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The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England. [1]

93 relations: Academician, Albemarle Street, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Anglicanism, Anthropological Society of London, Artisan, Ashgate Publishing, Athenaeum Club, London, Blastoderm, British Science Association, Burlington House, Candidacy, Caucus, Cell (biology), Charles Darwin, Chemical Society, Church of England, Clergy, Colony of Natal, Consonant, Copley Medal, Darwin Medal, Dining club, Dogma, Edward Frankland, Egg cell, Essays and Reviews, Ethnological Society of London, Evolutionism, Food security, French Academy of Sciences, George Busk, Guide, Herbert Spencer, Heresy, Heterodoxy, Historical criticism, Isis (journal), John Colenso, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Tyndall, Jonathan Cape, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Justice of the peace, Kingdom of Prussia, Knight, Learned society, Liberal Christianity, London Mathematical Society, Lyell Medal, ..., Mathematics, Nationalization, Natural history, Natural selection, Naturalism (philosophy), Old Testament, On the Origin of Species, Order of Merit, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Physiology, Population dynamics, Pour le Mérite, Prehistory, Presidency, Privy council, Professional, Race (human categorization), Richard Owen, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Institution, Royal Medal, Royal Society, Rumford Medal, Samuel Wilberforce, Scientific community, Scientific Lazzaroni, Sir William Fergusson, 1st Baronet, Slavery, Slavic languages, Social network, Society of Arcueil, Surgeon, The Scientific Monthly, Theology, Thomas Archer Hirst, Thomas Henry Huxley, Typhoid fever, University of Chicago Press, Victorian era, W. W. Norton & Company, William Benjamin Carpenter, William Spottiswoode, Wollaston Medal. Expand index (43 more) »

The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy.

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Albemarle Street is a street in Mayfair in central London, off Piccadilly.

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The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr.

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An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, household items and tools or even mechanical mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.

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Ashgate Publishing is an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).

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The Athenaeum is a private members' club in London, founded in 1824.

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The blastoderm is a term for cell layers found in blastulas.

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The British Science Association, formerly known as British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA, (founded 1831) is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating interaction between scientific workers.

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Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London.

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Candidacy is a rite which takes place during Roman Catholic seminary formation, by which the Church recognizes the seminarian as worthy of being ordained (hence, they become a "candidate" for ordination to the priesthood).

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A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) by 77 scientists as a result of increased interest in scientific matters.

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The Church of England is the officially-established Christian church in England, and the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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Clergy are some of the formal leaders within certain religions.

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The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, London, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity".

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A dining club is a social group, usually requiring membership (which may, or may not be available only to certain people), which meets for dinners and discussion on a regular basis.

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Dogma is a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.

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Sir Edward Frankland, KCB, FRS (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist.

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The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Essays and Reviews, edited by John William Parker, published in March 1860, is a broad-church volume of seven essays on Christianity.

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The Ethnological Society of London (ESL) was a learned society founded in 1843 as an offshoot of the Aborigines' Protection Society (APS).

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Evolutionism was a common 19th century belief that organisms inherently improve themselves through progressive inherited change over time, and increase in complexity through evolution.

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Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals' access to it.

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The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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George Busk RN FRS (12 August 1807 – 10 August 1886) was a British Naval surgeon, zoologist and palaeontologist.

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A guide is a person who leads travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations.

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Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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Heresy is any provocative belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs.

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Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".

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Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of literary criticism that investigates the origins of ancient text in order to understand "the world behind the text".

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Isis, a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by University of Chicago Press, focuses on the history of science, history of medicine, and the history of technology, as well as on their cultural influences.

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John William Colenso (1814 – 1883) was a British mathematician, theologian, Biblical scholar and social activist, who was the first Church of England Bishop of Natal.

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The Right Honourable John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury PC FRS DCL LLD (30 April 1834 – 28 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was a banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.

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John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th century physicist.

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Jonathan Cape was a London publishing firm founded in 1921 by Herbert Jonathan Cape.

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Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the 19th century.

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A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

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The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic.

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A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the Monarch or country, especially in a military capacity.

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A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an academic discipline or profession, or a group of related disciplines or professions.

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Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.

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The London Mathematical Society (LMS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies for mathematics (the others being the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA)).

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The Lyell Medal is a prestigious annual scientific medal given by the Geological Society of London, equal in status to the Murchison Medal, awarded on the basis of research to an Earth Scientist of exceptional quality.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.

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Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.

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Natural history is the research and study of organisms including plants or animals in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype; it is a key mechanism of evolution.

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In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites.

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On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

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The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is a dynastic order recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.

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The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.

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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

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Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies short-term and long-term changes in the size and age composition of populations, and the biological and environmental processes influencing those changes.

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The Pour le Mérite (Fr.: For Merit) was an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.

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Prehistory means literally "before history", from the Latin word for "before," præ, and historia.

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A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation.

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A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.

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A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified activity.

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Race, as a social construct, is a group of people who share similar and distinct physical characteristics.

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Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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The Royal College of Surgeons of England, often referred to simply as the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS), is an independent professional body and registered charity committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.

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The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or RI) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

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The Royal Medal, also known as The Queen's Medal, is a silver-gilt medal awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences" made within the Commonwealth of Nations.

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The President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence.

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The Rumford Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternating year for "an outstandingly important recent discovery in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter made by a scientist working in Europe".

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Samuel Wilberforce, FRS (7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English bishop in the Church of England, third son of William Wilberforce.

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The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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The Scientific Lazzaroni is a self-mocking name adopted by Alexander Dallas Bache and his group of scientists who flourished before and up to the American Civil War.

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Sir William Fergusson, 1st Baronet FRCS FRS (20 March 1808 – 10 February 1877) was a Scottish surgeon.

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Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.

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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, much of the Balkans, parts of Central Europe, and the northern part of Asia.

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A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations) and a set of the dyadic ties between these actors.

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The Society of Arcueil was a circle of French scientists who met regularly on summer weekends between 1806 and 1822 at the country houses of Claude Louis Berthollet and Pierre Simon Laplace at Arcueil, then a village 3 miles south of Paris.

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In medicine, a surgeon is a specialist in surgery.

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The Scientific Monthly was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957.

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Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious ideas, but can also mean the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university, seminary, or school of divinity.

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Thomas Archer Hirst FRS (22 April 1830 – 16 February 1892) was a 19th-century mathematician, specialising in geometry.

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Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist (comparative anatomist), known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.

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Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a symptomatic bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi.

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The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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The Victorian era of British history (and that of the British Empire) was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death, on 22 January 1901.

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William Benjamin Carpenter CB FRS (29 October 1813 – 19 November 1885) was an English physician, invertebrate zoologist and physiologist. He was instrumental in the early stages of the unified University of London.

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William H. Spottiswoode FRS (11 January 1825 – 27 June 1883) was an English mathematician and physicist.

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The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London.

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T.H. Huxley X Club, The X Club, Thomas Henry Huxley X Club, X club, X-Club, X-club.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Club

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