72 relations: Adenine, Adenosine, Adenosine receptor, Agence France-Presse, Alkaloid, Aminophylline, Anti-inflammatory, Asthma, Biochemical Pharmacology (journal), Bronchodilator, Butyl group, Caffeine, Central nervous system, Chocolate, Cocoa bean, Coffee, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytochrome P450, Diprophylline, DMPX, DNA, Genetic disorder, Guanine, Guanine deaminase, Guarana, Holly, Hypoxanthine, IBMX, Ilex guayusa, Infantile apnea, Innate immune system, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Kola nut, Leukotriene, Meteorite, Methyl group, Methylation, Murchison meteorite, NASA, Natural abundance, Nucleic acid, Nucleobase, Organic compound, Outer space, Paraxanthine, Pentoxifylline, Phosphodiesterase, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Protein kinase A, Purine, ..., Purine metabolism, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, RNA, Science Daily, Stimulant, Sympathomimetic drug, Tea, Theobromine, Theobromine poisoning, Theophylline, Therapeutic index, TNF inhibitor, Uracil, Uric acid, Xanthene, Xanthine oxidase, Xanthinuria, Xanthone, Xanthosine, Xanthydrol, Yerba mate, 8-Chlorotheophylline. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Aminophylline is a compound of the bronchodilator theophylline with ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Biochemical Pharmacology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula −C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Diprophylline (INN) or dyphylline (USAN) (trade names Dilor, Lufyllin), is a xanthine derivative with bronchodilator and vasodilator effects.
DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) is a caffeine analog which displays affinity to A2 adenosine receptors, in contrast to the A1 subtype receptors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Guanine deaminase also known as cypin, guanase, guanine aminase, GAH, and guanine aminohydrolase is an aminohydrolase enzyme which converts guanine to xanthine.
Guarana (from the Portuguese guaraná), Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean. As a dietary supplement or herb, guarana seed is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds (about 2–4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds, compared to 1–2% for coffee seeds). The additive has gained notoriety for being used in energy drinks. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry and its seeds. The colour of the fruit ranges from brown to red and they contain black seeds that are partly covered by white arils. The colour contrast when the fruit is split open has been compared with the appearance of eyeballs, and has become the basis of an origin myth among the Sateré-Mawé people.
Ilex, or holly, is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.
IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), like other methylated xanthine derivatives, is both a.
Ilex guayusa is a species of tree of the holly genus, native to the Amazon Rainforest.
Infantile apnea is a rare disease that is characterized by cessation of breathing in an infant for at least 20 seconds or a shorter respiratory pause that is associated with a slow heart rate, bluish discolouration of the skin, extreme paleness and/or decreased muscle tone.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
The Murchison meteorite is a large meteorite that fell to earth near Murchison, Victoria, in Australia, in 1969.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethyl derivative of xanthine, structurally related to caffeine.
Pentoxifylline, also known as oxpentifylline, is a xanthine derivative used as a drug to treat muscle pain in people with peripheral artery disease. It is generic and sold under many brand names worldwide.Drugs.com. Page accessed Feb 1, 206.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Purine metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms.
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) also known as PNPase and inosine phosphorylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NP gene.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Theobromine poisoning, also incorrectly called chocolate poisoning, is an overdosage reaction to the xanthine alkaloid theobromine, found in chocolate, tea, cola beverages, açaí berries, and some other foods.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Xanthene (9H-xanthene, 10H-9-oxaanthracene) is the organic compound with the formula is CH22O.
Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes XAO) is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species.
Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine.
Xanthone is an organic compound with the molecular formula C13H8O2.
Xanthosine is a nucleoside derived from xanthine and ribose.
Xanthydrol is an organic chemical compound.
Yerba mate (from Spanish; erva-mate or; ka'a) is a species of the holly genus (Ilex), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.
8-Chlorotheophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethyl-8-chloroxanthine, is a stimulant drug of the xanthine chemical class, with physiological effects similar to caffeine.