88 relations: A, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Alzenau dialect, Ö, Ü, Ć, Ł, Ń, Ś, Ź, Ż, B, Bielsko-Biała, C, Communism, D, Digraph (orthography), Dutch language, E, East Frisian Low Saxon, Endangered language, F, Flanders, Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II, Florian Biesik, Frisian languages, G, Galicia (Eastern Europe), German dialects, German language, Germanic languages, H, High German languages, History of Poland (1939–1945), I, International Organization for Standardization, ISO 639-3, J, Józef Gara, K, Kingdom of Germany, Kraków, L, Latin script, Lesser Poland, Letter case, Library of Congress, Lord's Prayer, Low German, Lullaby, ..., M, Masurian dialect, Middle High German, Mutual intelligibility, N, O, Old English, Opole, P, Poetry, Poland, Polish Academy of Learning, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Poznań, Q, R, Rzeczpospolita (newspaper), S, Scotland, Silesia, Silesian German, T, Tarnów, U, UNESCO, V, Vernacular, W, Walter de Gruyter, West Central German, West Frisian language, West Germanic languages, Wilamowice, World War II, Y, YouTube, Z. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Uniwersytet im., Polish abbreviation UAM) is one of the major Polish universities, located in the city of Poznań, Greater Poland, in the west of the country.
The Alzenau or Haltsnovian dialect (aljznerisch/altsnerisch) was a dialect of German which was spoken in Alzen, now Hałcnów, a district of Bielsko-Biała, Poland.
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.
Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.
The grapheme Ć (minuscule: ć), formed from C with the addition of an acute accent, is used in various languages.
Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the West Slavic (Polish, Kashubian, and Sorbian), Łacinka (Latin Belarusian), Łatynka (Latin Ukrainian), Wymysorys, Navajo, Dene Suline, Inupiaq, Zuni, Hupa, and Dogrib alphabets, several proposed alphabets for the Venetian language, and the ISO 11940 romanization of the Thai alphabet.
Ń (minuscule: ń) is a letter formed by putting an acute accent over the letter N. In the Belarusian Łacinka alphabet; the alphabets of Polish, Kashubian, Wymysorys and the Sorbian languages; and the romanization of Khmer, it represents, which is the same as Czech and Slovak ň, Serbo-Croatian nj, Spanish ñ, Italian and French gn, Hungarian and Catalan ny, and Portuguese nh.
Ś (minuscule: ś) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from S with the addition of an acute accent.
Ź (minuscule: ź) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of an acute accent.
Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Bielsko-Biała (Bílsko-Bělá; Bielitz-Biala) is a city in Southern Poland with the population of approximately 174,000 (December 2013).
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
East Frisian Low German or East Frisian Low Saxon is one of the Friso-Saxon dialects, a West Low German dialect spoken in the East Frisian peninsula of northwestern Lower Saxony.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.
Florian Biesik (1849 in Wilamowice – between 1924 and 1931) created a literary standard for Vilamovian, trying to prove it did not derive from German, but possibly Frisian, Anglo-Saxon or Dutch.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Józef Gara (29 January 1929 – 10 July 2013) was a miner who spoke an endangered language of Wilamowice, Wymysorys, which had only 70 native speakers, and created the Wymysorys alphabet.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music that is usually played for (or sung to) children.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Masurian ethnolect (Masurian: Mazurská gádka/Mazurská gádkia; Mazurski; Masurisch), according to some linguists, is a dialect group of the Polish language; others consider Masurian as a separate language, spoken by Masurians in a part of East Prussia that is now in Poland.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences or Polish Academy of Learning (Polska Akademia Umiejętności), headquartered in Kraków, is one of two institutions in contemporary Poland having the nature of an academy of sciences.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian German (Silesian German: Schläsche Sproache or Schläs'sche Sproche, Schlesisch) or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
West Central German (Westmitteldeutsche Dialekte) belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Wilamowice (earlier also Willamowice, Wilmeshau, Wilmesau, Vilamovice Nova, Novovillamowicz, in local language Wymysorys: Wymysoü) is a rural town in southern Poland, situated in the Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship (since 1999, previously in Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship, 1975–1998).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.