference System 1989, Flattening, Friedrich Robert Helmert, Geo (microformat), Geocentric orbit, Geodesy, Geodetic astronomy, Geodetic datum, Geographic coordinate system, Geography, Geoid, Geotagging, Germany, Global Positioning System, Gravimetry, Gravity, Gravity anomaly, GRS 80, IERS Reference Meridian, International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, International Terrestrial Reference System, International Time Bureau, Irene Fischer, John Fillmore Hayford, Latitude, Least squares, Longitude, Map, Minute and second of arc, NASA, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, NATO, Navigation, North American Datum, ..., Optics, Outline of space science, Physical geodesy, Plumb bob, Point of interest, Prime meridian (Greenwich), Reference ellipsoid, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Satellite, Satellite geodesy, Satellite navigation, Scientist, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, SHORAN, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Spherical harmonics, Spheroid, Spirit level, Standardization Agreement, Surveying, Transit (satellite), Triangulation, Trilateration, United States Air Force, United States Department of Defense, Vertical deflection, Very-long-baseline interferometry, 85th meridian west. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Degree Confluence Project is a World Wide Web-based, all-volunteer project which aims to have people visit each of the integer degree intersections of latitude and longitude on Earth, posting photographs and a narrative of each visit online.
A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
ED50 ("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II for the international connection of geodetic networks.
EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model 1996) is a geopotential model of the Earth consisting of spherical harmonic coefficients complete to degree and order 360.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.
The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, commonly known as Eurocontrol, is an international organisation working to achieve safe and seamless air traffic management across Europe.
The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is an ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) geodetic Cartesian reference frame, in which the Eurasian Plate as a whole is static.
Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively.
Friedrich Robert Helmert (July 31, 1843 – June 15, 1917) was a German geodesist and an important writer on the theory of errors.
Geo is a microformat used for marking up WGS84 geographical coordinates (latitude;longitude) in (X)HTML.
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geodetic astronomy or astro-geodesy is the application of astronomical methods into networks and technical projects of geodesy.
A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
Geotagging or GeoTagging, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A gravity anomaly is the difference between the observed acceleration of free fall, or gravity, on a planet's surface, and the corresponding value predicted from a model of the planet's gravity field.
GRS 80, or Geodetic Reference System 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model.
The IERS Reference Meridian (IRM), also called the International Reference Meridian, is the prime meridian (0° longitude) maintained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).
The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), formerly the International Earth Rotation Service, is the body responsible for maintaining global time and reference frame standards, notably through its Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) groups.
The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface.
The International Time Bureau (Bureau International de l'Heure, abbreviated BIH) seated at the Paris Observatory, was the international bureau responsible for combining different measurements of Universal Time.
Irene Kaminka Fischer (born July 27, 1907 in Vienna, died October 22, 2009 in Boston) was a mathematician, geodesist, National Academy of Engineering Member; Fellow International Geophysical Union, Inductee of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency Hall of Fame.
John Fillmore Hayford (May 19, 1868 – March 10, 1925) was an eminent United States geodesist.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The North American Datum (NAD) is the datum now used to define the geodetic network in North America.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.
Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.
A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.
A point of interest, or POI, is a specific point location that someone may find useful or interesting.
A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body.
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Satellite geodesy is geodesy by means of artificial satellites — the measurement of the form and dimensions of Earth, the location of objects on its surface and the figure of the Earth's gravity field by means of artificial satellite techniques.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
SHORAN is an acronym for SHOrt RAnge Navigation, a type of electronic navigation and bombing system using a precision radar beacon.
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
A spirit level, bubble level or simply a level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb).
In NATO a STANdardization AGreement (STANAG) defines processes, procedures, terms, and conditions for common military or technical procedures or equipment between the member countries of the alliance.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
The Transit system, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.
In geometry, trilateration is the process of determining absolute or relative locations of points by measurement of distances, using the geometry of circles, spheres or triangles.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The vertical deflection (deflection of the plumb line, astro-geodetic deflection) at a point on the Earth is a measure of how far the direction of the local gravity field has been shifted by local anomalies such as nearby mountains.
Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.
The meridian 85° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.