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# X (charge)

In particle physics, the X-charge (or simply X) is a conserved quantum number associated with the SO(10) grand unification theory. 

## Antiparticle

In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

## B − L

In high energy physics, B − L (pronounced "bee minus ell") is the difference between the baryon number (B) and the lepton number (L).

## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Helicity (particle physics)

In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the spin onto the direction of momentum.

## Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

## Lepton number

In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.

## Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

## Noether's theorem

Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.

## Particle

In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

## Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

## Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

## SO(10) (physics)

In particle physics, SO(10) refers to a grand unified theory (GUT) based on the spin group Spin(10).

## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

## Weak hypercharge

In the Standard Model of electroweak interactions of particle physics, the weak hypercharge is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin.

## X and Y bosons

In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.

## References

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