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The autostrada A4 in Poland is a long east-west motorway that runs through southern Poland, along the north side the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains, from the Polish-German border at Zgorzelec-Görlitz (connecting to the German A4 autobahn), bypassing Wrocław, Opole, Strzelce Opolskie, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Tarnów, Dębica and Rzeszów to the Polish-Ukrainian border at Korczowa-Krakovets.
The A8 motorway (Autostradowa Obwodnica Wrocławia, abbreviated AOW) or Wrocław Motorway Bypass or Autostrada A8 is a motorway bypass of the city of Wrocław, Poland.
Academic Festival Overture (Akademische Festouvertüre), Op. 80, by Johannes Brahms, was one of a pair of contrasting concert overtures — the other being the Tragic Overture, Op. 81.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen (July 6, 1818 – March 13, 1879)"Anderssen, Adolf" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Since the late 1970s, the European Union's (EU) policy has been to develop and drive appropriate measures to improve air quality throughout the EU.
An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.
Aleksander Fredro (20 June 1793 – 15 July 1876) was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires.
Alexander Moszkowski (15 January 1851 – 26 September 1934) was a German-Jewish satirist, writer and philosopher of Polish descent.
Alfred Kerr (né Kempner; 25 December 1867 – 12 October 1948, surname) was an influential German theatre critic and essayist of Jewish descent, nicknamed the Kulturpapst ("Culture Pope").
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Aloysius Alzheimer (also known as Alois Alzheimer;;; 14 June 1864 – 19 December 1915) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin.
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America.
AmRest (WSE) is a European fast-food and casual dining restaurant operator.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Angelus Silesius (9 July 1677), born Johann Scheffler and also known as Johann Angelus Silesius, was a German Catholic priest and physician, known as a mystic and religious poet.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Arbeitslager is a German language word which means labor camp.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
AST National Academy of Theatre Arts in Kraków (Polish: Akademia Sztuk Teatralnych im. Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w Krakowie, often shortened to AST, formerly: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna im. Ludwika Solskiego, shortened to PWST), located in Kraków, Poland, was founded in 1946 by a well-known Polish actor, Juliusz Osterwa, who took the initial steps leading to the establishment of the Academy through the amalgamation of three local studios, the Theatre Actors' Studio at Stary Teatr, the Słowacki Theatre Actors' Studio, and Iwo Gall's Dramatic Studio connected with Juliusz Osterwa's Reduta Theatre.
The ATP Challenger Tour, known until the end of 2008 as the ATP Challenger Series, is a series of international men's professional tennis tournaments.
Groupe Auchan SA is a French international retail group and multinational corporation headquartered in Croix, France.
August Kopisch (26 May 1799 – 6 February 1853) was a German poet and painter.
Friedrich August Gottreu Tholuck (30 March 1799 – 10 June 1877), known as August Tholuck, was a German Protestant theologian and church leader.
Auguste Schmidt, full name, Friederike Wilhelmine Auguste Schmidt, (3 August 1833, Breslau, then Germany now Poland – 10 June 1902, Leipzig, Germany) was a pioneering German feminist, educator, journalist and women's rights activist.
Đorđe Andrejević-Kun (31 March 1904 – 17 January 1964) was a Serbian painter, who designed the Coat of Arms of the City of Belgrade and reputedly designed the Coat of arms of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav orders and medals (along with Antun Augustinčić).
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Wrocławski Klub Sportowy Śląsk Wrocław Spółka Akcyjna, commonly known as WKS Śląsk Wrocław, Śląsk Wrocław or simply Śląsk, is a Polish football club based in Wrocław that plays in Ekstraklasa, the highest level of the Polish football league system.
Śląsk Wrocław is a Polish basketball team, based in Wrocław.
Śląsk Wrocław is a Polish handball club based in Wrocław, Poland.
The Ślęża (Zobten or Zobtenberg, later also Siling) is a mountain in the Sudeten Foreland (Polish: Przedgórze Sudeckie) in Lower Silesia, from Wrocław, southern Poland.
Ślęza (Polish; German Lohe) is a 78.6 km long river in Lower Silesia, southern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.
Śródmieście (meaning "city centre") is one of the five administrative boroughs (dzielnicas) of Wrocław, Poland.
The Škoda 19 T is a five carbody section low-floor bi-directional tram, developed by Škoda Transportation for Wrocław.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Barasch Brothers' Department Store (Warenhaus Gebrüder Barasch) is the original name of a department store in Wrocław, Poland (then Breslau, Germany), located between the eastern side of the market square and the Ulica Szewska (Schuhbrücke).
The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is the most widespread species of swallow in the world.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The Battle of Breslau (also known as the Battle on the Lohe) was a battle fought on 22 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Hundsfeld or Battle of Psie Pole was allegedly fought on 24 August 1109 near the Silesian capital Wrocław between the Holy Roman Empire in aid of the claims of the exiled Piast duke Zbigniew against his ruling half-brother, Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland.
The beech marten (Martes foina), also known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Bielany Wrocławskie (Bettlern) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kobierzyce, within Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Biskupice Podgórne (Bischwitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kobierzyce, within Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Black Red White is a leading furniture manufacturer in Poland, founded in Chmielek, Poland in 1991.
The black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) is a small passerine bird in the redstart genus Phoenicurus.
The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) is a small gull that breeds in much of Europe and Asia, and also in coastal eastern Canada.
Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (born 18 May 1957) is a Polish politician and local government leader.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) is a starling-sized passerine bird that breeds in the northern forests of Eurasia and North America.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.
Breslau-Dürrgoy concentration camp or KZ Dürrgoy was a short-lived Nazi German concentration camp set up in the southern part of Wrocław (Breslau), then in Germany, before World War II on the grounds of the old fertilizer factory "Silesia".
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
Bystrzyca is a river of Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, which it meets a few kilometers north (downstream) from Wrocław.
C.H. Robinson is a Fortune 500 provider of multimodal transportation services and third-party logistics (3PL).
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cargill, Incorporated is an American privately held global corporation based in Minnetonka, Minnesota, and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware.
Carl Gotthard Langhans (15 December 1732 – 1 October 1808) was a Prussian master builder and royal architect.
Castorama is a French retailer of DIY and home improvement tools and supplies, part of the British group Kingfisher plc.
The Cathedral of St.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Centennial Hall (Hala Stulecia; formerly Hala Ludowa, People's Hall, Jahrhunderthalle) is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Charles Proteus Steinmetz (born Karl August Rudolph Steinmetz, April 9, 1865 – October 26, 1923) was a German-born American mathematician and electrical engineer and professor at Union College.
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt (literally: Baby Jesus Market), Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, Christkindlimarkt, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas during the four weeks of Advent.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of a wider Creative Cities Network which was launched in 2004 and is currently made up of 180 UNESCO Creative Cities globally.
Clara Immerwahr (21 June 1870 – 2 May 1915) was a German chemist of Jewish descent.
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.
Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross and St.
The common blackbird (Turdus merula) is a species of true thrush.
The common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), usually known simply as the chaffinch, is a common and widespread small passerine bird in the finch family.
The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.
The common house martin (Delichon urbicum), sometimes called the northern house martin or, particularly in Europe, just house martin, is a migratory passerine bird of the swallow family which breeds in Europe, north Africa and temperate Asia; and winters in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia.
The common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a bird of prey species belonging to the kestrel group of the falcon family Falconidae.
The common merganser (North American) or goosander (Eurasian) (Mergus merganser) is a large duck of rivers and lakes in forested areas of Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America.
The common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) (also known as the waterhen and as the swamp chicken) is a bird species in the family Rallidae.
The common reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae.
The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.
The common swift (Apus apus) is a medium-sized bird, superficially similar to the barn swallow or house martin but somewhat larger, though not stemming from those passerine species, being in the order Apodiformes.
The common wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) is a large species in the dove and pigeon family.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Gniezno (Zjazd gnieźnieński, Akt von Gnesen or Gnesener Übereinkunft) was an amical meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
Copernicus Airport Wrocław (Port Lotniczy Wrocław im. is an international commercial airport in Wrocław in southwestern Poland. The airport is located southwest of the city centre. It has one runway, two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Crédit Agricole Group, sometimes called "la banque verte" (the green bank) due to its historical ties to farming, is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising Crédit Agricole local banks, the 39 Crédit Agricole regional banks and a central institute Crédit Agricole S.A..
Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, and their motives.
Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dagmara "Daga" Wozniak (Woźniak) (born July 1, 1988) is an American saber fencer.
Georg Daniel Speer (2 July 1636 – 5 October 1707) was a German composer and writer of the Baroque.
Decathlon S.A. is a French sporting goods retailer.
Deichmann SE (formerly Heinrich Deichmann-Schuhe GmbH & Co. KG) is a major German shoe and sportswear retail chain.
DeLaval is a leading producer of dairy and farming machinery, with a head office in Tumba, Sweden, and is part of the Tetra Laval group.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) is a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists, established in 1907.
The Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest (German Gym and Sports Celebration) was the last big sports event organized by the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports governing body of the Third Reich.
DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL providing international courier, parcel, and express mail services.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer (4 February 1906 – 9 April 1945) was a German pastor, theologian, anti-Nazi dissident, and key founding member of the Confessing Church.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Dolby Laboratories, Inc. (often shortened to Dolby Labs) is a British-American company specializing in audio noise reduction and audio encoding/compression.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland.
The Polish surname Dunin originated with the 12th century with Piotr Włost Dunin.
Duplicate bridge is the most widely used variation of contract bridge in club and tournament play.
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
The Eastern Neisse, also known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka (Glatzer Neiße, Kladská Nisa), is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km (21st longest) and a basin area of 4,570 km² (3,742 in Poland).
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eberhard Mock is a fictional character in a series of novels by Marek Krajewski.
Edith Stein (religious name Teresa Benedicta a Cruce OCD; also known as St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross; 12 October 1891 – 9 August 1942), was a German Jewish philosopher who converted to Roman Catholicism and became a Discalced Carmelite nun.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
Blessed Edmund Bojanowski (14 November 1814 - 7 August 1871) was a Polish Roman Catholic and the founder of four separate religious congregations.
The Ekstraklasa is the top Polish professional league for men's association football clubs (it is the country's primary football competition).
The Ekstraklasa Cup (Puchar Ekstraklasy) was an elimination tournament for Polish football clubs who play in the Polish 1st Division Ekstraklasa.
Emberizidae is a family of seed-eating passerine birds with distinctively finch-like bills.
The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Erinaceidae is a family in the order Eulipotyphla.
Ernst & Young (doing business as EY) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, England.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
In the Catholic Church, a Eucharistic Congress is a gathering of clergy, religious, and laity to bear witness to the Real Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist, which is an important Roman Catholic doctrine.
The Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im.) is a public institution of higher learning established in 1946 originally as the College of Fine Arts.
The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
The Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) usually known simply as the blackcap, is a common and widespread typical warbler.
The Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) is a small passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae.
The Eurasian bullfinch, common bullfinch or bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) is a small passerine bird in the finch family, Fringillidae.
The Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto), most often simply called the collared dove,Hagemeijer, W. J. M., & Blair, M. J., eds.
The Eurasian coot (Fulica atra), also known as the common coot, is a member of the rail and crake bird family, the Rallidae.
The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian Subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia.
The Eurasian magpie or common magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout northern part of Eurasian continent.
The Eurasian nuthatch or wood nuthatch (Sitta europaea) is a small passerine bird found throughout temperate Asia and in Europe, where its name is the nuthatch.
The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.
The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.
The Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) is a passerine bird in the sparrow family with a rich chestnut crown and nape, and a black patch on each pure white cheek.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The 1963 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1963, was the thirteenth FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The FIBA EuroBasket 2009 was the 36th FIBA EuroBasket, the biennial regional basketball championship contested by European nations and held by FIBA Europe.
Eurolines Organisation is an international non-profit organisation according to Belgian law.
The European badger (Meles meles) also known as the Eurasian badger or simply badger, is a species of badger in the family Mustelidae and is native to almost all of Europe and some parts of West Asia.
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.
The European Film Awards have been presented annually since 1988 by the European Film Academy to recognize excellence in European cinematic achievements.
The European goldfinch or goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), is a small passerine bird in the finch family that is native to Europe, North Africa and western Asia.
The European greenfinch, or just greenfinch (Chloris chloris), is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.
The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is the research and development agency of the European Union, headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
The European polecat (Mustela putorius) – also known as the common ferret, black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as some other names) – is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and north Morocco.
Eurowings GmbH is a German low-cost airline headquartered in Düsseldorf and a fully owned subsidiary of the Lufthansa Group.
Eva Stachniak (born 1952 in Wrocław, Poland) is a Polish-Canadian novelist.
Expressway S5 or express road S5 (droga ekspresowa S5) is a limited-access road in Poland which has been planned to run along the route Ostróda – Grudziądz – Bydgoszcz – Poznań – Wrocław.
Expressway S8 or express road S8 (in Polish droga ekspresowa S8) is major road in Poland which, when completed, will run along the route Wrocław – Łódź – Warsaw – Białystok.
Fabryczna (German: Fabrikviertel) is one of the five administrative boroughs (dzielnicas) of Wrocław, Poland.
FAMO, short for Fahrzeug- und Motoren-Werke (Automobile and Engine Works) was a German vehicle manufacturer in the early 20th century.
FedEx Corporation is an American multinational courier delivery services company headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee.
Festival of Good Beer (Polish language: Festiwal Dobrego Piwa) is an international beer festival in Wrocław, Poland.
The fieldfare (Turdus pilaris) is a member of the thrush family Turdidae.
Fighting Solidarity (Solidarność Walcząca) was a Polish anti-communist underground organization, founded in June 1982.
The Mongol Invasion of Poland from late 1240 to 1241 culminated in the battle of Legnica, where the Mongols defeated an alliance which included forces from fragmented Poland and their allies, led by Henry II the Pious, the Duke of Silesia.
The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.
Football is the most popular sport in Poland.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frankfurt (Oder) (also Frankfurt an der Oder, abbreviated Frankfurt a. d. Oder, Frankfurt a. d. O., Frankf., 'Frankfurt on the Oder') is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice, which was part of Frankfurt until 1945.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.
Gallus Anonymus (Polonized variant: Gall Anonim) is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum (Deeds of the Princes of the Poles), composed in Latin about 1115.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gesta principum Polonorum (Deeds of the Princes of the Poles) is a medieval gesta, or deeds narrative, concerned with Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth, his ancestors, and the Polish principality during and before his reign.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Getin Holding S.A. is a financial holding company, formed in Warsaw in 1996.
Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (or; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice.
Gigaset AG, formerly known as Siemens Home and Office Communication Devices is a multinational corporation based in Munich, Germany.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
The gmina (Polish pronunciation, plural gminy) is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality.
Gmina Kobierzyce is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
A gondola lift is a means of cable transport and type of aerial lift which is supported and propelled by cables from above.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) is a Eurasian passerine in the genus Acrocephalus.
The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is a medium-sized woodpecker with pied black and white plumage and a red patch on the lower belly.
The great tit (Parus major) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
The grey heron (Ardea cinerea) is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
The Grotowski Institute in Wrocław (Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego) is the development of the "Centre for Study of Jerzy Grotowski’s Work and for Cultural and Theatrical Research" (A.K.A. the Grotowski Centre), on 28 December 2006 was transformed into the Grotowski Institute.
Grunwald Bridge (Most Grunwaldzki) is a suspension bridge over the river Oder in Wrocław, Poland, built between 1908 and 1910.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Handball is a popular team sport in Poland.
Hans Charles Freeman AM, FAA (26 May 1929 – 9 November 2008) was a German-born Australian bioinorganic chemist, protein crystallographer, and Professor of Inorganic Chemistry who spent most of his academic career at the University of Sydney.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
The hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes) is a passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.
Heinrich Gerhard Kuhn (10 March 1904 – 25 August 1994) was a British physicist.
Henry II the Pious (Henryk II Pobożny) (1196 – 9 April 1241),*Cawley, Charles; Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medieval Lands Project; Silesia v3.0; Dukes of Breslau (Wrocław) and Lower Silesia 1163–1278 (Piast) (Chap 4); Heinrich II Duke of Lower Silesia; retrieved May 2015.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henry VI the Good (also known as of Wrocław) (Henryk VI Dobry or Wrocławski) (18 March 1294 – 24 November 1335) was a Duke of Wrocław since 1296 (with his brothers as co-rulers until 1311).
Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz (17 October 1923 in Vilnius, Poland (now Lithuania) is member of the clergy of Białystok, emeritus Archbishop of Wrocław and Cardinal Priest. He grew up in Šukiškės near Vilnius. He entered the archdiocesan seminary where he completed his secondary studies, before being transferred to Białystok.Gazeta Wyborcza, "Kardynał Henryk Gulbinowicz przechodzi na emeryturę", 2003-10-10, He was ordained by Archbishop Romuald Jalbrzykowski on 18 June 1950, and was an associate pastor at Szudzialowo. After a year of parish experience, he was sent to Lublin to continue his preparation in theology at the Catholic University of Lublin. He earned a doctorate in moral theology in 1955; from 1956 to 1959 he was university chaplain in Białystok. Following this he taught in the seminary at Warmia, while also working in the diocesan Curia of Olsztyn.The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Biographical Dictionary (1903–2009), On 12 January 1970, Pope Paul VI appointed him titular Bishop of Acci, and also the apostolic administrator of the Polish section of the Archdiocese of Vilnius (Białystok). The following 8 February he received episcopal consecration from the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński. In charge of the Church community, he was responsible for the reorganization of the diaconate, and he also promoted the construction of new parishes. Already in 1944 he furthered the growth of religious life in his area by creating in Białystok the Parish Catechetics Center and reviving the trimestral publication "Wiadomości Kościelne Archidiecezij w Białystoku" (Church news of the archdiocese of Białystok). On 3 January 1976 he became Archbishop of Wrocław. While guiding this local Church during these years, he created many pastoral centers in this large region. In addition, he founded the biweekly "Nowe Życie" (New Life) and crowned the statue of the Virgin as protector of the famous shrine of Wambierzyce in Lower Silesia, which attracts pilgrimages continually. A few days before martial law was imposed in 1981, the local Solidarity union branch withdrew from its bank account 80 million Polish zlotys, the equivalent of today's USD 100 million, and deposited the cash with Gulbinowicz, who hid it from the communist regime during Solidarity's delegalisation. He is the author of a number of works in the area of moral and doctrinal theology, and on the formation of the clergy. On 25 May 1985 Gulbinowicz was created Cardinal by John Paul II. Since 3 April 2004, he has been Archbishop emeritus of Wrocław. His year of birth had been listed as 1928 (which would have meant he was ordained early), but in early February 2005 it was publicly disclosed that the real date was in 1923; hence he was 5 years older than previously held. His birth records were falsified in 1942 so he wouldn't be sent to a German labor camp. This meant that he had reached age 80 in 2003, and so at that time lost the right to participate in a conclave. (In early 2005, Pope John Paul II was in poor health and would die in early April, thus leading to a conclave. It was noted in the secular press that Cardinal Gulbinowicz presumably already reached a private agreement with the Vatican regarding the age issue.).
Henryk IV Probus (Latin for the Righteous) (Henryk IV Probus or Prawy; Heinrich IV.) (– 23 June 1290) was a member of the Silesian branch of the royal Polish Piast dynasty.
Henryk Tomaszewski aka Heinrich Karl Koenig (1919–2001) was a mime artist and theatre director, born in Poznań, Poland.
Hermann Fernau (born 1883 or 1884) was a German lawyer, writer, journalist and pacifist.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The History of interwar Poland comprises the period from the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918, until the joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
Wrocław (Vratislav, Breslau) has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) (also called hoodie) is a Eurasian bird species in the ''Corvus'' genus.
A hotspot is a physical location where people may obtain Internet access, typically using Wi-Fi technology, via a wireless local area network (WLAN) using a router connected to an internet service provider.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world.
Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IKEA is a Swedish-founded multinational group, that designs and sells, kitchen appliances and home accessories.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on libraries and information professionals.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jan was the first bishop of Wrocław.
Jelcz is a Polish brand of trucks also military, buses and trolley buses produced by Zakłady Samochodowe Jelcz, Jelczańskie Zakłady Samochodowe.
Jerzy Marian Grotowski (11 August 1933 – 14 January 1999) was an innovative Polish theatre director and theorist whose approaches to acting, training and theatrical production have significantly influenced theatre today.
Das Jüdisch-Theologische Seminar (Fränckelsche Stiftung), The Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau was an institution in Breslau for the training of rabbis, founded under the will of Jonas Fränckel, and opened in 1854.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (20 July 1656 – 5 April 1723) was an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.
Saint John of Nepomuk (or John Nepomucene) (Jan Nepomucký; Johannes Nepomuk; Ioannes Nepomucenus) (1345 – March 20, 1393) is the saint of Bohemia (Czech Republic), who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia.
Jonathan Cape is a London publishing firm founded in 1921 by Herbert Jonathan Cape, who was head of the firm until his death in 1960.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer.
Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 – 8 June 1945) was the last Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), and an official of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany.
Karol Lipiński Academy of Music (pol. Akademia Muzyczna im. Karola Lipińskiego we Wrocławiu) is a university level school of music in Wrocław, Poland.
Das Kaufland is a German hypermarket chain, part of the Schwarz Gruppe which also owns Lidl and Handelshof.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
KŚ AZS Wrocław is a Polish women's football club from Wrocław.
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A., commonly known as KGHM, is a Polish multinational corporation that employs near 34,000 people around the world and has been a leader in copper and silver production for more than 50 years.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
"Kingdom of Poland" (Polish: Królestwo Polskie, Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the name of Poland under a series of former monarchial governments, from c.1000/1025 CE to 1795.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Koleje Dolnośląskie (Polish for Lower Silesian Railways; KD) is a regional rail operator in the Lower Silesian Voivodship of Poland.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
Krzyki (German: Krietern): is one of the five administrative boroughs (dzielnicas) of Wrocław, Poland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
The least weasel (Mustela nivalis), or simply weasel in the UK and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae and order Carnivora.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Lemkos (Лeмки, Łemkowie, Lemko: Лeмкы, translit. Lemkŷ; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna.
Leporidae is the family of rabbits and hares, containing over 60 species of extant mammals in all.
Leroy Merlin is a French headquartered home improvement and gardening retailer serving several countries in Europe, Russia, Asia, South America and Africa.
The lesser spotted woodpecker (Dryobates minor) is a member of the woodpecker family Picidae.
LG Corporation (Korean: 주식회사 LG), formerly Lucky-GoldStar (Korean: Leogki Geumseong 럭키금성/樂喜金星), is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation.
This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.
A dinosaur park usually refers to a theme park in which several life-size sculptures or models of prehistoric animals, especially dinosaurs are displayed.
This list includes people who were born in or lived in Wrocław after 1945.
The Polish football champions are the annual winners of Poland's premier annual football competition.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The little bittern or common little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is a wading bird in the heron family, Ardeidae.
The little crake (Porzana parva) is a very small waterbird of the family Rallidae.
The little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius) is a small plover.
LiveChat Software (WSE:LVC) is a customer service software company and developer of LiveChat - software as a service-based help desk software and online chat software for ecommerce sales, customer support and lead generation.
The long-tailed tit or long-tailed bushtit (Aegithalos caudatus), occasionally referred to as the silver-throated tit or silver-throated dasher, is a common bird found throughout Europe and Asia.
Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S.A. (flight), doing business as LOT Polish Airlines, is the flag carrier of Poland.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province (''Polish'': województwo dolnośląskie), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.
The Lusatian Neisse (Lužická Nisa; Lausitzer Neiße; Nysa Łużycka; Upper Sorbian: Łužiska Nysa; Lower Sorbian: Łužyska Nysa), or Western Neisse, is a long river in Central Europe.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
Makro is an international brand of Warehouse clubs, also called cash and carries.
The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is a dabbling duck that breeds throughout the temperate and subtropical Americas, Eurasia, and North Africa and has been introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, the Falkland Islands, and South Africa.
The MAN Lion's City is a range of low-floor and low-entry public buses built by German truck and bus manufacturer MAN Truck & Bus (previously MAN Nutzfahrzeuge) since 1996 primarily for the European market, but is also available in chassis-only variants worldwide.
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Marek Krajewski (born 4 September 1966, in Wrocław) is an award-winning Polish crime writer and linguist.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
A marina (from Spanish, Portuguese and Italian: marina, "coast" or "shore") is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats.
The Market Square, Wrocław (Rynek we Wrocławiu, Großer Ring zu Breslau) is a medieval market square in Wrocław, now the heart of a pedestrian zone.
Marlene Schmidt (born 1937) is a German actress, TV host and beauty queen who won the 1961 Miss Universe beauty pageant.
Martial law in Poland (Stan wojenny w Polsce) refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983, when the authoritarian communist government of the Polish People's Republic drastically restricted normal life by introducing martial law in an attempt to crush political opposition.
Max Berg (17 April 1870 – 22 January 1947) was a German architect and urban planner.
Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
Max Simon (6 January 1899 – 1 February 1961) was a German SS commander and war criminal during World War II.
MCI Capital SA - private equity fund listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange active in the Central and Eastern Europe.
McKinsey & Company is an American worldwide management consulting firm.
Mercer is the world's largest human resources consulting firm.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces small amounts of beer (or sometimes root beer), typically much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries, and is independently owned.
Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City is a 2002 book by historians Norman Davies and Roger Moorhouse about the history of Wrocław, the largest city in western Poland.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A military decoration is an award, usually a medal of some sort that consists of a ribbon and medallion given to an individual as a distinctively designed mark of honor denoting heroism, or meritorious or outstanding service or achievement.
A miniature park is an open space that displays miniature buildings and models, and is usually open to the public.
Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941) is a retired Polish Air Force officer and cosmonaut.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Monopol Hotel is a five-star hotel located at Helena Modrzejewska street, Wrocław.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Moritz (Maurice) Moszkowski (23 August 18544 March 1925) was a German- Polish-Jewish composer, pianist, and teacher of Polish descent on his paternal side.
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.
The Museum of Architecture (in Polish: Muzeum Architektury) is in Wrocław, Poland.
The Museum of Natural History at Wrocław University is a large natural history museum at the University of Wrocław, in Wrocław, Poland.
The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America.
The mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a species of swan and a member of the waterfowl family Anatidae.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Natalia Avelon (born 29 March 1980, Wrocław, Poland) is a Polish-German actress and singer.
Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.
"National Museum of Poland" is the common name for several of the country's largest and most notable museums.
The National Museum in Wrocław (Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu), established in 1947, is one of Poland's main branches of the National Museum system.
National road 5 (Droga krajowa nr 5) is a route belonging to the Polish national road network.
National road 8 - The national road, 804 km in length, running through Poland from the Czech border in Kudowa Zdrój to the border with Lithuania in Budzisko.
The National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, abbreviated NSRL), was the umbrella organization for sports and physical education in Nazi Germany.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Nowa Wieś Wrocławska (Polnisch Neudorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kąty Wrocławskie, within Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
OBI GmbH & Co.
An oceanarium can be either a marine mammal park, such as MarineLand, or a large-scale aquarium, such as the Lisbon Oceanarium, presenting an ocean habitat with marine animals, especially large ocean dwellers such as sharks.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Old Jewish Cemetery in Wrocław is located in the southeast part of Wrocław (formerly known as Breslau), Poland, currently along Ślężna street.
Old Polish language (język staropolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 9th and the 16th centuries, followed by the Middle Polish language.
The Old World flycatchers are a large family, the Muscicapidae, of small passerine birds mostly restricted to the Old World (Europe, Africa and Asia).
Oleśnica (Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Olimp was a Polish anti-Nazi resistance organization active in Breslau (Wrocław) during World War II.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
The Olympic Stadium (Stadion Olimpijski) is a multi-purpose stadium in Wrocław, Poland.
is a Japanese manufacturer of optics and reprography products.
Opera Software AS is a Norwegian software company, primarily known for its desktop Opera web browser, and mobile web browser Opera Mini.
Operation Vistula (Akcja "Wisła") was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of the Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country.
The Orange Alternative (Polish: Pomarańczowa Alternatywa) is a Polish anti-communist underground movement, started in Wrocław, a city in south-west Poland and led by Waldemar Fydrych (sometimes misspelled as Frydrych), commonly known as Major (Commander of Festung Breslau) in the 1980s.
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (postnominal abbr. O.F.M.Cap.) is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans.
The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv), commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, or Minorites, is a branch of the Catholic Order of Friars Minor, founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209.
Osiedle (Polish plural: osiedla) is a term used in Poland to denote a designated subdivision of a city or town, or of a dzielnica, with its own council and executive.
The Ossolineum or the National Ossoliński Institute (Zakład Narodowy im., ZNiO) is a non-profit foundation located in Wrocław, Poland since 1947, and subsidized from the state budget.
Ostrów Tumski ("Cathedral Island", Dominsel) is the oldest part of the city of Wrocław in south-western Poland.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
The pagan reaction in Poland was a series of events in the Kingdom of Poland in the 1030s that culminated in a popular uprising or rebellion, or series of these, which for a time destabilized the Kingdom of Poland.
Panattoni Development Company is an international real estate developer specializing in industrial real estate and warehouses.
The Panthers Wrocław are an American football team in Wrocław, Poland, which was merged from Giants Wrocław and Devils Wrocław.
Parker Hannifin Corporation, originally Parker Appliance Company, usually referred to as just Parker, is an American corporation specializing in motion and control technologies.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
A pedalo (British English) or paddle boat (U.S., Canadian, and Australian English) is a small human-powered watercraft propelled by the action of pedals turning a paddle wheel.
Pendolino (from Italian pendolo "pendulum", and -ino, a diminutive suffix) is an Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Spain, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Slovakia, Switzerland and China.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Herb ŁabędźPiotr Włostowic (1080 – 1153), also known as Peter Wlast or Włost) was a Polish noble, castellan of Wrocław, and a ruler (możnowładca) of part of Silesia. From 1117 he was voivode (palatyn) of the king of Poland, Bolesław III Wrymouth. Part of the Łabędzie family, and son of Włostowic, he is likely to have been related to older princes of Silesia. His lands included the territories near Mount Ślęża and Piasek Island near Wrocław. The Dunin clan of noble families claims descent from him. His most famous deed is the capture of Volodar (Wołodar) of Peremyshl (Przemyśl). Later he married Maria, a daughter of Sviatopolk II of Kiev. For this marriage and his adventure in Rus', he was ordered by the Church to reconcile. He was ordered to construct seventy churches. Włostowic, a loyal subject of Bolesław III, had much more negative relations with Bolesław's son, Władysław II the Exile, and especially his wife, Agnes of Babenberg, who considered Włostowic a traitor. In 1146, Włostowic was captured by Władysław, blinded and muted. This mutilation of the popular Włostowic was one of the reasons for a civil war between Władysław and his brothers, as the blinded Włostowic went to Rus', which had so far supported Władysław, and convinced them to break their alliance. Eventually Władysław lost the war and went into exile in 1146. Włostowic regained his position and estates, but his disability and worsening health prevented him from taking further active part in politics, and he died in 1153.
PKP Intercity is a company of PKP Group responsible for long-distance passenger transport.
Plac Grunwaldzki (Grunwald Square, named for the Battle of Grunwald) is a large square and important transit point in Wrocław, Poland.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Cup in football (Puchar Polski w piłce nożnej) is an elimination tournament for Polish football clubs, held continuously from 1950, and is the second most important national title in Polish football after the Ekstraklasa title.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
The Polish SuperCup in football (official Polish title: SuperPuchar Polski) is an annually held match between the champion of the Ekstraklasa and the Polish Cup winner.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Polmos (acronym for Polski Monopol Spirytusowy, Polish Spirits Monopoly) was a Polish state-owned monopoly, controlling the Polish market for alcoholic beverages.
PolskiBus.com was a Polish express coach operator.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (– 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
PZU Group (PZU) is a publicly traded insurance company, a component of the WIG20 and one of the largest financial institutions in Poland.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance.
Prologis, Inc. is a multinational logistics real estate investment trust (REIT) headquartered in San Francisco, California.
The Province of Lower Silesia (Provinz Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Niederschläsing; Prowincja Dolny Śląsk; Prowincyjŏ Dolny Ślůnsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
The Province of Silesia (Provinz Schlesien; Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper and Lower Silesia provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.
Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Samochodowej (commonly abbreviated PKS, can be translated as Motor Transport Company) is a major Polish enterprise dealing with inter-city public transport using coaches.
Przewozy Regionalne, trading as POLREGIO, formerly PKP Przewozy Regionalne, is a train operator in Poland, responsible for local and interregional passenger transportation (przewozy regionalne means regional transport in Polish).
Psie Pole is one of the five administrative districts of Wrocław, Poland.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
PZ Cussons is a major British manufacturer of personal healthcare products and consumer goods.
Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. (القطرية, Al Qatariyah), operating as Qatar Airways, is the state-owned flag carrier of Qatar.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
The Racławice Panorama (Polish: Panorama racławicka) is a monumental (15 × 114 meter) cycloramic painting depicting the Battle of Racławice, during the Kościuszko Uprising.
The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, from the Greek words nukt-, "night" + ereutēs, "wanderer" + prokuōn, "before-dog" + -oidēs, "similar to"), also known as the mangut (its Evenki name) is a canid indigenous to East Asia.
Rafał Dutkiewicz (born 6 July 1959, Mikstat) is the current mayor of the city of Wrocław, Poland (since 2002).
A railroad car or railcar (American and Canadian English), railway wagon or railway carriage (British English and UIC), also called a train car or train wagon, is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system (a railroad/railway).
Ramat Gan (help; رَمَات چَان) is a city in the Tel Aviv District of Israel, located east of Tel Aviv.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
The Rędziński Bridge (Most Rędziński) is a cable-stayed bridge spanning the Oder river in Wrocław, Poland.
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia.
The redwing (Turdus iliacus) is a bird in the thrush family, Turdidae, native to Europe and Asia, slightly smaller than the related song thrush.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Remiz is a genus of birds in the Remizidae family, commonly known as the Eurasian pendulines (in contrast to the African pendulines).
Renoma (formerly named Powszechny Dom Towarowy Renoma, Wertheim) is a shopping mall in Wrocław, and was once the biggest as well as the most high-end department store in the city.
The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.
The rock dove, IOC World Bird List, rock pigeon, or common pigeon (also; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Roger Moorhouse (born 1968 in Stockport, Cheshire) is a British historian and author.
The Archdiocese of Gniezno (Archidioecesis Gnesnensis, Archidiecezja Gnieźnieńska) is the oldest Latin Catholic archdiocese in Poland, located in the city of Gniezno.
The Archdiocese of Kraków (Cracovien(sis), Archidiecezja krakowska) is an archdiocese located in the city of Kraków in Poland.
The Archdiocese of Wrocław (Archidiecezja wrocławska; Erzbistum Breslau; Arcidiecéze vratislavská; Archidioecesis Vratislaviensis) is a Latin Rite archdiocese of the Catholic Church named after its capital Wrocław in Poland.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg (Coslinen(sis) – Colubregan(us)) is a Latin rite suffragan diocese in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień in northwestern Poland.
The rook (Corvus frugilegus) is a member of the family Corvidae in the passerine order of birds.
A ropes course is a challenging outdoor personal development and team building activity which usually consists of high and/or low elements.
The Royal Palace (Pałac Królewski; Stadtschloss) is a palace in Wrocław, Poland.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Ruth Closius-Neudeck was an SS supervisor at a Nazi death camp complex from December 1944 until March 1945.
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Südzucker AG is a German company, the largest sugar producer in Europe with an annual production of around 4.8 million tonnes.
Scandinavian Airlines, usually known as SAS, is the flag carrier of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, which together form mainland Scandinavia.
Josef Emanuel Hubertus "Sepp" Piontek (born 5 March 1940 in Breslau) is a former German footballer and manager.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
The Siege of Breslau, also known as the Battle of Breslau, was a three-month-long siege of the city of Breslau in Lower Silesia, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), lasting to the end of World War II in Europe.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian German (Silesian German: Schläsche Sproache or Schläs'sche Sproche, Schlesisch) or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia.
Silesian Lowlands (or Silesian Plains, Nizina Śląska, Slezská nížina, German: Schlesische Niederung, Schlesische Tiefebene, Schlesische Bucht or Oderebene) are lowlands located in Silesia, Poland in Central Europe.
The Silesian Uprisings (Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles and Polish Silesians of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Silesians (Ślężanie) were a tribe of West Slavs, specifically of the Lechitic/Polish group, inhabiting territories of Lower Silesia, near Ślęża mountain and Ślęza river, on the both banks of the Oder, up to the area of modern city of Wrocław.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skimboarding (or skimming) is a boardsport in which a skimboard (much like a surfboard but smaller and without fins) is used to glide across the water's surface to meet an incoming breaking wave, and ride it back to shore.
Sky Tower is a skyscraper in Wrocław, Poland.
The Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery, is a modern Pagan religion.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
SprintAir S.A. is a Polish airline headquartered in Warsaw and based at Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport.
View from Szewska street St.
The Municipal Stadium in Wrocław, Poland, (Stadion Miejski we Wrocławiu, also Stadion Wrocław) is a UEFA Category Four association football stadium built for the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship.
Stanisław Huskowski (born April 24, 1953 in Wrocław) is a Polish politician.
The staple right, also translated stacking right or storage right, both from the Dutch stapelrecht, was a medieval right accorded to certain ports, the staple ports.
Stare Miasto ("Old Town") is one of the five administrative boroughs of Wrocław, Poland, comprising the oldest parts of the city.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
The Sudetes (also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe.
SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities or simply SWPS University (SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny) is a private university in Poland affiliated with the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology and the Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Szczytnicki Park in Wrocław, Poland is located to the east of Plac Grunwaldzki and the old Oder river, and covers approximately 1 square kilometre of land.
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.
The Tadeusz Kościuszko Land Forces Military University (Akademia Wojsk Lądowych imienia generała Tadeusza Kościuszki) is a Polish Land Forces Military University in Wrocław, Poland.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive, the Oder-Neisse Line became Poland's western border and the Curzon Line its eastern border.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.
The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, which does business as BNY Mellon, is an American worldwide banking and financial services holding company headquartered in New York City.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
The Theatre Olympics was established in 1993 in Delphi, Greece, on the initiative of the famous Greek theatre director, Theodoros Terzopoulos.
Thietmar (also Dietmar or Dithmar; 25 July 975 – 1 December 1018), Prince-Bishop of Merseburg from 1009 until his death, was an important chronicler recording the reigns of German kings and Holy Roman Emperors of the Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Tieto Oyj (until April 2009 TietoEnator) is an IT software and service company providing IT and product engineering services.
, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Trams in Wrocław is the tram system that offers public transit in Wrocław, Poland.
The Treaty of Breslau was a preliminary peace agreement signed on 11 June 1742 following long negotiations at the Silesian capital Wrocław (Breslau) by emissaries of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria and King Frederick II of Prussia ending the First Silesian War.
The Trzebnickie Hills (Wzgórza Trzebnickie, also Kocie Góry from Katzengebirge, "Cat Mountains") is a mountain range in southwestern Poland.
Uber Technologies Inc. (doing business as Uber) is a peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi cab, food delivery, and transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California, with operations in 633 cities worldwide.
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Group A of UEFA Euro 2012 was played from 8 to 16 June 2012.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC) (Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Ucrainae) is a Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See.
The Ukrainian minority in Poland (Українці, Ukrayintsi, Ukraińcy), according to the Polish census of 2011 used to be composed of approximately 51,000 people (including 11,451 without Polish citizenship).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
United Parcel Service (UPS) is an American multinational package delivery and supply chain management company.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Universität Breslau; Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
The term Ursulines refers to a number of religious institutes of the Catholic Church.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate.
A Via Regia (Royal Highway) was a type of historic road in the Middle Ages which were legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.
Viadrina European University (Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), hence its frequent appearance as European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) in English) is a university located at Frankfurt (Oder) in Brandenburg, Germany.
Vienne is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
The Viessmann Group is an international manufacturer of heating, industrial, and refrigeration systems manufacturer headquartered in Allendorf (Eder), Germany.
Vilnius Region (Vilniaus kraštas, Wileńszczyzna, Віленшчына, also formerly known in English: as Wilno Region or Vilna Region) is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
The Volvo Group (Volvokoncernen; legally Aktiebolaget Volvo, shortened to AB Volvo) (stylized as VOLVO) is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg.
Vratislaus (or Wratislaus) I (Vratislav I.; – 13 February 921), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 915 until his death.
WABCO is an American provider of electronic braking, stability, suspension and transmission automation systems for heavy duty commercial vehicles.
WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co.
Wakeboarding is a surface water sport which involves riding a wakeboard over the surface of a body of water.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
Wanda Rutkiewicz (February 4, 1943 – May 12–13, 1992) was a Polish computer engineer and mountain climber.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
Water skiing (also waterskiing or water-skiing) is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski.
Władysław Frasyniuk (born 25 November 1954 in Wrocław) is a Polish politician, former activist of Solidarity trade union, and former chairman of the Partia Demokratyczna - demokraci.pl political party.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
The western jackdaw (Coloeus monedula), also known as the Eurasian jackdaw, European jackdaw, or simply jackdaw, is a passerine bird in the crow family.
The western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) is a large harrier, a bird of prey from temperate and subtropical western Eurasia and adjacent Africa.
The Whirlpool Corporation is an American multinational manufacturer and marketer of home appliances, headquartered in Benton Charter Township, Michigan, United States, near Benton Harbor, Michigan.
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The White Stork Synagogue is a nineteenth-century synagogue in Wrocław, Poland.
The white wagtail (Motacilla alba) is a small passerine bird in the family Motacillidae, which also includes pipits and longclaws.
The white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) is a Eurasian woodpecker belonging to the genus Dendrocopos.
The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is a very large eagle widely distributed across Eurasia.
The Widawa is a river in Poland, a right-bank tributary of the Oder River.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
William Stern (29 April 1871 – 27 March 1938), born Ludwig Wilhelm Stern, was a German psychologist and philosopher noted as a pioneer in the field of the psychology of personality and intelligence.
Wizz Air, legally incorporated as Wizz Air Hungary Ltd. (Kft.), is a Hungarian low-cost airline with its head office in Budapest.
Wojciech Kurtyka (also Voytek Kurtyka, born 25 July 1947, in Skrzynka near Kłodzko) is a Polish mountaineer and rock climber, one of the pioneers of the alpine style of climbing the biggest walls in the Greater Ranges.
The success of World Book and Copyright Day, launched in 1996, encouraged UNESCO to develop the concept of World Book Capital City, selecting Madrid as the Capital for 2001.
The World Congress of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace (Światowy Kongres Intelektualistów w Obronie Pokoju) was an international conference held on 25 to 28 August 1948 at Wrocław University of Technology.
The World Games, first held in 1981, are an international multi-sport event, meant for sports, or disciplines or events within a sport, that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Team Olympiad was a contract bridge meet organized by the World Bridge Federation every four years from 1960 to 2004.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Cathedral of St.
Wrocław County (powiat wrocławski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland.
The Wrocław Fountain — Wrocław Multimedia Fountain, — Wrocławska Fontanna, is a multimedia musical fountain and ornamental pond in Wrocław, of western Poland.
Wrocław Główny (Polish for Wrocław main station) is the largest and most important passenger station of the southwestern Polish city of Wrocław.
Wrocław Global Forum (WGF) is an annual transatlantic conference centered on topics related to democracy, prosperity and security.
Wrocław Market Hall (Hala Targowa we Wrocławiu, Breslauer Markthalle) was designed by Richard Plüddemann and built between 1906-08 as the Breslauer Markthalle Nr 1, when the city was part of Germany.
Wrocław Medical University (Polish: Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu, Latin: Universitas Medicus Vratislaviensis) is an institution of higher medical education in Wrocław, Poland.
The Wrocław Open (formerly known as KGHM Dialog Polish Indoors) is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts.
The Wrocław Opera is an opera company and opera house in Wrocław, Poland.
Wrocław Puppet Theater (also Teatr Lalek) is located at the Theater Square in the old building of merchants association, next to the Old Town Garden and public baths.
The Old Town Hall (Stary Ratusz, Breslauer Rathaus) of Wrocław stands at the center of the city’s Market Square (rynek).
The Wrocław University of Economics (Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu) is one of ten public universities located in Wrocław, Poland.
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (former names: Higher School of Agriculture, Agricultural University of Wrocław) – a public higher education institution founded in 1951.
Wrocław University of Science and Technology (Politechnika Wrocławska, founded as Technische Hochschule Breslau) is a technological university in Wrocław Poland.
Wroclaw Voivodeship (województwo wrocławskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Lower Silesian Voivodeship.
This historic Wrocław water tower is situated in Borek, the district of Krzyki that is the southern borough of Wrocław, Poland (formerly Breslau in Germany).
The Wrocław Zoological Garden, known simply as the Wrocław Zoo (Ogród Zoologiczny we Wrocławiu), is a zoo on Wróblewskiego Street in Wrocław, Poland.
Wrocław’s dwarfs (krasnoludki) are small figurines (20-30 cm) that first appeared in the streets of Wrocław, Poland, in 2005.
WTS Wrocław, also known as Betard Sparta Wrocław for sponsorship reasons, are a motorcycle speedway team based in Wrocław, Poland.
Wyspa Piasek (English: Sand Island) in Wrocław, one of several islands in the Odra river within old town and Śródmiejski Węzeł Wodny (Downtown Water Junction).
The 14th High School in Wrocław (XIV Liceum Ogólnokształcące we Wrocławiu) - a public high school in Wrocław, Poland, part of the 14th School Complex, that also incorporates the 49th Bilingual Junior High School.
The 1997 Central European flood or the 1997 Oder Flood of the Oder and Morava river basins in July 1997 affected Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, taking the lives of about 114 people (in the Czech Republic and Poland) and causing material damages estimated at $4.5 billion (3.8 billion euros in the Czech Republic and Poland and 330 million euros in Germany).
The Wrocław football riot 2003 was an organised fight between Polish football hooligans in Wrocław, Lower Silesia Poland on 30 March 2003.
The 2009 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 26th edition of the European Volleyball Championship, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.
The 2010 Central European floods were a devastating series of weather events which occurred across several Central European countries during May and June 2010.
The 2013 World Weightlifting Championships were held in Wrocław, Poland.
The 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship was held in Poland from 30 August to 21 September 2014.
The 2016 EHF European Men's Handball Championship was the twelfth edition and was held for the first time in Poland from 15–31 January 2016.
The 2017 World Games, commonly known as Wrocław 2017, was the tenth World Games, a major international multi-sport event, meant for sports, or disciplines or events within a sport, that were not contested in the Olympic Games, held from 20 to 30 July 2017 in Wrocław, Poland.
The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul.
Air pollution in Wrocław, Boroszlo, Boroszló, Brassel, Breslau, Breslau, Germany, Breslaw, PLWRO, UN/LOCODE:PLWRO, Vratislav, Vratislavia, Vrotslav, W-w, Wratislavia, Wratislaw, Wrocaw, Wroclav, Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland, Wroclaw/Breslau, Wroclow, Wrocław, Poland, Wrocław/Breslau, Wrotizlava.