238 relations: Accessibility Toolkit, AIGLX, Andrew Project, Android (operating system), Apollo Computer, Apple Inc., Apple Lisa, Art.Net, Artwiz fonts, Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface, Bandwidth (computing), Bitmap, Bitstream Speedo Fonts, Blit (computer terminal), Bob Scheifler, Broadcast domain, Brown University, BSD licenses, Button (computing), Cairo (graphics), Canonical (company), Canonical model, Carnegie Mellon University, Cathode ray tube, Chrome OS, Client–server model, Code refactoring, Color management, Common Desktop Environment, Communication protocol, Compositing window manager, Computer accessibility, Computer architecture, Computer font, Computer keyboard, Computer monitor, Computer mouse, Computer network, Computer security, Computer terminal, Concurrent Versions System, Context menu, Conventional PCI, Croquet Project, Cygwin/X, Debian, Desktop environment, Desktop metaphor, DESQview, Digital Equipment Corporation, ..., Direct Rendering Infrastructure, DirectFB, Display device, Display PostScript, Display server, Domain name, DOS, Double-click, DTrace, EGL (API), Emacs, Encryption, English alphabet, Enlightenment (software), EXA, Extended Display Identification Data, Extensibility, Focus stealing, Fork (software development), Framebuffer, Free and open-source software, Free software, Free Software Foundation, Freedesktop.org, General Graphics Interface, GLX, GNOME, GNOME Foundation, GNU Build System, GNU General Public License, GNU Screen, Graphical user interface, Graphics Environment Manager, Graphics processing unit, Hewlett-Packard, History of the graphical user interface, Hot swapping, Hummingbird Ltd., IBM, IBM 6150 RT, IBM PC compatible, IBM Personal Computer/AT, Imake, Intel 80386, Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual, IOS, Java (programming language), Jim Gettys, KDE Software Compilation, Keith Packard, Latency (engineering), Linux, Linux kernel, Linux Symposium, List of Unix commands, Look and feel, Low Bandwidth X, Macintosh, MacOS, MacX, MARC (archive), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Menu (computing), Mesa (computer graphics), Microsoft Windows, MicroVAX, Mir (software), MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT License, MIT-SHM, MKS X/Server, Motif (software), Mouseover, Multi-Pointer X, Multiseat configuration, Network transparency, NeWS, NeXT, NeXTSTEP, NX technology, Open Software Foundation, OpenBSD, OpenVMS, Operating system, Orca (assistive technology), Packet analyzer, Patch (computing), PDF, Peripheral, Permissive software licence, Personal computer, PHIGS, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, Porting, PostScript, Programmer, Project Athena, Project Looking Glass, Proprietary software, Protocol stack, Quartz (graphics layer), RandR, Raspberry Pi, Ratpoison, Remote Desktop Protocol, Rio (windowing system), Rob Pike, Round-trip delay time, Secure Shell, Separation of mechanism and policy, Shape extension, Shared memory, SharedX, Simson Garfinkel, Single UNIX Specification, Software framework, Software license, Software relicensing, Source code, Sugar (software), Sun Microsystems, SVGALib, Swing (Java), Synchronization (computer science), Tarantella, Inc., Terminal emulator, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, The Open Group, The Unix-Haters Handbook, Theo de Raadt, Thin client, Tiling window manager, Tunneling protocol, Turing completeness, Twm, Ultrix, Ultrix Window Manager, Unix, Unix domain socket, Unix-like, USENIX, User interface, V (operating system), VAXstation, Virtual Network Computing, VirtualGL, W Window System, Wayland (display server protocol), Web browser, WeirdX, Widget toolkit, Window (computing), Window decoration, Window manager, Windowing system, Wmii, Worse is better, X display manager (program type), X Font Server, X Image Extension, X keyboard extension, X PixMap, X video extension, X-Win32, X.Org Foundation, X.Org Server, X/Open, X11 color names, X11vnc, X386, XCB, XDM (display manager), XenApp, Xephyr, Xerox, Xerox Alto, Xerox Star, Xfce, XFixes, XFree86, Xgl, Xinerama, Xlib, Xmark93, Xming, Xmove, Xpra, XQuartz. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
In computing, Accessibility Toolkit (ATK) refers in particular to the GNOME ATK, an application programming interface (API) for developing free/open source accessible applications for platforms such as Linux or OpenBSD.
Accelerated Indirect GLX ("AIGLX") is an open source project founded by Red Hat and the Fedora community, led by Kristian Høgsberg, to allow accelerated indirect GLX rendering capabilities to the X.Org Server and DRI drivers.
The Andrew Project was a distributed computing environment developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) beginning in 1982.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Apollo Computer Inc., founded 1980 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer) and others, developed and produced Apollo/Domain workstations in the 1980s.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
The Apple Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983.
Art.Net is a non-profit web-based artist collective of more than 450 artists, poets, musicians, painters, sculptors, animators, hacker artists, and other creative people from around the world, aimed at helping artists share their works on the World Wide Web.
artwiz fonts refers to a set of fonts originally created by Youngjin Hahn, an artist who was involved in the Free Software community and went by the alias "artwiz".
Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface (AT-SPI) is a platform-neutral framework for providing bi-directional communication between assistive technologies (AT) and applications.
In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.
In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.
Bitstream Speedo, or Speedo, is an obsolete scalable font format created by Bitstream Inc.
In computing, the Blit was a programmable bitmap graphics terminal designed by Rob Pike and Bart Locanthi Jr.
Robert William Scheifler (born June 24, 1954, Kirkwood, Missouri) is an American computer scientist.
A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and redistribution of covered software.
In computing, the term button (sometimes known as a command button or push button) refers to any graphical control element that provides the user a simple way to trigger an event, like searching for a query at a search engine, or to interact with dialog boxes, like confirming an action.
Cairo (stylized as cairo) is an open source programming library that provides a vector graphics-based, device-independent API for software developers.
Canonical Ltd. is a UK-based privately held computer software company founded and funded by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth to market commercial support and related services for Ubuntu Linux and related projects.
A canonical model is a design pattern used to communicate between different data formats.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface.
The client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.
Code refactoring is the process of restructuring existing computer code—changing the factoring—without changing its external behavior.
In digital imaging systems, color management is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and corresponding media.
The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is a desktop environment for Unix and OpenVMS, based on the Motif widget toolkit.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A compositing window manager, or compositor, is a window manager that provides applications with an off-screen buffer for each window.
In human–computer interaction, computer accessibility (also known as accessible computing) refers to the accessibility of a computer system to all people, regardless of disability type or severity of impairment.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
A computer font (or font) is implemented as a digital data file containing a set of graphically related glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is a free client-server revision control system in the field of software development.
A context menu (also called contextual, shortcut, and pop up or pop-up menu) is a menu in a graphical user interface (GUI) that appears upon user interaction, such as a right-click mouse operation.
Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer.
The Croquet Project was a software project intended to promote the continued development of the Croquet open source software development kit to create and deliver collaborative multi-user online applications.
Cygwin/X is an implementation of the X Window System that runs under Microsoft Windows.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell.
In computing, the desktop metaphor is an interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by graphical user interfaces to help users interact more easily with the computer.
DESQview (DV) was a text mode multitasking operating environment developed by Quarterdeck Office Systems which enjoyed modest popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
The Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI) is a framework for allowing direct access to graphics hardware under the X Window System in a safe, efficient way.
DirectFB (Direct Frame Buffer) is a software library with a small memory footprint that provides graphics acceleration, input device handling and abstraction layer, and integrated windowing system with support for translucent windows and multiple display layers on top of the Linux framebuffer without requiring any kernel modifications.
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).
Display PostScript (or DPS) is a 2D graphics engine system for computers which uses the PostScript (PS) imaging model and language (originally developed for computer printing) to generate on-screen graphics.
A display server or window server is a program whose primary task is to coordinate the input and output of its clients to and from the rest of the operating system, the hardware, and each other.
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
A double-click is the act of pressing a computer mouse button twice quickly without moving the mouse.
DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems for troubleshooting kernel and application problems on production systems in real time.
EGL is an interface between Khronos rendering APIs (such as OpenGL, OpenGL ES or OpenVG) and the underlying native platform windowing system.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a compositing window manager for the X Window System.
In computing, EXA is a graphics acceleration architecture of the X.Org Server (see also X Window System) designed to replace XAA (the XFree86 Acceleration Architecture) and to make the XRender extension more usable, with only minor changes needed to adapt XFree86 video drivers written to use XAA; it was designed by Zack Rusin and announced at LinuxTag 2005 and first released with X.Org Server version 6.9/7.0.
Extended Display Identification Data (EDID) is a metadata format for display devices to describe their capabilities to a video source (e.g. graphics card or set-top box).
Extensibility is a software engineering and systems design principle where the implementation takes future growth into consideration.
In computing, focus stealing is a mode error produced when a program not in focus (e.g. minimized or operating in background) places a window in the foreground and redirects all keyboard input to that window.
In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software.
A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
freedesktop.org (fd.o) is a project to work on interoperability and shared base technology for free software desktop environments for the X Window System (X11) on Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
General Graphics Interface (GGI) is a project that aims to develop a reliable, stable and fast computer graphics system that works everywhere.
GLX (initialism for "OpenGL Extension to the X Window System") is an extension to the X Window System core protocol providing an interface between OpenGL and the X Window System as well as extensions to OpenGL itself.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
The GNOME Foundation is a non-profit organization based in Orinda, California, United States, coordinating the efforts in the GNOME project.
The GNU Build System, also known as the Autotools, is a suite of programming tools designed to assist in making source code packages portable to many Unix-like systems.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
GNU Screen is a terminal multiplexer, a software application that can be used to multiplex several virtual consoles, allowing a user to access multiple separate login sessions inside a single terminal window, or detach and reattach sessions from a terminal.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Graphics Environment Manager (GEM) was an operating environment created by Digital Research (DRI) for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors.
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The history of the graphical user interface, understood as the use of graphic icons and a pointing device to control a computer, covers a five-decade span of incremental refinements, built on some constant core principles.
Hot swapping (frequently inaccurately called hot plugging) is replacing or adding components without stopping or shutting down the system.
Hummingbird Ltd. (previously NASDAQ: HUMC, TSX: HUM) is a subsidiary of OpenText and is a provider of enterprise software solutions including Exceed.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM RT (or IBM 6150 series) was a workstation sold by IBM and built around IBM's ROMP processor, a spin-off of the IBM 801 pioneered at IBM Research.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.
imake is a build automation system written for the X Window System.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
In computing, the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual (ICCCM or I39L short for "I", 39 letters and "L") is a standard protocol for the X Window System.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Jim Gettys (born 15 October 1953) is an American computer programmer.
The KDE Software Compilation (KDE SC) was formerly used as an umbrella term consisting of a desktop environment and an associated range of KDE Applications produced by KDE.
Keith Packard (born April 16, 1963) is a software developer, best known for his work on the X Window System.
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
The Linux Symposium was a Linux and Open Source conference held annually in Canada from 1999 to 2014.
This is a list of Unix commands as specified by IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, which is part of the Single UNIX Specification (SUS).
In software design, look and feel is a term used in respect of a graphical user interface and comprises aspects of its design, including elements such as colors, shapes, layout, and typefaces (the "look"), as well as the behavior of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the "feel").
In computing, LBX, or Low Bandwidth X, was a protocol to use the X Window System over network links with low bandwidth and high latency.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
MacX is a display server implementation supporting the X11 display server protocol that ran on System 7, Mac OS 8, and Mac OS 9.
MARC (Mailing list ARChive) is a computer-related mailing list archive.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In computing and telecommunications, a menu is a list of options or commands presented to the user of a computer or communications system.
Mesa, also called Mesa3D and The Mesa 3D Graphics Library, is an open source software implementation of OpenGL, Vulkan, and other graphics specifications.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
The MicroVAX was a family of low-cost minicomputers developed and manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
Mir is a computer display server and, recently, a Wayland compositor for the Linux operating system that is under development by Canonical Ltd. It was planned to replace the currently used X Window System for Ubuntu, however the plan changed and Mutter was adopted as part of GNOME Shell.
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
The MIT License is a permissive free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
The MIT Shared Memory Extension or MIT-SHM is a X Window System extension for exchange of image data between client and server using shared memory.
MKS X/Server, a commercial X server developed by MKS Inc., allows users to access Unix/Linux systems from a PC computers which run a Microsoft Windows operating system.
In computing, Motif refers to both a graphical user interface (GUI) specification and the widget toolkit for building applications that follow that specification under the X Window System on Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
In computing, a mouseover, mouse hover or hover box is a graphical control element that is activated when the user moves or "hovers" the pointer over its trigger area, usually with a mouse, but also possible using a digital pen.
Multi-pointer X (MPX) is a part of X input extension and previously a modification to the existing X.Org implementation of the X Window System.
A multiseat, multi-station or multiterminal configuration is a single computer which supports multiple independent local users at the same time.
Network transparency, in its most general sense, refers to the ability of a protocol to transmit data over the network in a manner which is transparent (invisible) to those using the applications that are using the protocol.
NeWS (Network extensible Window System) is a discontinued windowing system developed by Sun Microsystems in the mid-1980s.
NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
NeXTSTEP is a discontinued object-oriented, multitasking operating system based on UNIX.
NX technology, developed by NoMachine, and commonly known as 'NX' is a proprietary computer program that provides desktop and remote access.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Open Software Foundation (OSF) was a not-for-profit organization founded in 1988 under the U.S. National Cooperative Research Act of 1984 to create an open standard for an implementation of the UNIX operating system.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Orca is a free and open source, flexible, extensible screen reader from the GNOME project for individuals who are blind or visually impaired.
A packet analyzer (also known as a packet sniffer) is a computer program or piece of computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a digital network or part of a network.
A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
A permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software software license with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
PHIGS (Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System) is an application programming interface (API) standard for rendering 3D computer graphics, considered to be the 3D graphics standard for the 1980s through the early 1990s.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.
Project Athena was a joint project of MIT, Digital Equipment Corporation, and IBM to produce a campus-wide distributed computing environment for educational use.
Project Looking Glass is a now inactive free software project under the GPL to create an innovative 3D desktop environment for Linux, Solaris, and Windows.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
In Apple computer's macOS operating system, Quartz is the Quartz 2D and Quartz Compositor part of the Core Graphics framework.
RandR ("resize and rotate") is a communications protocol written as an extension to the X11 protocol.
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
Ratpoison is a tiling window manager for the X Window System primarily developed by Shawn Betts.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft, which provides a user with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection.
rio is Plan 9 from Bell Labs's windowing system.
Robert "Rob" C. Pike (born 1956) is a Canadian programmer and author.
In telecommunications, the round-trip delay time (RTD) or round-trip time (RTT) is the length of time it takes for a signal to be sent plus the length of time it takes for an acknowledgement of that signal to be received.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
The separation of mechanism and policy is a design principle in computer science.
In the X Window System, the X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension allows windows to be given arbitrary, non-rectangular shapes.
In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.
SharedX is a set of extensions to the X Window System that was developed at HP in the mid to late 1980s.
Simson L. Garfinkel (born 1965) is the US Census Bureau's Senior Computer Scientist for Confidentiality and Data Access and the Chair of the Bureau's Disclosure Review Board.
The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark.
In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional user-written code, thus providing application-specific software.
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.
Software relicensing is applied in open-source software development when software licenses of software modules are incompatible and are required to be compatible for a greater combined work.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
Sugar is a free and open-source desktop environment designed for interactive learning by children.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
SVGAlib was an open-source low-level graphics library which runs on Linux and FreeBSD and allows programs to change video mode and display full-screen graphics.
Swing is a GUI widget toolkit for Java.
In computer science, synchronization refers to one of two distinct but related concepts: synchronization of processes, and synchronization of Data.
Tarantella was a line of products developed by a branch of the company Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) since 1993.
A terminal emulator, terminal application, or term, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (abbreviated CatB) is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail.
The Open Group is an industry consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications".
The Unix-Haters Handbook is a semi-humorous edited compilation of messages to the Unix-Haters mailing list.
Theo de Raadt (born May 19, 1968) is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
A thin client is a lightweight computer that has been optimized for remoting into a server-based computing environment.
In computing, a tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the more popular approach of coordinate-based stacking of overlapping objects (windows) that tries to fully emulate the desktop metaphor.
In computer networks, a tunneling protocol is a communications protocol that allows for the secure movement of data from one network to another.
In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
twm (Tab Window Manager) is a window manager for the X Window System.
Ultrix (officially all-caps ULTRIX) is the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) discontinued native Unix operating systems for the PDP-11, VAX and DECstations.
The Ultrix Window Manager (uwm) is a historic standard window manager software for the X Window System from X11R1 through X11R3 releases.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix domain socket or IPC socket (inter-process communication socket) is a data communications endpoint for exchanging data between processes executing on the same host operating system.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
The USENIX Association is the Advanced Computing Systems Association.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
The V operating system (sometimes written V-System) is a discontinued microkernel operating system that was developed by faculty and students in the distributed systems group at Stanford University from 1981 to 1988, led by Professors David Cheriton and Keith A. Lantz.
The VAXstation was a family of workstation computers developed and manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) using processors implementing the VAX instruction set architecture (ISA).
In computing, Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a graphical desktop sharing system that uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol (RFB) to remotely control another computer.
VirtualGL is an open source program that redirects the 3D rendering commands from Unix and Linux OpenGL applications to 3D accelerator hardware in a dedicated server and displays the rendered output interactively to a thin client located elsewhere on the network.
The W window system is a discontinued windowing system and precursor in name and concept to the modern X window system.
Wayland is a computer protocol that specifies the communication between a display server (called a Wayland compositor) and its clients, as well as a reference implementation of the protocol in the C programming language.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
WeirdX is a Java applet that talks with X Window System server, allowing cross platform GUI session from the web browser.
A widget toolkit, widget library, GUI toolkit, or UX library is a library or a collection of libraries containing a set of graphical control elements (called widgets) used to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) of programs.
In computing, a window is a graphical control element.
In graphical user interfaces, the window decoration is a part of a window in most windowing systems.
A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface.
In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens.
wmii (window manager improved²) is a tiling window manager for X11.
Worse is better, also called New Jersey style, was conceived by Richard P. Gabriel in an essay "Worse is better" to describe the dynamics of software acceptance, but it has broader application.
In the X Window System, an X display manager is a graphical login manager which starts a session on an X server from the same or another computer.
The X font server (xfs) provides a standard mechanism for an X server to communicate with a font renderer, frequently one running on a remote machine.
X Image Extension, or XIE was an extension to the X Window System to enhance its graphics capability.
In human-computer interfaces, the X keyboard extension or XKB is a part of the X Window System that extends the ability to control the keyboard over what is offered by the X Window System core protocol.
X PixMap (XPM) is an image file format used by the X Window System, created in 1989 by Daniel Dardailler and Colas Nahaboo working at Bull Research Center at Sophia Antipolis, France, and later enhanced by Arnaud Le Hors.
The X video extension, often abbreviated as XVideo or Xv, is a video output mechanism for the X Window System.
In computing, X-Win32 is a proprietary implementation of the X Window System for Microsoft Windows, produced by StarNet Communications.
The X.Org Foundation is a non-profit corporation chartered to research, develop, support, organize, administrate, standardize, promote, and defend a free and open accelerated graphics stack.
X.Org Server is the free and open source implementation of the display server for the X Window System stewarded by the X.Org Foundation.
X/Open Company, Ltd., originally the Open Group for Unix Systems, was a consortium founded by several European UNIX systems manufacturers in 1984 to identify and promote open standards in the field of information technology.
In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values.
x11vnc is a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) server program.
X386 was the first implementation of the X Window System for IBM PC compatible computers.
XCB (X protocol C-language Binding) is a library implementing the client-side of the X11 display server protocol.
XDM (in full, the X Display Manager) is the default display manager for the X Window System.
XenApp is application virtualization software produced by Citrix Systems that allows Windows applications to be accessed via individual devices from a shared server or cloud system.
Xephyr is display server software implementing the X11 display server protocol based on KDrive which targets a window on a host X Server as its framebuffer.
Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.
The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.
The Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.
Xfce (pronounced as four individual letters) is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD.
In computing, XFixes is an X Window System extension which makes useful additions to the X11 protocol.
XFree86 was an implementation of the X Window System.
Xgl is an obsolete display server implementation supporting the X Window System protocol designed to take advantage of modern graphics cards via their OpenGL drivers, layered on top of OpenGL.
Xinerama is an extension to the X Window System that enables X applications and window managers to use two or more physical displays as one large virtual display.
Xlib (also known as libX11) is an X Window System protocol client library written in the C programming language.
Xmark93 is a standardized benchmarking tool for measuring the performance of computer systems running the X Window System.
Xming is an X11 display server for Microsoft Windows operating systems, including Windows XP and later.
xmove is a computer program that allows the movement of X Window System applications between different displays and the persistence of X applications across X server restarts.
xpra or X Persistent Remote Applications is a tool which runs X clients, typically on a remote host, and directs their display to the local machine without losing any state.
XQuartz (formerly and often still informally referred to as X11.app) is Apple Inc.'s version of the X server, a component of the X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X, and sometimes informally X-Windows) for macOS.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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