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X-10 Graphite Reactor

Index X-10 Graphite Reactor

The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation. [1]

136 relations: Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, Albert Einstein, Alcoa, American Chemical Society, American Museum of Science and Energy, Appalachian Mountains, Arthur Compton, ASM International (society), Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Atomic number, B Reactor, Beryllium oxide, Bismuth, Bismuth phosphate process, Boron, Brigadier general (United States), Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cadmium, Carbon dioxide, Carbon-14, Cascade Range, Chicago, Chicago Pile-1, Clinton Engineer Works, Clutch, Columbia University, Control rod, Cook County, Illinois, Corrosion, Criticality (status), Cyclotron, DuPont, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Emilio Segrè, Enrico Fermi, Ernest Lawrence, Eugene Wigner, Fissile material, Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fritz Strassmann, General Electric, German nuclear weapon project, Glenn T. Seaborg, Graphite, Gun-type fission weapon, Hanford Site, Harvard University, Heavy water, Helium, ..., Hydraulic accumulator, Iodine-131, Isotope, Isotopes of molybdenum, James Bryant Conant, John Archibald Wheeler, Leo Szilard, Leslie Groves, Lise Meitner, Lyle Benjamin Borst, Magnox, Mallinckrodt, Manhattan Project, Martin D. Whitaker, Materials science, Metallurgical Laboratory, Mol, Belgium, National Carbon Company, National Defense Research Committee, National Historic Chemical Landmarks, National Historic Landmark, National Register of Historic Places, Natural uranium, Neoprene, Neutron activation analysis, Neutron cross section, Neutron moderator, Neutron poison, Neutron temperature, Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear graphite, Nuclear meltdown, Nuclear propulsion, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Phosphorus-32, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-240, President of the United States, Princeton University, Project Y, Radioactive decay, Radiological warfare, Red Gate Woods, Research reactor, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Robert Serber, S-1 Executive Committee, SCK•CEN, Scram, Sellafield, Semi-finished casting products, Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Special Engineer Detachment, Spontaneous fission, St. Louis, Stagg Field, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Stratum, Technetium-99m, Tennessee Valley Authority, Tetravalence, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, Thermal-neutron reactor, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of War, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, Uranium, Uranium-235, Valence (chemistry), Washington (state), Windscale fire, World War II, Xenon-135. Expand index (86 more) »

Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor

The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) is a type of nuclear reactor designed and operated in the United Kingdom.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alcoa

Alcoa Corporation (from Aluminum Company of America) is an American industrial corporation.

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American Chemical Society

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.

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American Museum of Science and Energy

The American Museum of Science and Energy (AMSE) is a science museum in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, designed to teach both children and adults about energy, especially nuclear power, and to document the role Oak Ridge played in the Manhattan Project.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

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ASM International (society)

ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, is a professional organization for materials scientists and engineers.

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Atomic Energy Act of 1946

The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II allies, the United Kingdom and Canada.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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B Reactor

The B Reactor at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, was the first large-scale nuclear reactor ever built.

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Beryllium oxide

Beryllium oxide (BeO), also known as beryllia, is an inorganic compound with the formula BeO.

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Bismuth

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Bismuth phosphate process

The bismuth-phosphate process was used to extract plutonium from irradiated uranium taken from nuclear reactors.

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Boron

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Brigadier general (United States)

In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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Cadmium

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon-14

Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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Cascade Range

The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chicago Pile-1

Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.

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Clinton Engineer Works

The Clinton Engineer Works (CEW) was the production installation of the Manhattan Project that during World War II produced the enriched uranium used in the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the first examples of reactor-produced plutonium.

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Clutch

A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Control rod

Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.

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Cook County, Illinois

Cook County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois.

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Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Criticality (status)

Criticality, is the state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical), that is, when the reactivity is zero.

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Cyclotron

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.

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DuPont

E.

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Einstein–Szilárd letter

The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.

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Emilio Segrè

Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Ernest Lawrence

Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.

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Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul "E.

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Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Forest Preserve District of Cook County

The Forest Preserve District of Cook County is a governmental commission in Cook County, Illinois, that owns and manages the Cook County Forest Preserves.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Fritz Strassmann

Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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German nuclear weapon project

The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.

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Glenn T. Seaborg

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Gun-type fission weapon

Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.

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Hanford Site

The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Heavy water

Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hydraulic accumulator

A hydraulic accumulator is a pressure storage reservoir in which a non-compressible hydraulic fluid is held under pressure that is applied by an external source.

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Iodine-131

Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isotopes of molybdenum

There are 33 known isotopes of molybdenum (42Mo) ranging in atomic mass from 83 to 115, as well as four metastable nuclear isomers.

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James Bryant Conant

James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany.

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John Archibald Wheeler

John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.

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Leo Szilard

Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.

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Leslie Groves

Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.

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Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

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Lyle Benjamin Borst

Lyle Benjamin Borst (24 November 1912 – 30 July 2002), nuclear physicist, inventor, worked with Enrico Fermi in Chicago, involved with the Manhattan District Project, and worked with Ernest O. Wollan to conduct neutron scattering and neutron diffraction studies.

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Magnox

Magnox is a type of nuclear power/production reactor that was designed to run on natural uranium with graphite as the moderator and carbon dioxide gas as the heat exchange coolant.

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Mallinckrodt

Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, based in Staines-upon-Thames, England, with its U.S. headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri, produces specialty pharmaceutical products, including generic drugs and imaging agents.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Martin D. Whitaker

Martin Dewey Whitaker (June 29, 1902 – August 31, 1960) was an American physicist who was the first director of the Clinton Laboratories (now the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) during World War II.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Metallurgical Laboratory

The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.

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Mol, Belgium

Mol is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp.

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National Carbon Company

The National Carbon Company was founded in 1886 by the former Brush Electric Company executive W. H. Lawrence, in association with Myron T. Herrick, James Parmelee, and Webb Hayes, son of U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, in Cleveland, Ohio.

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National Defense Research Committee

The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.

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National Historic Chemical Landmarks

The National Historic Chemical Landmarks program was launched by the American Chemical Society in 1992 to recognize seminal achievements in the history of chemistry and related professions.

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National Historic Landmark

A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.

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National Register of Historic Places

The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance.

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Natural uranium

Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.

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Neoprene

Neoprene (also polychloroprene or pc-rubber) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.

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Neutron activation analysis

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a nuclear process used for determining the concentrations of elements in a vast amount of materials.

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Neutron cross section

In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.

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Neutron moderator

In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.

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Neutron poison

In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.

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Neutron temperature

The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nuclear chain reaction

A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear fission product

Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.

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Nuclear graphite

Nuclear graphite is any grade of graphite, usually synthetic graphite, specifically manufactured for use as a moderator or reflector within a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear meltdown

A nuclear meltdown (core melt accident or partial core melt) is a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating.

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Nuclear propulsion

Nuclear propulsion includes a wide variety of propulsion methods that fulfill the promise of the Atomic Age by using some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Nuclear weapon design

Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.

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Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.

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Office of Scientific Research and Development

The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.

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Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.

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Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.

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Phosphorus-32

Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus.

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Plutonium

Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Plutonium-239

Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Plutonium-240

Plutonium-240 (/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Project Y

The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radiological warfare

Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning or contamination of an area with radiological sources.

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Red Gate Woods

Red Gate Woods is part of a forest preserve within the Palos Division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois.

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Research reactor

Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.

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Robert Maynard Hutchins

Robert Maynard Hutchins (January 17, 1899 – May 14, 1977), was an American educational philosopher, president (1929–1945) and chancellor (1945–1951) of the University of Chicago, and earlier dean of Yale Law School (1927–1929).

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Robert Serber

Robert Serber (March 14, 1909 – June 1, 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project.

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S-1 Executive Committee

The Uranium Committee was a committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that succeeded the Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into the S-1 Section of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941, and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942.

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SCK•CEN

SCK • CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie; Centre d'Étude de l'énergie Nucléaire) is the Belgian nuclear research centre located in Mol, Belgium, more specific near the township of Donk.

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Scram

A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.

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Sellafield

Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.

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Semi-finished casting products

Semi-finished casting products are intermediate castings produced in a steel mill that need further processing before being a finished good.

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Sierra Nevada (U.S.)

The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.

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Special Engineer Detachment

Special Engineer Detachment (SED) was a US Army program that identified enlisted personnel with technical skills, such as machining, or who had some science education beyond high school.

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Spontaneous fission

Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.

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St. Louis

St.

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Stagg Field

Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago.

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Stanley Gerald Thompson

Stanley Gerald Thompson (1912–1976) was an American chemist.

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Stratum

In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Technetium-99m

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.

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Tennessee Valley Authority

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.

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Tetravalence

In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.

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The Making of the Atomic Bomb

The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.

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Thermal-neutron reactor

A thermal-neutron reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses slow or thermal neutrons.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Department of War

The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium-235

Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Valence (chemistry)

In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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Windscale fire

The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in severity at level 5 out of a possible 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xenon-135

Xenon-135 (135Xe) is an unstable isotope of xenon with a half-life of about 9.2 hours.

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Redirects here:

Clinton Pile, X-10 Pile, X-10 Reactor, X-10 graphite reactor.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-10_Graphite_Reactor

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