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X Club

Index X Club

The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England. [1]

94 relations: Albemarle Street, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Anglicanism, Anthropological Society of London, Artisan, Ashgate Publishing, Athenaeum Club, London, Blastoderm, British Science Association, Burlington House, Candidacy, Caucus, Cell (biology), Charles Darwin, Chemical Society, Church of England, Clergy, Colony of Natal, Consonant, Copley Medal, Corresponding member, Darwin Medal, Dining club, Dogma, Edward Frankland, Egg cell, Essays and Reviews, Ethnological Society of London, Evolutionism, Food security, French Academy of Sciences, George Busk, Guide, Herbert Spencer, Heresy, Heterodoxy, Historical criticism, Isis (journal), John Colenso, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Tyndall, Jonathan Cape, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Justice of the peace, Kingdom of Prussia, Knight, Learned society, Liberal Christianity, London Mathematical Society, Lyell Medal, ..., Mathematics, Nationalization, Natural history, Natural selection, Naturalism (philosophy), Old Testament, On the Origin of Species, Order of Merit, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Physiology, Population dynamics, Pour le Mérite, Prehistory, Presidency, Privy council, Professional, Race (human categorization), Richard Owen, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Institution, Royal Medal, Royal Society, Rumford Medal, Samuel Wilberforce, Scientific community, Scientific Lazzaroni, Sir William Fergusson, 1st Baronet, Slavery, Slavic languages, Social behavior, Social network, Society of Arcueil, Surgeon, The Scientific Monthly, Theology, Thomas Archer Hirst, Thomas Henry Huxley, Typhoid fever, University of Chicago Press, Victorian era, W. W. Norton & Company, William Benjamin Carpenter, William Spottiswoode, Wollaston Medal. Expand index (44 more) »

Albemarle Street

Albemarle Street is a street in Mayfair in central London, off Piccadilly.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Anthropological Society of London

The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr.

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An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.

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Ashgate Publishing

Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).

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Athenaeum Club, London

The Athenaeum is a private members' club in London, founded in 1824.

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A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula.

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British Science Association

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.

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Burlington House

Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London.

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Candidacy is a rite which takes place during Roman Catholic seminary formation, by which the Church recognizes the seminarian as worthy of being ordained (hence, they become a "candidate" for ordination to the priesthood).

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A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Chemical Society

The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) by 77 scientists as a result of increased interest in scientific matters.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Colony of Natal

The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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Corresponding member

A Corresponding Member (membre correspondant; член-корреспондент "chlen-korrespondent", korrespondierendes Mitglied) is one of the possible membership types in some organizations, especially in the learned societies and scientific academies.

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Darwin Medal

The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity".

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Dining club

A dining club is a social group, usually requiring membership (which may, or may not be available only to certain people), which meets for dinners and discussion on a regular basis.

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The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Edward Frankland

Sir Edward Frankland, (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Essays and Reviews

Essays and Reviews, edited by John William Parker, published in March 1860, is a broad-church volume of seven essays on Christianity.

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Ethnological Society of London

The Ethnological Society of London (ESL) was a learned society founded in 1843 as an offshoot of the Aborigines' Protection Society (APS).

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Evolutionism describes the belief in the evolution of organisms.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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George Busk

George Busk RN FRS (12 August 1807 – 10 August 1886) was a British naval surgeon, zoologist and palaeontologist.

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A guide is a person who leads travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".

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Historical criticism

Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".

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Isis (journal)

Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

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John Colenso

John William Colenso (24 January 1814 – 20 June 1883) was a British mathematician, theologian, Biblical scholar and social activist, who was the first Church of England Bishop of Natal.

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John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.

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John Tyndall

John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.

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Jonathan Cape

Jonathan Cape is a London publishing firm founded in 1921 by Herbert Jonathan Cape, who was head of the firm until his death in 1960.

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Joseph Dalton Hooker

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.

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Justice of the peace

A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.

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Learned society

A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.

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Liberal Christianity

Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.

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London Mathematical Society

The London Mathematical Society (LMS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies for mathematics (the others being the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA)).

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Lyell Medal

The Lyell Medal is a prestigious annual scientific medal given by the Geological Society of London, equal in status to the Murchison Medal.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Order of Merit

The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Population dynamics

Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).

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Pour le Mérite

The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation.

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Privy council

A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.

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A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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Royal College of Surgeons of England

The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.

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Royal Institution

The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

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Royal Medal

A Royal Medal, known also as The King's Medal or The Queen's Medal, depending on the gender of the monarch at the time of the award, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rumford Medal

The Rumford Medal is an award bestowed by Britain's Royal Society every alternating year for "an outstandingly important recent discovery in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter made by a scientist working in Europe".

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Samuel Wilberforce

Samuel Wilberforce FRS (7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English bishop in the Church of England, third son of William Wilberforce.

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Scientific community

The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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Scientific Lazzaroni

The Scientific Lazzaroni is a self-mocking name adopted by Alexander Dallas Bache and his group of scientists who flourished before and up to the American Civil War.

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Sir William Fergusson, 1st Baronet

Sir William Fergusson, 1st Baronet FRCS FRS FRSE (20 March 1808 – 10 February 1877) was a Scottish surgeon.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Social behavior

Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Society of Arcueil

The Society of Arcueil was a circle of French scientists who met regularly on summer weekends between 1806 and 1822 at the country houses of Claude Louis Berthollet and Pierre Simon Laplace at Arcueil, then a village 3 miles south of Paris.

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In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.

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The Scientific Monthly

The Scientific Monthly was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thomas Archer Hirst

Thomas Archer Hirst FRS (22 April 1830 – 16 February 1892) was a 19th-century mathematician, specialising in geometry.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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William Benjamin Carpenter

William Benjamin Carpenter CB FRS (29 October 1813 – 19 November 1885) was an English physician, invertebrate zoologist and physiologist. He was instrumental in the early stages of the unified University of London.

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William Spottiswoode

William H. Spottiswoode (11 January 1825 – 27 June 1883) was an English mathematician and physicist.

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Wollaston Medal

The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London.

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T.H. Huxley X Club, The X Club, Thomas Henry Huxley X Club, X club, X-Club, X-club.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Club

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