328 relations: Accumulator (computing), Addressing mode, Advanced Micro Devices, Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller, Advanced Synchronization Facility, Advanced Vector Extensions, AES instruction set, Am386, Am486, Am5x86, AMD Accelerated Processing Unit, AMD Am29000, AMD FX, AMD K5, AMD K6, AMD K6-2, AMD K6-III, AMD Phenom, AMD Turion, ARM architecture, Athlon, Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon II, AVX-512, Backward compatibility, Base address, Berkeley Software Distribution, BIOS, Bit, Bit field, Bit Manipulation Instruction Sets, Bitwise operation, Bobcat (microarchitecture), Booting, Branch predictor, Broadwell (microarchitecture), Buffer overflow, Bulldozer (microarchitecture), Bus (computing), Call stack, Cannon Lake (microarchitecture), Carry flag, Celeron, Centaur Technology, Central processing unit, Chips and Technologies, Clarkdale (microprocessor), CLMUL instruction set, Cloud computing, ..., Code Morphing Software, Complex instruction set computer, Computer cluster, Computer data storage, Computer hardware, Computer multitasking, Computer security, Control register, Control unit, Coprocessor, CPU cache, CPUID, Cyrix, Cyrix 6x86, Cyrix Cx486DLC, Cyrix Cx486SLC, Cyrix Cx5x86, Database engine, De facto, Double-precision floating-point format, Duron, Electronic circuit, Embedded system, Emulator, Endianness, Exbibyte, Execution (computing), Execution unit, Explicitly parallel instruction computing, F16C, Fabless manufacturing, FLAGS register, Flat memory model, Floating-point arithmetic, Floating-point unit, FMA instruction set, Fujitsu, Geode (processor), Gerald J. Popek, Gigabyte, Global Descriptor Table, Glue logic, Grid Compass, Hardware-based encryption, Haswell (microarchitecture), Home appliance, Hyper-threading, Hyper-V, HyperTransport, IA-32, IA-64, IAPX, IBM, IBM PC compatible, IBM Personal Computer, IBM Personal Computer XT, IBM Personal Computer/AT, IBM POWER microprocessors, IEEE 754, InfoWorld, Input/output, Input/output base address, Instruction pipelining, Instruction set architecture, Integer (computer science), Integrated Device Technology, Intel, Intel 8008, Intel 80186, Intel 80188, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Intel 80486, Intel 8080, Intel 8085, Intel 8086, Intel 8087, Intel 8088, Intel 8089, Intel ADX, Intel Atom, Intel Core, Intel Core 2, Intel i860, Intel i960, Intel iAPX 432, Intel MPX, Intel Quark, Intel SHA extensions, Interrupt, Interrupt descriptor table, Interrupt request (PC architecture), Intersil, Itanium, ITT Inc., Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture), Jaguar (microarchitecture), Just-in-time compilation, Kaby Lake, Kilobyte, Laptop, LGA 1150, LGA 1155, LGA 775, Library (computing), Linux, Linux distribution, List of AMD microprocessors, List of Intel Core i3 microprocessors, List of Intel Core i5 microprocessors, List of Intel Core i7 microprocessors, List of Intel Core M microprocessors, List of Intel microprocessors, List of VIA microprocessor cores, List of x86 manufacturers, Long mode, Low-power electronics, Machine code, MacOS, Mebibyte, Megabyte, Memory dependence prediction, Memory protection, Micro-operation, Microarchitecture, Microcode, Microsoft, Midrange computer, Minicomputer, MMX (instruction set), Motorola 68000 series, Multi-core processor, Multiplexer, NaN, National Semiconductor, NEC, NEC V20, NexGen, Numerical analysis, NX bit, Offset (computer science), Oki Electric Industry, Opcode, Opteron, Oracle Corporation, Out-of-order execution, Overflow flag, P5 (microarchitecture), Paging, Parallels Workstation, PDP-11, Pentium, Pentium 4, Pentium D, Pentium Dual-Core, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium M, Pentium Pro, Personal computer, Phenom II, Physical Address Extension, Pipeline (computing), Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, Position-independent code, Power management, PowerPC, Processor register, Program counter, Protected mode, Protection ring, QEMU, RdRand, Read-only memory, Real mode, Reduced instruction set computer, Register memory architecture, Register renaming, Return statement, Rise Technology, Robert P. Goldberg, Ryzen, Sandy Bridge, Semiconductor device fabrication, Sempron, Siemens, Silvermont, SIMD, Simultaneous multithreading, Single-precision floating-point format, Skylake (microarchitecture), Slot A, Smartphone, Socket 370, Socket 478, Socket 754, Socket 939, Socket 940, Socket A, Socket AM2, Socket AM2+, Socket AM3, Socket FM1, Socket FM2, Socket FM2+, Software, Software Guard Extensions, Solaris (operating system), SPARC, Speculative execution, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4, SSE5, SSSE3, Stack (abstract data type), Status register, STMicroelectronics, Streaming SIMD Extensions, String (computer science), Sun Microsystems, Supercomputer, Superscalar processor, Symmetric multiprocessing, System on a chip, Tablet computer, Test register, Texas Instruments, The Inquirer, Thread (computing), TOP500, Trademark, Transactional memory, Transactional Synchronization Extensions, Transmeta, Transmeta Crusoe, Transmeta Efficeon, UMC (company), VAX, Vector processor, Very long instruction word, VIA C3, VIA C7, VIA Nano, VIA Technologies, Video editing software, Virtual 8086 mode, Virtual memory, VirtualBox, VMware ESXi, VMware Workstation, Weitek, Windows NT, Windows Virtual PC, Word (computer architecture), Workstation, X86 assembly language, X86 debug register, X86 instruction listings, X86 memory segmentation, X86 virtualization, X86-64, X87, Xen, Xeon, Xeon Phi, XOP instruction set, Zen (microarchitecture), Zero flag, Zilog Z80, 16-bit, 32-bit, 386BSD, 3D computer graphics, 3DNow!, 64-bit computing, 7400 series, 8-bit. 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In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
In computing, Intel's Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) is a family of interrupt controllers.
Advanced Synchronization Facility (ASF) is a proposed extension to the x86-64 instruction set architecture that adds hardware transactional memory support.
Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX, also known as Sandy Bridge New Extensions) are extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008 and first supported by Intel with the Sandy Bridge processor shipping in Q1 2011 and later on by AMD with the Bulldozer processor shipping in Q3 2011.
Advanced Encryption Standard instruction set (or the Intel Advanced Encryption Standard New Instructions; AES-NI) is an extension to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008.
The Am386 CPU is a 100%-compatible clone of the Intel 80386 design released by AMD in 1991.
The Am486 is a 80486-class family of computer processors that was produced by AMD in the 1990s.
The Am5x86 processor is an x86-compatible CPU introduced in 1995 by AMD for use in 486-class computer systems.
The AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU), formerly known as Fusion, is the marketing term for a series of 64-bit microprocessors from Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), designed to act as a central processing unit (CPU) and graphics accelerator unit (GPU) on a single die.
The AMD Am29000 (commonly shortened to 29k) is a family of 32-bit RISC microprocessors and microcontrollers developed and fabricated by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
AMD FX is a series of high-end AMD microprocessors for personal computers debuted in 2011, claimed as AMD's first native 8-core desktop processor.
The K5 is AMD's first x86 processor to be developed entirely in-house.
The K6 microprocessor was launched by AMD in 1997.
The K6-2 is an x86 microprocessor introduced by AMD on May 28, 1998, and available in speeds ranging from 266 to 550 MHz.
The K6-III, code-named "Sharptooth", is an x86 microprocessor manufactured by AMD, released on 22 February 1999, with 400 and 450 MHz models.
Phenom is the 64-bit AMD desktop processor line based on the K10 microarchitecture, in what AMD calls family 10h (10 hex, i.e. 16 in normal decimal numbers) processors, sometimes incorrectly called "K10h".
AMD Turion is the brand name AMD applies to its x86-64 low-power consumption (mobile) processors codenamed K8L.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64-architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003.
The Athlon 64 X2 is the first native dual-core desktop CPU designed by AMD.
Athlon II is a family of AMD multi-core 45 nm central processing units, which is aimed at the budget to mid-range market and is a complementary product lineup to the Phenom II.
AVX-512 are 512-bit extensions to the 256-bit Advanced Vector Extensions SIMD instructions for x86 instruction set architecture (ISA) proposed by Intel in July 2013, and supported in Intel's Xeon Phi x200 (Knights Landing) and Skylake-X CPUs; this includes the (excluding the Core i5-7640X and Core i7-7740X), as well as the new Xeon Scalable Processor Family and Xeon D-2100 Embedded Series.
Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.
In computing, a base address is an address serving as a reference point ("base") for other addresses.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.
Bit Manipulation Instructions Sets (BMI sets) are extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
The AMD Bobcat Family 14h is a microarchitecture created by AMD for its AMD APUs, aimed at a low-power/low-cost market.
In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.
In computer architecture, a branch predictor is a digital circuit that tries to guess which way a branch (e.g. an if–then–else structure) will go before this is known definitively.
Broadwell is Intel's codename for the 14 nanometer die shrink of its Haswell microarchitecture.
In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.
The AMD Bulldozer Family 15h is a microprocessor microarchitecture for the FX and Opteron line of processors, developed by AMD for the desktop and server markets.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
Cannon Lake (formerly Skymont) is Intel's codename for the 10-nanometer die shrink of the Kaby Lake microarchitecture.
In computer processors the carry flag (usually indicated as the C flag) is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate when an arithmetic carry or borrow has been generated out of the most significant ALU bit position.
Celeron is a brand name given by Intel to a number of different low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at budget personal computers.
Centaur Technology is an x86 CPU design company, now a wholly owned subsidiary of VIA Technologies, a member of the Formosa Plastics Group, Taiwan's largest industrial conglomerate.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Chips and Technologies (C&T), founded in Milpitas, California in December 1984 by Gordon A. Campbell and Dado Banatao, was perhaps the first fabless semiconductor company, a model developed by Campbell.
Clarkdale is the code name for an Intel processor, initially sold as desktop Intel Core i5 and Core i3 and Pentium.
Carry-less Multiplication (CLMUL) is an extension to the x86 instruction set used by microprocessors from Intel and AMD which was proposed by Intel in March 2008 and made available in the Intel Westmere processors announced in early 2010.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
Code Morphing Software (CMS) is the technology used by Transmeta microprocessors to execute x86 instructions.
A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A control register is a processor register which changes or controls the general behavior of a CPU or other digital device.
The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor.
A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.
The CPUID opcode is a processor supplementary instruction (its name derived from CPU IDentification) for the x86 architecture allowing software to discover details of the processor.
Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor developer that was founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas, as a specialist supplier of math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors.
The Cyrix 6x86 (codename M1) is a sixth-generation, 32-bit x86 microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS-Thomson.
The Cyrix Cx486DLC was an early 486 CPU from Cyrix, intended to compete with the Intel 486SX and DX.
The Cyrix Cx486SLC was Cyrix's first CPU offering, released after years of selling coprocessors that competed with Intel's units and offered better performance at a comparable or lower price.
Released in August 1995, four months before the more famous Cyrix 6x86, the Cyrix 5x86 was one of the fastest CPUs ever produced for Socket 3 computer systems.
A database engine (or storage engine) is the underlying software component that a database management system (DBMS) uses to create, read, update and delete (CRUD) data from a database.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Double-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
AMD Duron refers to a line of budget x86-compatible microprocessors manufactured by AMD.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.
The exbibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.
In computer engineering, an execution unit (also called a functional unit) is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) that performs the operations and calculations as instructed by the computer program.
Explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) is a term coined in 1997 by the HP–Intel alliance to describe a computing paradigm that researchers had been investigating since the early 1980s.
The F16C (previously/informally known as CVT16) instruction set is an x86 instruction set architecture extension which provides support for converting between half-precision and standard IEEE single-precision floating-point formats.
Fabless manufacturing is the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chips while outsourcing the fabrication (or "fab") of the devices to a specialized manufacturer called a semiconductor foundry.
The FLAGS register is the status register in Intel x86 microprocessors that contains the current state of the processor.
Flat memory model or linear memory model refers to a memory addressing paradigm in which "memory appears to the program as a single contiguous address space." The CPU can directly (and linearly) address all of the available memory locations without having to resort to any sort of memory segmentation or paging schemes.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.
The FMA instruction set is an extension to the 128 and 256-bit Streaming SIMD Extensions instructions in the x86 microprocessor instruction set to perform fused multiply–add (FMA) operations.
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Geode is a series of x86-compatible system-on-a-chip microprocessors and I/O companions produced by AMD, targeted at the embedded computing market.
Gerald John "Jerry" Popek (September 22, 1946 – July 20, 2008) was an American computer scientist, known for his research on operating systems and virtualization.
The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
The Global Descriptor Table (GDT) is a data structure used by Intel x86-family processors starting with the 80286 in order to define the characteristics of the various memory areas used during program execution, including the base address, the size, and access privileges like executability and writability.
In electronics, glue logic is the custom logic circuitry used to interface a number of off-the-shelf integrated circuits.
The Grid Compass (written GRiD by its manufacturer GRiD Systems Corporation) was one of the first laptop computers.
Hardware-based encryption is the use of computer hardware to assist software, or sometimes replace software, in the process of data encryption.
Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge microarchitecture.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Hyper-threading (officially called Hyper-Threading Technology or HT Technology, and abbreviated as HTT or HT) is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations (doing multiple tasks at once) performed on x86 microprocessors.
Microsoft Hyper-V, codenamed Viridian and formerly known as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.
HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a technology for interconnection of computer processors.
IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.
IA-64 (also called Intel Itanium architecture) is the instruction set architecture (ISA) of the Itanium family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors.
In marketing, iAPX (Intel Advanced Performance Architecture with X standing in for the Greek letter χ (chi)) was a short lived designation used for several Intel microprocessors, including some 8086 family processors.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IBM Personal Computer XT, often shortened to the IBM XT, PC XT, or simply XT, is a version of the IBM PC with a built-in hard drive.
The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.
IBM has a series of high performance microprocessors called POWER followed by a number designating generation, i.e. POWER1, POWER2, POWER3 and so forth up to the latest POWER9.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
In the x86 architecture, an input/output base address is the first address of a range of consecutive read/write addresses that a device uses on the x86's IO bus.
Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.
Integrated Device Technology, Inc. is a publicly traded American corporation headquartered in San Jose, California, that designs, manufactures, and markets low-power, high-performance mixed-signal semiconductor solutions for the advanced communications, computing, and consumer industries.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.
The Intel 80186, also known as the iAPX 186, or just 186, is a microprocessor and microcontroller introduced in 1982.
The Intel 80188 microprocessor was a variant of the Intel 80186.
The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
The Intel 80486, also known as the i486 or 486, is a higher performance follow-up to the Intel 80386 microprocessor.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
The Intel 8085 ("eighty-eighty-five") is an 8-bit microprocessor produced by Intel and introduced in 1976.
The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
The Intel 8087, announced in 1980, was the first x87 floating-point coprocessor for the 8086 line of microprocessors.
The Intel 8088 ("eighty-eighty-eight", also called iAPX 88) microprocessor is a variant of the Intel 8086.
The Intel 8089 input/output coprocessor was available for use with the 8086/8088 central processor.
Intel ADX (Multi-Precision Add-Carry Instruction Extensions) is Intel's arbitrary-precision arithmetic extension to the x86 instruction set architecture (ISA).
Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of ultra-low-voltage IA-32 and x86-64 microprocessors by Intel Corporation.
Intel Core is a line of mid-to-high end consumer, workstation, and enthusiast central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation.
Core 2 is a brand encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture.
The Intel i860 (also known as 80860) was a RISC microprocessor design introduced by Intel in 1989.
Intel's i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller.
The iAPX 432 (Intel Advanced Performance ArchitectureSometimes intel Advanced Processor architecture) was a computer architecture introduced in 1981.
Intel MPX (Memory Protection Extensions) is a set of extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture.
Intel Quark is a line of 32-bit x86 SoCs and microcontrollers by Intel, designed for small size and low power consumption, and targeted at new markets including wearable devices.
Intel SHA Extensions are set of extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture which support hardware acceleration of Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) family.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
The Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) is a data structure used by the x86 architecture to implement an interrupt vector table.
In a computer, an interrupt request (or IRQ) is a hardware signal sent to the processor that temporarily stops a running program and allows a special program, an interrupt handler, to run instead.
Intersil is an American semiconductor company headquartered in Milpitas, California.
Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).
ITT Inc., formerly ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York.
Ivy Bridge is the codename for the "third generation" of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3).
The AMD Jaguar Family 16h is a low-power microarchitecture designed by AMD, and used in APUs succeeding the Bobcat Family microarchitecture in 2013 and being succeeded by AMD's Puma architecture in 2014.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
Kaby Lake is an Intel codename for a processor microarchitecture Intel announced on August 30, 2016.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
LGA 1150, also known as Socket H3, is a microprocessor socket used by Intel's central processing units (CPUs) built on the Haswell microarchitecture.
LGA 1155, also called Socket H2, is a socket used for Intel microprocessors based on Sandy Bridge(2k) and Ivy Bridge(3k) microarchitectures.
LGA 775, also known as Socket T, is an Intel desktop CPU socket.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
This article gives a list of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) microprocessors, sorted by generation and release year.
The following is a list of Intel Core i3 brand microprocessors.
The following is a list of Intel Core i5 brand microprocessors.
The following is a list of Intel Core i7 brand microprocessors.
Intel Core M is a family of ultra low-voltage microprocessors belonging to the Intel Core series and designed specifically for ultra-thin notebooks, 2-in-1 detachables, and other mobile devices.
This generational list of Intel processors attempts to present all of Intel's processors from the pioneering 4-bit 4004 (1971) to the present high-end offerings, which include the 64-bit Itanium 2 (2002), Intel Core i9, and Xeon E3 and E5 series processors (2015).
This page lists x86-compliant microprocessors sold by VIA Technologies, grouped by technical merits: cores within same group have much in common.
In the x86-64 computer architecture, long mode is the mode where a 64-bit operating system can access 64-bit instructions and registers.
Low-power electronics are electronics, such as notebook processors, that have been designed to use less electric power.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Memory dependence prediction is a technique, employed by high-performance out-of-order execution microprocessors that execute memory access operations (loads and stores) out of program order, to predict true dependencies between loads and stores at instruction execution time.
Memory protection is a way to control memory access rights on a computer, and is a part of most modern instruction set architectures and operating systems.
In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as a micro-ops or μops) are detailed low-level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions (sometimes termed macro-instructions in this context).
In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.
Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Midrange computers, or midrange systems, are a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframe computers and microcomputers.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
MMX is a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 with its P5-based Pentium line of microprocessors, designated as "Pentium with MMX Technology".
The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.
A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.
In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.
In computing, NaN, standing for not a number, is a numeric data type value representing an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations.
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
The NEC V20 (μPD70108) was a processor made by NEC that was a reverse-engineered, pin-compatible version of the Intel 8088 with an instruction set compatible with the Intel 80186.
NexGen (Milpitas, California) was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 microprocessors until it was purchased by AMD in 1996.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
The NX bit (no-execute) is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors.
In computer science, an offset within an array or other data structure object is an integer indicating the distance (displacement) between the beginning of the object and a given element or point, presumably within the same object.
, commonly referred to as OKI, OKI Electric or the OKI Group, is a Japanese company manufacturing and selling info-telecom and printer products.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
Opteron is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64).
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
In computer engineering, out-of-order execution (or more formally dynamic execution) is a paradigm used in most high-performance central processing units to make use of instruction cycles that would otherwise be wasted.
In computer processors, the overflow flag (sometime called V flag) is usually a single bit in a system status register used to indicate when an arithmetic overflow has occurred in an operation, indicating that the signed two's-complement result would not fit in the number of bits used for the operation (the ALU width).
The first Pentium microprocessor was introduced by Intel on March 22, 1993.
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.
Parallels Workstation is the first commercial software product released by Parallels, Inc., a developer of desktop and server virtualization software.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993.
Pentium 4 is a brand by Intel for an entire series of single-core CPUs for desktops, laptops and entry-level servers.
The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core 64-bit x86-64 microprocessors with the NetBurst microarchitecture, which is the dual-core variant of Pentium 4 "Prescott" manufactured by Intel.
The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009 when it was renamed to Pentium.
The Pentium II brand refers to Intel's sixth-generation microarchitecture ("P6") and x86-compatible microprocessors introduced on May 7, 1997.
The Pentium III (marketed as Intel Pentium III Processor, informally PIII) brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26, 1999.
The Pentium M is a family of mobile 32-bit single-core x86 microprocessors (with the modified Intel P6 microarchitecture) introduced in March 2003 and forming a part of the Intel Carmel notebook platform under the then new Centrino brand.
The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor developed and manufactured by Intel introduced in November 1, 1995.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Phenom II is a family of AMD's multi-core 45 nm processors using the AMD K10 microarchitecture, succeeding the original Phenom.
In computing, Physical Address Extension (PAE), sometimes referred to as Page Address Extension, is a memory management feature for the x86 architecture.
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.
In computing, position-independent code (PIC) or position-independent executable (PIE) is a body of machine code that, being placed somewhere in the primary memory, executes properly regardless of its absolute address.
Power Management is a feature of some electrical appliances, especially copiers, computers, GPUs and computer peripherals such as monitors and printers, that turns off the power or switches the system to a low-power state when inactive.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs).
In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are mechanisms to protect data and functionality from faults (by improving fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (by providing computer security).
QEMU (short for Quick Emulator) is a free and open-source emulator that performs hardware virtualization.
RDRAND (previously known as Bull Mountain) is an instruction for returning random numbers from an Intel on-chip hardware random number generator which has been seeded by an on-chip entropy source.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
Real mode, also called real address mode, is an operating mode of all x86-compatible CPUs.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
In computer engineering, a register memory architecture is an instruction set architecture that allows operations to be performed on (or from) memory, as well as registers.
In computer architecture, register renaming is a technique that eliminates the false data dependencies arising from the reuse of architectural registers by successive instructions that do not have any real data dependencies between them.
In computer programming, a return statement causes execution to leave the current subroutine and resume at the point in the code immediately after where the subroutine was called, known as its return address.
Rise Technology was a short lived microprocessor manufacturer that produced the Intel x86 MMX compatible mP6 processor.is a microprocessor that is designed to perform a smaller number of types of computer instructions so that it can operate at a higher speed (perform more millions of instructions per second, or MIPS).
Robert P. Goldberg (December 4, 1944 – February 25, 1994) was an American computer scientist, known for his research on operating systems and virtualization.
Ryzen is a brand of central processing units (CPUs) and accelerated processing units (APUs) marketed and designed by AMD (Advanced Micro Devices).
Sandy Bridge is the codename for the microarchitecture used in the "second generation" of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3) - the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture is the successor to Nehalem microarchitecture.
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
Sempron has been the marketing name used by AMD for several different budget desktop CPUs, using several different technologies and CPU socket formats.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Silvermont is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel.
Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.
Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is a technique for improving the overall efficiency of superscalar CPUs with hardware multithreading.
Single-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
Skylake is the codename used by Intel for a processor microarchitecture that was launched in August 2015 succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture.
Slot A is the physical and electrical specification for a 242-lead single-edge-connector used by early versions of AMD's Athlon processor.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
Socket 370 (also known as the PGA370 socket) is a CPU socket first used by Intel for Pentium III and Celeron processors to first complement and later replace the older Slot 1 CPU interface on personal computers.
Socket 478 (also known as mPGA478, mPGA478B) is a 478-contact CPU socket used for Intel's Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs.
Socket 754 is a CPU socket originally developed by AMD to supersede its Athlon XP platform (socket 462, also referred to as Socket A).
Socket 939 is a CPU socket released by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors.
Socket 940 is a 940-pin socket for 64-bit AMD server processors.
Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD processors ranging from the Athlon Thunderbird to the Athlon XP/MP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron.
The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments.
Socket AM2+ is a CPU socket, which is the immediate successor to Socket AM2 that is used by several AMD processors such as Athlon 64 X2.
Socket AM3 is a CPU socket for AMD processors.
Socket FM1 is a CPU socket for desktop computers used by AMD early A-series APUs ("Llano") processors and Llano-derived Athlon II processors.
Socket FM2 is a CPU socket used by AMD's desktop ''Trinity'' and ''Richland'' APUs to connect to the motherboard as well as Athlon X2 and Athlon X4 processors based on them.
Socket FM2+ (FM2b) is a CPU socket used by AMD's desktop "Kaveri" APUs (Steamroller-based) and Godavari APUs (Steamroller-based) to connect to the motherboard.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Intel SGX is a set of central processing unit (CPU) instruction codes from Intel that allows user-level code to allocate private regions of memory, called enclaves, that are protected from processes running at higher privilege levels.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
Speculative execution is an optimization technique where a computer system performs some task that may not be needed.
SSE2 (Streaming SIMD Extensions 2) is one of the Intel SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) processor supplementary instruction sets first introduced by Intel with the initial version of the Pentium 4 in 2000.
SSE3, Streaming SIMD Extensions 3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 (x86) architecture.
SSE4 (Streaming SIMD Extensions 4) is a SIMD CPU instruction set used in the Intel Core microarchitecture and AMD K10 (K8L).
The SSE5 (short for Streaming SIMD Extensions version 5) was a SIMD instruction set extension proposed by AMD on 30 August 2007 as a supplement to the 128-bit SSE core instructions in the AMD64 architecture.
Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSSE3 or SSE3S) is a SIMD instruction set created by Intel and is the fourth iteration of the SSE technology.
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.
STMicroelectronics is a French-Italian multinational electronics and semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
In computing, Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) is an SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series of processors shortly after the appearance of AMD's 3DNow!.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
A superscalar processor is a CPU that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.
A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
A test register, in the Intel 80386 and Intel 80486 processor, was a register used by the processor, usually to do a self-test.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The Inquirer is a British technology tabloid website founded by Mike Magee after his departure from The Register (of which he was one of the founding members) in 2001.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
In computer science and engineering, transactional memory attempts to simplify concurrent programming by allowing a group of load and store instructions to execute in an atomic way.
Transactional Synchronization Extensions (TSX-NI) is an extension to the x86 instruction set architecture (ISA) that adds hardware transactional memory support, speeding up execution of multi-threaded software through lock elision.
Transmeta Corporation was an American fabless semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California.
The Crusoe is a family of x86-compatible microprocessors developed by Transmeta and introduced in 2000.
The Efficeon processor is Transmeta's second-generation 256-bit VLIW design which employs a software engine (Code Morphing Software, aka CMS) to convert code written for x86 processors to the native instruction set of the chip.
United Microelectronics Corporation, commonly known as UMC, is a Taiwanese company which is based in Hsinchu, Taiwan.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
Very long instruction word (VLIW) refers to instruction set architectures designed to exploit instruction level parallelism (ILP).
The VIA C3 is a family of x86 central processing units for personal computers designed by Centaur Technology and sold by VIA Technologies.
The VIA C7 is an x86 central processing unit designed by Centaur Technology and sold by VIA Technologies.
The VIA Nano (formerly code-named VIA Isaiah) is a 64-bit CPU for personal computers.
VIA Technologies Inc., is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory.
Video editing software is an application program which handles the post-production video editing of digital video sequences on a computer non-linear editing system (NLE).
In the 80386 microprocessor and later, virtual 8086 mode (also called virtual real mode, V86-mode or VM86) allows the execution of real mode applications that are incapable of running directly in protected mode while the processor is running a protected mode operating system.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
Oracle VM VirtualBox (formerly Sun VirtualBox, Sun xVM VirtualBox and Innotek VirtualBox) is a free and open-source hypervisor for x86 computers currently being developed by Oracle Corporation.
VMware ESXi (formerly ESX) is an enterprise-class, type-1 hypervisor developed by VMware for deploying and serving virtual computers.
VMware Workstation is a hosted hypervisor that runs on x64 versions of Windows and Linux operating systems (an x86 version of earlier releases was available); it enables users to set up virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical machine, and use them simultaneously along with the actual machine.
Weitek Corporation was a chip-design company that originally focused on floating-point units for a number of commercial CPU designs.
Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.
Windows Virtual PC (successor to Microsoft Virtual PC 2007, Microsoft Virtual PC 2004, and Connectix Virtual PC) is a virtualization program for Microsoft Windows.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
x86 assembly language is a family of backward-compatible assembly languages, which provide some level of compatibility all the way back to the Intel 8008 introduced in April 1972.
On the x86 architecture, a debug register is a register used by a processor for program debugging.
The x86 instruction set refers to the set of instructions that x86-compatible microprocessors support.
x86 memory segmentation refers to the implementation of memory segmentation in the Intel x86 computer instruction set architecture.
In computing, x86 virtualization refers to hardware virtualization for the x86 architecture.
x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
x87 is a floating point-related subset of the x86 architecture instruction set.
Xen Project (pronounced) is a hypervisor using a microkernel design, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets.
Xeon Phi is a series of x86 manycore processors designed and made entirely by Intel.
The XOP (eXtended Operations) instruction set, announced by AMD on May 1, 2009, is an extension to the 128-bit SSE core instructions in the x86 and AMD64 instruction set for the Bulldozer processor core, which was released on October 12, 2011.
Zen is the codename for a computer processor microarchitecture from AMD, and was first used with their Ryzen series of CPUs in February 2017.
The zero flag is a single bit flag that is a central feature on most conventional CPU architectures (including x86, ARM, PDP-11, 68000, 6502, and numerous others).
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
386BSD, sometimes called "Jolix", is a discontinued free Unix-like operating system based on BSD, first released in 1992.
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.
3DNow! is an extension to the x86 instruction set developed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
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