149 relations: A. J. P. Taylor, ABC-CLIO, Adolf Hitler, African theatre of World War I, Aftermath of World War I, Allen Lane, Allies of World War I, American Philosophical Society, Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I, Étienne Mantoux, Bank for International Settlements, Bernard Baruch, Bond (finance), British Empire, Cambridge University Press, Carthaginian peace, Cengage, Central Powers, Charles Feinstein, Charles G. Dawes, Chimera (mythology), Creditanstalt, Current History, Damocles, Danatbank, David Lloyd George, Dawes Plan, Detlev Peukert, Diane Kunz, East Germany, Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory, European theatre of World War I, Far-right politics, First Austrian Republic, Fourteen Points, Franco-Prussian War, French Third Republic, Geoffrey Harcourt, Georges Clemenceau, Gerald Feldman, Gerhard Weinberg, German gold mark, German reunification, German Revolution of 1918–19, Gold franc, Great Depression, Gresham College, Gustav Stresemann, Heavenly Twins (Sumner and Cunliffe), ..., Heinemann (publisher), Heinrich Brüning, Herbert Hoover, HM Treasury, Hoover Moratorium, Hungarian Republic (1919–20), Hyperinflation, Indemnity, Infobase Publishing, IUniverse, James T. Shotwell, John Foster Dulles, John Hamilton, 1st Viscount Sumner, John Maynard Keynes, John Murray (publisher), Kiel mutiny, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, Lausanne Conference of 1932, League of Nations, Legal remedy, Leuven, London Agreement on German External Debts, Longman, Mainz, Martin Kitchen, Max Warburg, Max Winkler, Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany), Moratorium (law), Niall Ferguson, Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin, Norman Davies, Occupation of the Ruhr, Office of Management and Budget, Osprey Publishing, Ottoman Empire, Owen D. Young, Oxford University Press, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Paul von Hindenburg, Peacemakers: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and Its Attempt to End War, Pearson plc, Penguin Group, President of Germany (1919–1945), President of the United States, Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Punitive damages, Raymond Poincaré, Real versus nominal value (economics), Reparation (legal), Reparations (transitional justice), Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany, Republic of German-Austria, Restitution, Richard J. Evans, Robert Boyce, Robert Schmidt (politician), Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Ruhr, Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Sinking fund, Spa Conference of 1920, Springer Science+Business Media, Territory of the Saar Basin, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, The Origins of the Second World War, Time (magazine), Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Versailles, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, United States Department of State, United States Government Publishing Office, United States Secretary of State, University of North Carolina Press, Upper Silesia, Wall Street Crash of 1929, Walter Cunliffe, 1st Baron Cunliffe, War reparations, Weimar National Assembly, Weimar Republic, West Germany, Western Front (World War I), Wiley-Blackwell, William Tyrrell, 1st Baron Tyrrell, Woodrow Wilson, World Disarmament Conference, World War I, World War I reparations, World War II reparations, Young Plan, Yugoslavia, Zone Rouge. Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The African Theatre of World War I describes campaigns in North Africa instigated by the German and Ottoman empires, local rebellions against European colonial rule and Allied campaigns against the German colonies of Kamerun, Togoland, German South West Africa and German East Africa which were fought by German Schutztruppe, local resistance movements and forces of the British Empire, France, Belgium and Portugal.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
Sir Allen Lane (born Allen Lane Williams; 21 September 1902 – 7 July 1970) was a British publisher who together with his brothers Richard and John Lane founded Penguin Books in 1935, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
Article 231, often known as the War Guilt Clause, was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.
The Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I consisted of various naval battles and the Allied conquest of German colonial possessions in the Pacific Ocean and China.
Étienne Mantoux (5 February 1913 – 29 April 1945) was a French economist, born in Paris.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
Bernard Mannes Baruch (August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American financier, stock investor, philanthropist, statesman, and political consultant.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A Carthaginian peace is the imposition of a very brutal "peace" achieved by completely crushing the enemy.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Charles Hilliard Feinstein (18 March 1932 – 27 November 2004) was a noted South African and British economic historian.
Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker, general, diplomat, and Republican politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States from 1925 to 1929.
The Chimera (or, also Chimaera (Chimæra); Greek: Χίμαιρα, Chímaira "she-goat") was, according to Greek mythology, a monstrous fire-breathing hybrid creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal.
Creditanstalt (sometimes Credit-Anstalt, abbreviated as CA) was an Austrian bank based in Vienna.
Current History is the oldest United States-based publication devoted exclusively to contemporary world affairs.
Damocles is a figure featured in a single moral anecdote commonly referred to as "the Sword of Damocles", an allusion to the imminent and ever-present peril faced by those in positions of power.
The Darmstädter und Nationalbank (short form Danat-Bank) was a German bank.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an initial plan in 1924 to resolve the World War I reparations that Germany had to pay, which had strained diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.
Detlev Peukert (September 20, 1950 in Gütersloh – May 17, 1990 in Hamburg) was a German historian, noted for his studies of the relationship between what he called the "spirit of science" and the Holocaust and in social history and the Weimar Republic.
Diane Bernstein Kunz (born November 9, 1952 in Queens, New York) is an American author, historian, and lawyer from Durham, North Carolina, and executive director of a not-for-profit adoption advocacy group, the Center for Adoption Policy.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory is a history book about World War II in Europe, written by the English historian Norman Davies.
Although considerable conflict took place outside Europe, the European theatre (also known as the First European War) was the main theatre of operations during World War I and was where the war began and ended.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
The First Austrian Republic (Republik Österreich) was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Geoffrey Colin Harcourt (born 27 June 1931) is an Australian academic economist who is a leading member of the Post Keynesian school.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
Gerald Donald Feldman (April 24, 1937 – October 31, 2007) was an American historian who specialized in 20th-century German history.
Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II.
The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
The gold franc (currency code: XFO) was the unit of account for the Bank for International Settlements from 1930 until April 1, 2003.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Gresham College is an institution of higher learning located at Barnard's Inn Hall off Holborn in Central London, England.
(10 May 1878 – 3 October 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.
The Heavenly Twins was the name assigned to two British delegates, the Judge Lord Sumner and the Banker Lord Cunliffe, during the 1919 Treaty of Versailles negotiations that were to set the terms of the peace to be imposed on Germany following the end of World War I. The two lords, together with the Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes, were responsible for presenting the British and British Dominions' case concerning the amount of compensatory payments, or war reparations, that were to be extracted from Germany.
Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.
Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The Hoover Moratorium was a public statement issued by US President Herbert Hoover on June 20, 1931, who hoped to ease the coming international economic crisis and provide time for recovery.
The Hungarian Republic (Magyar Köztársaság) was a short-lived republic that existed between August 1919 and February 1920 in the central and western portions of the former Hungarian Kingdom (encompassing most of today's Hungary and parts of present-day Austria, Slovakia and Slovenia).
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Indemnity is a contractual obligation of one party (indemnitor) to compensate the loss occurred to the other party (indemnitee) due to the act of the indemnitor or any other party.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
iUniverse, founded in October 1999, is a self-publishing company in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.Kevin Abourezk, Lincoln Journal Star, January 22, 2008.
James Thomson Shotwell (August 6, 1874 – July 15, 1965) was a Canadian-born American history professor. He played an instrumental role in the creation of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1919, as well as for his influence in promoting inclusion of a declaration of human rights in the UN Charter.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
John Andrew Hamilton, 1st Viscount Sumner (3 February 1859 – 24 May 1934), was a British lawyer and judge.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.
The Kiel mutiny was a major revolt by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 3 November 1918.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Lausanne Conference was a 1932 meeting of representatives from Great Britain, Germany, and France that resulted in an agreement to suspend World War I reparations payments imposed on the defeated countries by the Treaty of Versailles.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A legal remedy, also judicial relief or a judicial remedy, is the means with which a court of law, usually in the exercise of civil law jurisdiction, enforces a right, imposes a penalty, or makes another court order to impose its will.
Leuven or Louvain (Louvain,; Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium.
The London Agreement on German External Debts, also known as the London Debt Agreement (German: Londoner Schuldenabkommen), was a debt relief treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and creditor nations.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Martin Kitchen (December 21, 1936, Nottingham, England) is a British-Canadian historian, who has specialized in modern European history, with an emphasis on Germany.
Max Moritz Warburg (5 June 1867 – 26 December 1946) was a German-Jewish banker and scion of the wealthy Warburg family based in Hamburg, Germany.
Max Winkler (7 September 1875 – 12 October 1961) was a politician and senior political appointee in the local government of West Prussia, the national government of the German Empire, the Nazi government of the German Reich, and the post-war government of West Germany.
The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.
The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs (Bundesminister des Auswärtigen) is the head of the Federal Foreign Office and a member of the Cabinet of Germany.
A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
Nord-Pas-de-Calais Mining Basin is an area of France that has been added to the 2012 UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Owen Daniel Young (October 27, 1874 – July 11, 1962) was an American industrialist, businessman, lawyer and diplomat at the Second Reparations Conference (SRC) in 1929, as a member of the German Reparations International Commission.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Peacemakers: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and Its Attempt to End War (2001) is a historical narrative about the events of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
Pearson plc is a British multinational publishing and education company headquartered in London.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.
Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are damages intended to reform or deter the defendant and others from engaging in conduct similar to that which formed the basis of the lawsuit.
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
In jurisprudence, reparation is replenishment of a previously inflicted loss by the criminal to the victim.
Reparations are broadly understood as compensation given for an abuse or injury.
The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Luxemburger Abkommen "Luxembourg Agreement" or Wiedergutmachungsabkommen "Wiedergutmachung Agreement", Hebrew: הסכם השילומים Heskem HaShillumim "Reparations Agreement") was signed on September 10, 1952,USHMM:, USHMM photograph #11019.
The Republic of German-Austria (Republik Deutschösterreich or Deutsch-Österreich) was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Robert William Dewar Boyce (born 1943, Montreal) was (until his retirement) a Senior Lecturer in International History at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
Robert Schmidt (15 May 1864 – 16 September 1943) was a German trade unionist, journalist, politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The scuttling of the German fleet took place at the Royal Navy's base at Scapa Flow, in Scotland, after the First World War.
A sinking fund is a fund established by an economic entity by setting aside revenue over a period of time to fund a future capital expense, or repayment of a long-term debt.
The Spa Conference was a meeting between the Supreme War Council and the government of the Weimar Republic in Spa, Belgium on 5–16 July 1920.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) is a book written and published by the British economist John Maynard Keynes.
The Origins of the Second World War is a non-fiction book by the English historian A. J. P. Taylor, examining the causes of World War II.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Ulrich Karl Christian Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau (29 May 1869 – 8 September 1928) was a German diplomat who became the first Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Walter Cunliffe, 1st Baron Cunliffe GBE (3 December 1855 – 6 January 1920) established the merchant banking business of Cunliffe Brothers (after 1920, Goschens and Cunliffe) in London, and who was Governor of the Bank of England from 1913 to 1918, during the critical World War I era.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Weimar National Assembly (Weimarer Nationalversammlung) was the constitutional convention and de facto parliament of Germany from 6 February 1919 to 6 June 1920.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William George Tyrrell, 1st Baron Tyrrell, (17 August 1866 – 14 March 1947) was a British civil servant and diplomat.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments of 1932–1934 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S., to actualize the ideology of disarmament.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
After World War II, both West Germany and East Germany were obliged to pay war reparations to the Allied governments, according to the Potsdam Conference.
The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zone Rouge (English: Red Zone) is a chain of non-contiguous areas throughout northeastern France that the French government isolated after the First World War.
First world war reparations, Inter-Allied Reparations Commission, London ultimatum, Reparation Commission, Reparations of World War I, WWI reparations, War reparations after World War I, World War I/reparations, World war 1 reparations, Ww1 reparations.