298 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal x-ray, Absorbed dose, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption edge, Acute radiation syndrome, Airport security, Aluminium, Amputation, Angiography, Anode, Ascites, Assassination, Assassination of William McKinley, Astronomy, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation length, Auger effect, Auger electron spectroscopy, Ångström, Background radiation, Backscatter X-ray, Birmingham, Black hole, Bone, Border control, Bowel obstruction, Bremsstrahlung, Calcium, California, Cancer, Carcinogen, Cathode, Cathode ray, Cell (biology), Chandra X-ray Observatory, Characteristic X-ray, Charge-coupled device, Charles Glover Barkla, Chest radiograph, Clarence Madison Dally, Cobalt, Coin, Cold cathode, Collimated light, Compton scattering, Conservation of energy, ..., Continuous spectrum, Contrast (vision), Copper, Coronary circulation, Coulomb, Covalent bond, Crookes tube, Cross section (physics), Crystal, CT scan, Czech Technical University in Prague, Dartmouth College, Death ray, Dental radiography, Detective quantum efficiency, Diffraction, Digital data, Diode, DNA, Dosimeter, Effective dose (radiation), Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric power, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron shell, Electronvolt, Elihu Thomson, Elizabeth Fleischman, Emission spectrum, Energy, England, Equivalent dose, Esophagus, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Experiment, Fernando Sanford, Fiber diffraction, Fine-art photography, Flat panel detector, Fluorescence, Fluoroscopy, Frequency, Gallium, Gallstone, Gamma ray, Gangrene, Gas-filled tube, German language, Germany, Gray (unit), Hair removal, Heinrich Hertz, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hertz, High-energy X-rays, Hot cathode, Human brain, Humphry Davy, Imaging science, Implant (medicine), Indium, Industrial computed tomography, Industrial radiography, Inelastic scattering, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International System of Units, Ionization, Ionization chamber, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Ivan Puluj, Ivan Tarkhanov (physiologist), John Ambrose Fleming, John Hall-Edwards, Joule, Kidney stone disease, Kilogram, Klein–Nishina formula, Lawrence Bragg, Life (magazine), Linear no-threshold model, Linear polarization, Lung cancer, Macintyre's X-Ray Film, Malignancy, Marie Curie, Max von Laue, Mayo Clinic, Medical imaging, Medscape, Metonymy, Mica, Michael Faraday, Microscope, Mineral, Molybdenum, Momentum, Muscle, N ray, Nanometre, NASA, Nature (journal), Neutron radiation, Neutron star, Nikola Tesla, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear weapon, Nucleic acid double helix, NuSTAR, Oncology, Order of magnitude, Palliative care, Particle accelerator, Particle-induced X-ray emission, Pathology, Paul Peter Ewald, Penetration depth, Pentimento, Phase-contrast X-ray imaging, Philipp Lenard, Phosphorescence, Photoelectric effect, Photographic film, Photographic plate, Photon, Photon energy, Photostimulated luminescence, Physical Review, Physician, Physics, Pigment, Platinocyanide, Pneumonia, Presidency of George W. Bush, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Projectional radiography, Proton, Pulmonary edema, Rad (unit), Radiation burn, Radiation implosion, Radiation protection, Radiation therapist, Radiation therapy, Radiation-induced cancer, Radioactive decay, Radiocontrast agent, Radiodensity, Radiographer, Radiography, Radiology, Rayleigh scattering, Reflection (physics), Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, Rhenium, Rhodopsin, Roentgen (unit), Roentgen equivalent man, Roentgen stereophotogrammetry, Rosalind Franklin, Royal Society, Runaway electrons, San Francisco, Scattering, Scheelite, Septic shock, Shoe-fitting fluoroscope, Siegbahn notation, Sievert, Silver, Skull, Small-angle X-ray scattering, Soft tissue, Spectrometer, Spectrum, Stane Jagodič, Stanford University, Statcoulomb, Sternum, Strategic Defense Initiative, Streamer discharge, Surface science, Surgeon, Synchrotron, Synchrotron radiation, Talbot effect, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Tesla coil, The San Francisco Examiner, The X-Rays, Thermonuclear weapon, Thomas Edison, Three-dimensional space, Tissue (biology), Tomography, Tooth decay, Transmittance, Triboelectric effect, Triboluminescence, Tungsten, Ukrainians, Ultraviolet, Underdrawing, United States, United States national missile defense, University of Strasbourg, University of Vienna, Vacuum, Vacuum tube, Vanderbilt University, Video camera, Vincent van Gogh, Volt, Voltage, Wavelength, Würzburg, Welding, White lead, Wiggler (synchrotron), Wilhelm Röntgen, William D. Coolidge, William Henry Bragg, William J. Morton, William Lofland Dudley, William Morgan (actuary), World War I, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray astronomy, X-ray crystallography, X-ray filter, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray generator, X-ray image intensifier, X-ray laser, X-ray marker, X-ray microscope, X-ray nanoprobe, X-ray optics, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray tube, X-ray vision, X-ray welding. Expand index (248 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
An absorption edge, absorption discontinuity or absorption limit is a sharp discontinuity in the absorption spectrum of a substance.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect passengers, staff and planes which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
On September 6, 1901, William McKinley, the 25th President of the United States, was shot on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom.
Hanford scientist uses an Auger electron spectrometer to determine the elemental composition of surfaces. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES; pronounced in French) is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials science.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders.
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
Characteristic X-rays are emitted when outer-shell electrons fill a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom, releasing X-rays in a pattern that is "characteristic" to each element.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Charles Glover Barkla FRS FRSE (7 June 1877 – 23 October 1944) was a British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays (Roentgen rays).
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Clarence Madison Dally (1865–1904) was an American glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of radiation dermatitis and its complications.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Czech Technical University in Prague (České vysoké učení technické v Praze, ČVUT) is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s and 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Harry Grindell Matthews, Edwin R. Scott, and Graichen, as well as others.
Dental radiographs are commonly called X-rays.
The detective quantum efficiency (often abbreviated as DQE) is a measure of the combined effects of the signal (related to image contrast) and noise performance of an imaging system, generally expressed as a function of spatial frequency.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A radiation dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation.
Effective dose is a dose quantity in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Elihu Thomson (March 29, 1853 – March 13, 1937) was an English-born American engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France.
Elizabeth Fleischman (5 March 1867 – 3 August 1905) was an American radiographer who is considered an X-ray pioneer.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Fernando Sanford (February 12, 1854 – May 21, 1948) was an American physicist and university professor.
Fiber diffraction is a subarea of scattering, an area in which molecular structure is determined from scattering data (usually of X-rays, electrons or neutrons).
Fine-art photography is photography created in accordance with the vision of the artist as photographer.
Flat panel detectors are a class of solid-state x-ray digital radiography devices similar in principle to the image sensors used in digital photography and video.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).
In vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Imaging science is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the generation, collection, duplication, analysis, modification, and visualization of images,Joseph P. Hornak, Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology (John Wiley & Sons, 2002) including imaging things that the human eye cannot detect.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning is any computer-aided tomographic process, usually X-ray computed tomography, that uses irradiation to produce three-dimensional internal and external representations of a scanned object.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Ivan Pului (son of Iwan Pului Іва́н Пулю́й, син Па́вла Пулю́я; Johann Puluj; 2 February 1845 – 31 January 1918) was a Ukrainian physicist and inventor, who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging.
Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanov (Иван Романович Тарханов) or Ivane Tarkhnishvili (ივანე რამაზის–ძე თარხნიშვილი, თარხან-მოურავი; June 1846 – September 1908) was a Georgian physiologist and science populariser from the Tarkhan-Mouravi noble family.
Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945), an English electrical engineer and physicist, invented the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, and also established the left-hand rule for electric motors.
John Francis Hall-Edwards FRSE (19 December 1858 – 15 August 1926) was a British physician and pioneer in the medical use of X-rays in the United Kingdom.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The Klein–Nishina formula gives the differential cross section of photons scattered from a single free electron in lowest order of quantum electrodynamics.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Macintyre's X-Ray Film is a 1896 documentary radiography film directed by Scottish medical doctor John Macintyre.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
N rays (or N-rays) were a hypothesized form of radiation, described by French physicist Prosper-René Blondlot in 1903, and initially confirmed by others, but subsequently found to be illusory.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) is a space-based X-ray telescope that uses a conical approximation to a Wolter telescope to focus high energy X-rays from astrophysical sources, especially for nuclear spectroscopy, and operates in the range of 3 to 79 keV.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle-induced X-ray emission or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a technique used in the determining of the elemental make-up of a material or sample.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Paul Peter Ewald, FRS (January 23, 1888 in Berlin, Germany – August 22, 1985 in Ithaca, New York) was a German crystallographer and physicist, a pioneer of X-ray diffraction methods.
Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material.
A pentimento (plural pentimenti) is an alteration in a painting, evidenced by traces of previous work, showing that the artist has changed their mind as to the composition during the process of painting.
Phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) or phase-sensitive X-ray imaging is a general term for different technical methods that use information concerning changes in the phase of an X-ray beam that passes through an object in order to create its images.
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (7 June 1862 – 20 May 1947) was a German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.
Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) is the release of stored energy within a phosphor by stimulation with visible light, to produce a luminescent signal.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
A platinocyanide is a salt containing the anion 2−.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.
A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation.
Radiation implosion is the compression of a target by the use of high levels of electromagnetic radiation.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
The Radiation Therapist, Therapeutic Radiographer or Radiotherapist is an allied health professional who works in the field of radiation oncology.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.
Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is an X-ray spectroscopy technique used to investigate the electronic structure of molecules and materials.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
The roentgen or röntgen (symbol R) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) is a highly accurate technique for the assessment of three-dimensional migration and micromotion of a joint replacement prosthesis relative to the bone it is attached to.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The term runaway electrons (RE) is used to denote electrons that undergo free fall acceleration into the realm of relativistic particles.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
Shoe-fitting fluoroscopes, also sold under the names X-ray Shoe Fitter, Pedoscope and Foot-o-scope, were X-ray fluoroscope machines installed in shoe stores from the 1920s until about the 1970s in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, South Africa, Germany and Switzerland.
The Siegbahn notation is used in X-ray spectroscopy to name the spectral lines that are characteristic to elements.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a small-angle scattering technique by which nanoscale density differences in a sample can be quantified.
In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
Stane Jagodič (born 15 June 1943) is a Slovenian free-lance painter, photographer, caricaturist, aphorist, and author.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the esu-cgs (centimetre–gram–second system of units) and Gaussian units.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
A streamer discharge, also known as filamentary discharge, is a type of transient electrical discharge.
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
The Talbot effect is a near-field diffraction effect first observed in 1836 by Henry Fox Talbot.
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.
A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891.
The San Francisco Examiner is a longtime daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, California.
The X-Rays (also known as The X-Ray Fiend) is an 1897 British short silent comedy film, directed by George Albert Smith, featuring a courting couple exposed to X-rays.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.
Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, ripped, scratched, crushed, or rubbed (see tribology).
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Underdrawing is a preparatory drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
National missile defense (NMD) is a generic term for a type of missile defense intended to shield an entire country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles.
The University of Strasbourg (Université de Strasbourg, Unistra or UDS) in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France (after Aix-Marseille University), with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers.
The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
White lead is the basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2.
A wiggler is an insertion device in a synchrotron.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
William David Coolidge (October 23, 1873 – February 3, 1975) was an American physicist and engineer, who made major contributions to X-ray machines.
Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquelyThis is still a unique accomplishment, because no other parent-child combination has yet shared a Nobel Prize (in any field).
William James Morton (July 3, 1845 in Boston – March 26, 1920) was a United States physician, an authority in electrotherapeutics.
William Lofland Dudley (April 16, 1859 – September 8, 1914) was an American chemistry professor at both the University of Cincinnati and Vanderbilt University.
William Morgan, FRS (26 May 1750 – 4 May 1833) was a British physician, physicist and statistician, who is considered the father of modern actuarial science.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used technique for determining the local geometric and/or electronic structure of matter.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
An X-ray filter is a material placed in front of an X-ray source in order to reduce the intensity of particular wavelengths from its spectrum and selectively alter the distribution of X-ray wavelengths within a given beam.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
An X-ray generator is a device that produces X-rays.
An x-ray image intensifier (XRII) is an image intensifier that converts x-rays into visible light at higher intensity than mere fluorescent screens do.
An X-ray laser is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.
X-ray Markers, also known as: anatomical side markers, Pb markers, lead markers, x-ray lead markers, or radiographic film identification markers, are used to mark x-ray films, both in hospitals and in industrial workplaces (such as on aeroplane parts and motors).
An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce magnified images of objects.
The hard X-ray nanoprobe at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), Argonne National Lab advanced the state of the art by providing a hard X-ray microscopy beamline with the highest spatial resolution in the world.
X-ray optics is the branch of optics that manipulates X-rays instead of visible light.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material.
X-ray reflectivity (sometimes known as X-ray specular reflectivity, X-ray reflectometry, or XRR) is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used in chemistry, physics, and materials science to characterize surfaces, thin films and multilayers.
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
In science fiction stories or Superhero comics, X-ray vision is the ability to see through physical objects at the discretion of the holder of this superpower.
X-ray Welding is an experimental welding process that uses a high powered X-ray source to provide thermal energy required to weld materials.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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