45 relations: Adjective, Adjunct (grammar), András Kornai, Antisymmetry, Article (grammar), Bar (diacritic), Complement (linguistics), Dependency grammar, Determiner, Determiner phrase, Discontinuity (linguistics), Endocentric and exocentric, Generalized phrase structure grammar, Generative grammar, Geoffrey K. Pullum, Government and binding theory, Head (linguistics), Head-driven phrase structure grammar, ID/LP grammar, Inflectional phrase, Inversion (linguistics), Lexical functional grammar, Minimalist program, Natural language, Natural language processing, Noam Chomsky, Noun, Parse tree, Part of speech, Phrase structure rules, Predicate (grammar), Preposition and postposition, Prime (symbol), Ray Jackendoff, Recursion, Richard Kayne, Sentence diagram, Shifting (syntax), Specifier (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Transformational grammar, Verb, Verb phrase, Word order, Zellig Harris.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence.
András Kornai (born 1957 in Budapest), son of economist János Kornai, is a mathematical linguist.
In linguistics, antisymmetry is a theory of syntactic linearization presented in Richard Kayne's 1994 monograph The Antisymmetry of Syntax.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.
In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
In linguistics, a determiner phrase (DP) is a type of phrase posited by some theories of syntax.
In linguistics, a discontinuity occurs when a given word or phrase is separated from another word or phrase that it modifies in such a manner that a direct connection cannot be established between the two without incurring crossing lines in the tree structure.
In theoretical linguistics, a distinction is made between endocentric and exocentric constructions.
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Geoffrey Keith Pullum (born March 8, 1945) is a British-American linguist specialising in the study of English.
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, constraint-based grammar developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag.
An ID/LP grammar is a formal grammar that distinguishes immediate dominance (ID) constraints from linear precedence (LP) constraints.
In X-bar theory and other grammatical theories that incorporate it, an inflectional phrase or inflection phrase (IP or InflP) is a functional phrase that has inflectional properties (such as tense and agreement).
In linguistics, inversion is any of several grammatical constructions where two expressions switch their canonical order of appearance, that is, they invert.
Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a constraint-based grammar framework in theoretical linguistics.
In linguistics, the minimalist program (MP) is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A parse tree or parsing tree or derivation tree or concrete syntax tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some context-free grammar.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Phrase structure rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax and are closely associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, being first proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The prime symbol (′), double prime symbol (&Prime), triple prime symbol (‴), quadruple prime symbol (⁗) etc., are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music.
Ray Jackendoff (born January 23, 1945) is an American linguist.
Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.
Richard Stanley Kayne is Professor of Linguistics in the Linguistics Department at New York University.
In pedagogy and theoretical syntax, a sentence diagram or parse tree is a pictorial representation of the grammatical structure of a sentence.
In syntax, shifting occurs when two or more constituents appearing on the same side of their common head exchange positions in a sense to obtain non-canonical order.
In X-bar theory in linguistics, specifiers, head words, complements and adjuncts together form phrases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistics, transformational grammar (TG) or transformational-generative grammar (TGG) is part of the theory of generative grammar, especially of natural languages.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistics, a verb phrase (VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
Zellig Sabbettai Harris (October 23, 1909 – May 22, 1992) was a very influential American linguist, mathematical syntactician, and methodologist of science.