252 relations: Abjad, Abugida, Acronym, Akkadian language, Allography, Allophone, Alpha, Alphabet, Alt key, AltGr key, Amerind languages, Amharic, Ampersand, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Ancient Near East, Application software, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic numerals, Arabic script, Aramaic alphabet, At sign, Berber languages, Beta, Bi-directional text, Bopomofo, Boustrophedon, Brahmic scripts, Braille, Bronze Age, Calligraphy, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, Central processing unit, Character (computing), Character (symbol), Character encoding, Cherokee language, Cherokee syllabary, China, Chinese characters, Chinese grammar, Chinese language, Chinese whispers, CJK characters, Clockwise, Code, Communication, Computer keyboard, Computer monitor, ..., Concatenation, Conceptual system, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Constructed script, Control key, Cree syllabics, Cuneiform script, Cursive, Cyrillic script, Data storage, Demotic (Egyptian), Devanagari, Diacritic, Digraphia, Display device, Dollar sign, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Electronic document, English language, English orthography, Epigraphy, Euro sign, Exoskeleton, Featural writing system, Fingerspelling, First-order logic, Flag semaphore, Formal language, Ge'ez script, German orthography, Glyph, Grammar, Grammatology, Grapheme, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Handwriting, Hangul, Hanja, Hanunó'o alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hieroglyph, Hindi–Urdu controversy, History of the alphabet, History of the world, Ideogram, India, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Indus script, Inflection, Information, Information transfer, Inherent vowel, Input method, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Organization for Standardization, Intonation (linguistics), ISO 15924, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Japanese language, Japanese writing system, Jiahu, Jiahu symbols, John DeFrancis, Kana, Kanji, Keyboard layout, Korean language, Language, Languages of East Asia, Languages of the Philippines, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Lexeme, Linear B, Logogram, Louis Braille, Mail, Mass communication, Maya script, Meaning (linguistics), Media (communication), Mesoamerican writing systems, Message, Mi'kmaq, Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing, Middle Chinese, Mnemonic, Modifier key, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Morse code, Mycenae, Natural language, Neolithic, Nsibidi, Numeral system, Ogham, Old Persian cuneiform, Old South Arabian, Old Uyghur alphabet, Olmecs, Operating system, Oral tradition, Orality, Orthography, Oxford University Press, Pahawh Hmong, Palaeography, Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, Pasigraphy, Penmanship, Percent sign, Permutation, Peter T. Daniels, Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician language, Phoneme, Phonetic complement, Phonetic transcription, Phonetics, Pictogram, Pitch-accent language, Place of articulation, Pound sign, Pre-Columbian era, Proto-Sinaitic script, Proto-writing, Publishing, Punctuation, Quipu, Reading (process), Rebus, Receiver (information theory), Relief, Rhythm, Romanization, Semantics, Semaphore line, Semasiography, Semi-syllabary, Semitic languages, Semitic people, Shift key, Shorthand, Sign (linguistics), Sign language, Signaling (telecommunications), Skywriting, Southeast Asia, Spelling, Spoken language, Stanford University Press, Stop consonant, Substrate (printing), Sumerian language, Syllabary, Syllable, Symbol, Symbolic communication, Syntax, Syriac alphabet, Tărtăria tablets, Tengwar, Tifinagh, Tone (linguistics), Tortoise, Trans-cultural diffusion, Transliteration, Typeface, Ugaritic, Unicode, Universal Coded Character Set, University of Hawaii Press, Varieties of Chinese, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vinča symbols, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Western culture, William A. Smalley, William Bright, Word, Writing, Writing implement, Writing system, Written language, Yen sign, Yerkish, Yi script, Yutaka Nishiyama, 26th century BC, 4th millennium BC. Expand index (202 more) » « Shrink index
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Allography, from the Greek for "other writing", has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The Alt key (pronounced or) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys.
AltGr (also Alt Graph, or Right Alt) is a modifier key found on some computer keyboards and is primarily used to type characters that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as currency symbols and accented letters.
Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at"; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
Bi-directional text is text containing text in both text directionalities, both right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral).
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
Boustrophedon (βουστροφηδόν, "ox-turning" from βοῦς,, "ox", στροφή,, "turn" and the adverbial suffix -δόν, "like, in the manner of"; that is, turning like oxen in ploughing) is a kind of bi-directional text, mostly seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) used to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
A character is a sign or symbol.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is an endangered Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The grammar of Standard Chinese shares many features with other varieties of Chinese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese whispers is the British term for the game known as telephone in the United States and other Anglophone countries.
In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.
Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions.
In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.
A conceptual system is a system that is composed of non-physical objects, i.e. ideas or concepts.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
A constructed script is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script.
In computing, a Control key is a modifier key which, when pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation (for example, C); similar to the Shift key, the Control key rarely performs any function when pressed by itself.
Cree syllabics are the versions of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics used to write Cree dialects, including the original syllabics system created for Cree and Ojibwe (Cree and Ojibwe).
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
In sociolinguistics, digraphia refers to the use of more than one writing system for the same language.
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).
The dollar sign ($ or) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
In a featural writing system, the shapes of the symbols (such as letters) are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they represent.
Fingerspelling (or dactylology) is the representation of the letters of a writing system, and sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
Flag semaphore (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
The linguist Ignace Gelb coined the term "grammatology" in 1952 to refer to the scientific study of writing systems or scripts.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
Hanunó’o is one of the indigenous suyat scripts of the Philippines and is used by the Mangyan peoples of southern Mindoro to write the Hanunó'o language.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") was a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.
The Hindi–Urdu controversy is an ongoing dispute—dating back to the 19th century—regarding the status of Hindi and Urdu as a single language, Hindustani (lit "of Hindustan"), or as two dialects of a single language, and the establishment of a single standard language in certain areas of North India.
The history of alphabetic writing goes back to the consonantal writing system used for Semitic languages in the Levant in the 2nd millennium BCE.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilisation during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
In telecommunications, information transfer is the process of moving messages containing user information from a source to a sink via a Communication channel.
An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script.
An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts).
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.
Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.
Jiahu symbols refer to the 16 distinct markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic Peiligang culture site found in Henan, China, and excavated in 1999.
John DeFrancis (August 31, 1911January 2, 2009) was an American linguist, sinologist, author of Chinese language textbooks, lexicographer of Chinese dictionaries, and Professor Emeritus of Chinese Studies at the University of Hawaiokinai at Mānoa.
are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Louis Braille (4 January 1809 – 6 January 1852) was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Media are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.
Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, is among the three known places in the world where writing has developed independently.
A message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients.
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing was a writing system and memory aid used by the Mi'kmaq, a First Nations people of the east coast of Canada.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
In computing, a modifier key is a special key (or combination) on a computer keyboard that temporarily modifies the normal action of another key when pressed together.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nsibidi (also known as nsibiri, nchibiddi or nchibiddy) is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria that is apparently an ideographic script, though there have been suggestions that it includes logographic elements.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic cuneiform script that was the primary script for Old Persian.
Old South Arabianhttp://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf (or Epigraphic South Arabian, or Ṣayhadic) is a group of four closely related extinct languages spoken in the far southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu that is an ancestor of the modern Yugur language.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Orality is thought and verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pahawh Hmong (RPA: Phajhauj Hmoob, known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew), also spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.
A pasigraphy (from Greek πᾶσι pasi "to all" and γράφω grapho "to write") is a writing system where each written symbol represents a concept (rather than a word or sound or series of sounds in a spoken language).
Penmanship is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument.
The percent (per cent) sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage, a number or ratio as a fraction of 100.
In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
Peter T. Daniels (born December 11, 1951, currently living in New Jersey) is a scholar of writing systems, specializing in typology.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A phonetic complement is a phonetic symbol used to disambiguate word characters (logograms) that have multiple readings, in mixed logographic-phonetic scripts such as Egyptian hieroglyphs, Akkadian cuneiform, Japanese, and Mayan.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Proto-writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Quipu (also spelled khipu) or talking knots, were recording devices fashioned from strings historically used by a number of cultures, particularly in the region of Andean South America.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
A rebus is a puzzle device which combines the use of illustrated pictures with individual letters to depict words and/or phrases.
The receiver in information theory is the receiving end of a communication channel.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
A semaphore telegraph is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles.
Semasiography (from σημασία (semasia) "signification, meaning" and γραφία (graphia) "writing") is "writing with signs", a non-phonetic based technique to "communicate information without the necessary intercession of forms of speech." It means written symbols and languages that are not based on spoken words.
A semi-syllabary is a writing system that behaves partly as an alphabet and partly as a syllabary.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate "upper" characters.
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language.
A linguistic sign is a part of language used to indicate a being.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.
Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns that create writing readable by someone on the ground.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Substrate is used in a converting process such as printing or coating to generally describe the base material onto which, e.g. images, will be printed.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
The Tărtăria tablets /tərtəria/ are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about from Alba Iulia), in Romania.
The tengwar are an artificial script created by J. R. R. Tolkien.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vinča symbols, sometimes called the Danube script, Vinča signs, Vinča script, Vinča–Turdaș script, Old European script, etc., are a set of symbols found on Neolithic era (6th to 5th millennia BC) artifacts from the Vinča culture of Central Europe and Southeastern Europe.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
William Allen Smalley (April 4, 1923December 16, 1997) was an American linguist.
William Bright (August 13, 1928 Oxnard, California – October 15, 2006 Louisville, Colorado) was an American linguist who specialized in Native American and South Asian languages and descriptive linguistics.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
The yen sign (¥) or the yuan sign (¥/元) is a currency sign used by the Chinese yuan (CNY) and the Japanese yen (JPY) currencies.
Yerkish is an artificial language developed for use by non-human primates.
The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary.
is a Japanese mathematician and professor at the Osaka University of Economics, where he teaches mathematics and information.
The 26th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2600 BC to 2501 BC.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
Horizontal writing, Left to right, Left-to-right, Linear writing, Linear writing systems, Linearity (writing), Morphosyllabic, Non-linear writing, Script system, Signary, Text direction, Writing Direction, Writing System, Writing Systems, Writing direction, Writing systems, Written form.