119 relations: Agreement on Agriculture, Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures, Agricultural subsidy, Aide-mémoire, Algeria, Anti-globalization movement, Arthur Dunkel, Balance sheet, Bali Package, Centre William Rappard, China and the World Trade Organization, Chinese Taipei, Congressional Research Service, Customs union, Customs valuation, Developed country, Developing country, Director-General of the World Trade Organization, Dispute resolution, Doha, Doha Development Round, Dumping (pricing policy), English language, Eric Wyndham White, European Union, Everything but Arms, Export subsidy, Fair trade, Foreign affiliate trade statistics, Free trade, Free-rider problem, Free-trade area, French language, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on Trade in Services, Geneva, Geographical indication, Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999, Global administrative law, Globality, Globalization, Holy See, Hong Kong, Import quota, Information Technology Agreement, Intergovernmental organization, International Monetary Fund, International Organization, ..., International trade, International Trade Centre, International Trade Organization, Iran, Iranian Studies (journal), Kazakhstan, Kennedy Round, Kinmen, Kyrgyzstan, Labour standards in the World Trade Organization, Least Developed Countries, List of Geographical Indications in India, List of trade organisations, Market access, Marrakesh, Marrakesh Agreement, Matsu Islands, Member states of the United Nations, Member states of the World Trade Organization, Memorandum, Mike Moore (New Zealand politician), Ministerial Conference, Most favoured nation, National treatment, Non-tariff barriers to trade, North American Free Trade Agreement, Olivier Long, Pareto efficiency, Pascal Lamy, Penghu, Peter Sutherland, Plurilateral agreement, Political status of Taiwan, Primary sector of the economy, Protectionism, Punta del Este, Qatar, Renato Ruggiero, Richard Harold Steinberg, Roberto Azevêdo, Singapore issues, Spanish language, Subsidy, Supachai Panitchpakdi, Swiss Formula, Swiss franc, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tariff, Tertiary sector of the economy, The Economist, The Guardian Weekly, Trade agreement, Trade bloc, Trade restriction, Treaty, TRIPS Agreement, Unilateralism, Uruguay Round, Washington Consensus, World Bank, World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1996, World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999, World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2001, World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2003, World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2005, World Trade Report, World War II, 1999 Seattle WTO protests. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization.
The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, commonly referred to as the TBT Agreement, is an international treaty administered by the World Trade Organization.
The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, also known as the SPS Agreement, is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) are rules that apply to the domestic regulations a country applies to foreign investors, often as part of an industrial policy.
An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.
In international relations, an aide-mémoire (memory aid) is a proposed agreement or negotiating text circulated informally among delegations for discussion without committing the originating delegation's country to the contents.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization.
Arthur Dunkel (26 August 1932 – 8 June 2005) was a Swiss (Portuguese-born) administrator.
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity.
The Bali Package is a trade agreement resulting from the Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization in Bali, Indonesia on 3–7 December 2013.
The Centre William Rappard at Rue de Lausanne 154, Geneva, Switzerland, was built between 1923 and 1926 to house the International Labour Office (ILO).
China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001.
"Chinese Taipei" is the name for Taiwan designated in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Customs valuation is the process where customs authorities assign a monetary value to a good or service for the purposes of import or export.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The Director-General of the World Trade Organization is responsible for supervising the administrative functions of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which commenced in November 2001 under then director-general Mike Moore.
Dumping, in economics, is a kind of injuring pricing, especially in the context of international trade.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Sir Eric Wyndham White KCMG (1913–1980) was a British administrator and economist.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Everything but Arms (EBA) is an initiative of the European Union under which all imports to the EU from the Least Developed Countries are duty-free and quota-free, with the exception of armaments.
Export subsidy is a government policy to encourage export of goods and discourage sale of goods on the domestic market through direct payments, low-cost loans, tax relief for exporters, or government-financed international advertising.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
Foreign affiliate trade statistics (FATS), also known as transnational corporation (TNC) data details the economic operations of foreign direct investment-based enterprises.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
In economics, the free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a treaty of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that entered into force in January 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country).
The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (GI Act) is a sui generis Act of the Parliament of India for protection of geographical indications in India.
Global administrative law is an emerging field that is based upon a dual insight: that much of what is usually termed “global governance” can be accurately characterized as administrative action; and that increasingly such action is itself being regulated by administrative law-type principles, rules and mechanisms – in particular those relating to participation, transparency, accountability and review.
Globality is the end-state of globalization – a hypothetical condition in which the process of globalization is complete or nearly so, barriers have fallen, and "a new global reality" is emerging.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
An import quota is a type of trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time.
The Information Technology Agreement (ITA) is an agreement enforced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and concluded in the Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products in 1996, and entered into force 1 July 1997.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Organization is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international affairs.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The International Trade Centre (ITC) is a multilateral agency which has a joint mandate with the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations (UN) through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
The International Trade Organization (ITO) was the proposed name for an international institution for the regulation of trade.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering Iranian and Persianate history, literature, and society published by Routledge on behalf of the International Society for Iranian Studies.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Kennedy Round was the sixth session of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) multilateral trade negotiations held between 1964 and 1967 in Geneva, Switzerland.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Labour Standards in the World Trade Organization are binding rules, which form a part of the jurisprudence and principles applied within the rule making institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country).
This is a list of international trade organizations, the largest being the World Trade Organisation.
Market access for goods means the conditions, tariff and Non-tariff measures (NTMs), set by countries for the entry of specific goods into their markets.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Marrakesh Agreement, manifested by the Marrakesh Declaration, was an agreement signed in Marrakesh, Morocco, by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, marking the culmination of the 8-year-long Uruguay Round and establishing the World Trade Organization, which officially came into being on 1 January 1995.
The Matsu Islands (Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently,; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣;; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (ROC).
The United Nations member states are the sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.
The original member states of the World Trade Organization are the parties to the GATT after ratifying the Uruguay Round Agreements, and the European Communities.
A memorandum (abbrev.: memo; from Latin memorandum est, "It must be remembered (that)...") is a note, document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic such as may be used in a business office.
Michael Kenneth Moore (born 28 January 1949), commonly known as Mike Moore, is a former New Zealand politician and union organiser.
The Ministerial Conference is the top decision making body of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.
National treatment is a principle in international law vital to many treaty regimes.
Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) or sometimes called "Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs)" are trade barriers that restrict imports or exports of goods or services through mechanisms other than the simple imposition of tariffs.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Olivier Long (October 11, 1915 – March 19, 2003) was a Swiss Ambassador and the director-general of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade from May 6, 1968 to October 1, 1980.
Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a state of allocation of resources from which it is impossible to reallocate so as to make any one individual or preference criterion better off without making at least one individual or preference criterion worse off.
Pascal Lamy (born 8 April 1947) is a French political consultant and businessman.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
Peter Denis Sutherland (25 April 1946 – 7 January 2018) was an Irish businessman, barrister and politician who served as UN Special Representative for International Migration from 2006 to 2017, Chairman of Goldman Sachs from 1995 to 2015, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 1993 to 1995, European Commissioner for Competition from 1985 to 1989 and Attorney General of Ireland from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1994.
A plurilateral agreement is a multi-national legal or trade agreement between countries.
The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue, or from a Taiwanese perspective as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War and the subsequent split of China into the two present-day self-governing entities of the People's Republic of China (PRC; commonly known as China) and the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as Taiwan).
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Punta del Este is the second city of Uruguayhttp://www.lanacion.com.ar/1439666-tips-gasoleros-para-veranear-en-punta-del-este and the most important resort town in South America, the Punta area 220,000 residents add to a peak of over 600,000 people during the summer season, while year-round the town receives one million tourists.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Renato Ruggiero (9 April 1930 – 4 August 2013) was an Italian politician.
Richard Harold Steinberg (born July 15, 1960), is a Professor of Law at the UCLA School of Law, Director of the Sanela Diana Jenkins Human Rights Project, and Editor-in-Chief of the (a cooperative undertaking with the). He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and the editorial boards of the American Journal of International Law and International Organization.
Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo (born 3 October 1957) is a Brazilian diplomat and the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization.
The "Singapore issues" refers to four working groups set up during the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1996 in Singapore.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Supachai Panitchpakdi (ศุภชัย พานิชภักดิ์,,; born May 30, 1946 in Bangkok, Thailand) was Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) from 1 September 2005 to 31 August 2013.
The Swiss Formula is a mathematical formula designed to cut and harmonize tariff rates in international trade.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian Weekly is an internationally focused English-language newspaper based in London, UK.
A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees.
A trade block is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
A trade restriction is an artificial restriction on the trade of goods and/or services between two countries.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action.
The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning from 1986 to 1994 and embracing 123 countries as "contracting parties".
The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organisation's Ministerial Conference of 1996 was held in Singapore on December 9 - December 13, 1996.
The WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 was a meeting of the World Trade Organization, convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle, Washington, USA, over the course of three days, beginning Tuesday, November 30, 1999.
The Fourth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization, also known as the WTO Fourth Ministerial Conference, was held at the Sheraton Doha Hotel and Resort, Doha, Qatar from November 9–13, 2001.
Trade ministers from 146 members of the World Trade Organization, representing 93 percent of global Commerce, convened in Cancun, Mexico, in September 2003.
The Sixth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization, also known as the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial Conference and abbreviated as MC6, was held at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Wan Chai, Hong Kong from 13 to 18 December 2005.
The World Trade Report (WTR) is the annual report published since 2003 by the World Trade Organization.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
1999 Seattle WTO protests, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Seattle or the Battle in Seattle, were a series of protests surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, when members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle, Washington on November 30, 1999.
@wto, General Council (WTO), Organisation mondiale du commerce, Organizacion Mundial del Comercio, Organización Mundial del Comercio, The World Trade Organisation, The World Trade Organization, W.T.O., WTO, WTrO, World Trade Conference, World Trade Organisation, World Trade Organization General Council, Wto.