337 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Academic Press, Active laser medium, Air separation, Albert R. Behnke, Alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, Analytical chemistry, Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Angular momentum, Antarctica, Arc lamp, Argon, Argon fluorohydride, Asphyxiant gas, Asteroid, Asymptotic giant branch, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Mars, Atom, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Ångström, Bactericide, Barn (unit), Bell Labs, Beta decay, Black body, Blood, Blood–brain barrier, Blue, Breakdown voltage, British Medical Bulletin, Bromine, Bubble chamber, Caesium, Caesium fluoride, Calorimeter (particle physics), Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Cardioprotection, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical reaction, Chemical shift, ..., Chemical Society, Chest (journal), Chlorine, Chromaticity, Clathrate compound, Clathrate hydrate, Close-packing of equal spheres, Coherence (physics), Color temperature, Comet, Coordination complex, Coordination number, Cosmic ray spallation, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Cryogenics, Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Cyclopropane, Dawn (spacecraft), Decay product, Deep Space 1, Deuterium, Diatomic molecule, Dimer (chemistry), Dioxygenyl, Dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate, Disproportionation, Dodd, Mead & Co., Double beta decay, Earth, Electric arc, Electric field, Electrode, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Endohedral fullerene, Environmentally friendly, Erythropoietin, Euro, Excimer, Excimer laser, Exothermic process, Extinct radionuclide, Finland, Flash (photography), Flashtube, Fluoride, Fluorine, Fluorouracil, Focal Press, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Fractional distillation, Fullerene, Gamma ray, Gas-filled tube, General anaesthesia, General anaesthetic, Gold, Granite, Greek language, Greenhouse gas, Ground state, Half-life, Halogen, Harold Eugene Edgerton, Helium, Hemodynamics, HIF1A, High-intensity discharge lamp, High-speed photography, Hydrate, Hydride, Hydrophobe, Hyperpolarization (physics), Hypoxia (medical), IBM, IBM (atoms), IMAX, Imperial College Press, Inert gas, Inertial confinement fusion, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Iodine, Iodine pit, Iodine-129, Ion thruster, Ionization energy, Iron-56, Ischemia, Isotope, Isotopes of xenon, John Reynolds (physicist), John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Jupiter, KCNK2, KCNK9, Ketamine, Krypton, Krypton difluoride, Lake Vostok, Laser, Laser pumping, Lavender (color), Levitation, Liquid air, Liquid oxygen, Longman, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Magnet, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), McMaster University, Mercury (element), Meteorite, Microelectromechanical systems, Microsecond, Mikhail Eremets, Millisecond, Mineral spring, Minimum alveolar concentration, MIT Press, Molecular mass, Morris Travers, Movie projector, Nanometre, Nature (journal), Neil Bartlett (chemist), Neon, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxicity, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron cross section, Neutron poison, Neutron temperature, New Mexico, Nickel, Night vision, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, NMDA receptor antagonist, NMR in Biomedicine, Noble gas, Noble gas compound, North Korea, Nova, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Nucleon, Nucleosynthesis, Nucleus accumbens, Optical pumping, Oxford University Press, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Oxygen difluoride, Paramagnetism, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), PDF, Penning mixture, Periodic Videos, Perxenate, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacology, Phase (matter), Phase problem, Phosphor, Photodissociation, Photon, Physical Review, Planetesimal, Plasma display, Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, Platinum hexafluoride, Plutonium, Potassium fluoride, Pressure, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Propellant, Proton, Proton-enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy, Quadrupole, Quartz, Radioactive decay, Radiometric dating, Radionuclide, Radon, Radon difluoride, Red blood cell, Red giant, Redox, Room temperature, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubidium, Rubidium fluoride, S-process, Scanning tunneling microscope, Science (journal), Scintillation (physics), Second, Silica gel, Silicon, Silicon tetrachloride, Single-photon emission computed tomography, SMART-1, Sodium fluoride, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solar simulator, Solar System, Solid hydrogen, Spacecraft, Spectral line, Speed of sound, Spin (physics), Spin polarization, Spontaneous fission, Springer Science+Business Media, Stable isotope ratio, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stationary state, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stimulated emission, Strobe light, Sulfur hexafluoride, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Supernova, Surface science, Tactical light, Test Ban Treaty, Tetraxenonogold(II), The Economist, The New York Times, Thermal conductivity, Thorium, Time (magazine), Tin, Toxicity, Trace gas, Transcription factor, Ultraviolet, University of British Columbia, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago Press, University of Helsinki, Uracil, Uranium, Valence (chemistry), Van der Waals molecule, Video projector, Vocal tract, Walter de Gruyter, Water cooling, Wavelength, Weakly interacting massive particles, Wiley-VCH, William Ramsay, World Anti-Doping Agency, X-ray crystallography, Xenon arc lamp, Xenon dichloride, Xenon difluoride, Xenon dioxide, Xenon hexafluoride, Xenon hexafluoroplatinate, Xenon oxytetrafluoride, Xenon tetrafluoride, Xenon tetroxide, Xenon trioxide, Xenon-135, 35 mm film, 5-HT3 receptor. 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The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.
An air separation plant separates atmospheric air into its primary components, typically nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes also argon and other rare inert gases.
Captain Albert Richard Behnke Jr. USN (ret.) (August 8, 1903 – January 16, 1992) was an American physician, who was principally responsible for developing the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute.
The alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α4β2 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in learning, consisting of α4 and β2 subunits.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anesthesia & Analgesia is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering anesthesia, pain management, and perioperative medicine that was established in 1922.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Argon fluorohydride (systematically named fluoridohydridoargon) or argon hydrofluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HArF (also written ArHF).
An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2).
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
The breakdown voltage of an insulator is the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive.
British Medical Bulletin is a quarterly peer-reviewed general medical journal that publishes review articles on a wide variety of medical subjects.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium fluoride or cesium fluoride is an inorganic compound usually encountered as a hygroscopic white solid.
In particle physics, a calorimeter is an experimental apparatus that measures the energy of particles.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
Cardioprotection encompasses several regimens that have shown to preserve function and viability of cardiac muscle cell tissue subjected to ischemic insult or reoxygenation.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.
The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) by 77 scientists as a result of increased interest in scientific matters.
Chest is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering chest diseases and related issues, including pulmonology, cardiology, thoracic surgery, transplantation, breathing, airway diseases, and emergency medicine.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromaticity is an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance.
A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.
Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
The dioxygenyl ion,, is a rarely-encountered oxycation in which both oxygen atoms have a formal oxidation state of +. It is formally derived from oxygen by the removal of an electron: The energy change for this process is called the ionization energy of the oxygen molecule.
Dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate is a compound with formula O2PtF6.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Dodd, Mead and Company was one of the pioneer publishing houses of the United States, based in New York City.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Endohedral fullerenes, also called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
An excimer (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which has completely filled valence shell by electrons (for example, noble gases).
An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene.
A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Focal Press is a publisher of media technology books and it is an imprint of Taylor & Francis.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton also known as Papa Flash (April 6, 1903 – January 4, 1990) was a professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, also known as HIF-1-alpha, is a subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) that is encoded by the HIF1A gene.
High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.
High-speed photography is the science of taking pictures of very fast phenomena.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hyperpolarization is the nuclear spin polarization of a material far beyond thermal equilibrium conditions.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM in atoms was a demonstration by IBM scientists in 1989 of a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms.
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors.
Imperial College Press (ICP) was formed in 1995 as a partnership between Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine in London and World Scientific publishing.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
The iodine pit, also called the iodine hole or xenon pit, is a temporary disabling of a nuclear reactor due to buildup of short-lived nuclear poisons in the reactor core.
Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Naturally occurring xenon (54Xe) is made of eight stable isotopes and one very long-lived isotope.
John Hamilton Reynolds (April 3, 1923 – November 4, 2000) was an American physicist and a specialist in mass spectrometry.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905.
The Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1956 by the American Chemical Society.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Potassium channel subfamily K member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNK2 gene.
Potassium channel subfamily K member 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNK9 gene.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Krypton difluoride, KrF2 is a chemical compound of krypton and fluorine.
Lake Vostok (Озеро Восток, Ozero Vostok, lit. "Lake East") is the largest of Antarctica's almost 400 known subglacial lakes.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laser pumping is the act of energy transfer from an external source into the gain medium of a laser.
Lavender is a light purple.
Levitation (from Latin levitas "lightness") is the process by which an object is held aloft, without mechanical support, in a stable position.
Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
McMaster University (commonly referred to as McMaster or Mac) is a public research university in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
Mikhail Ivanovich Eremets (born 3 January 1949) is an experimentalist in high pressure physics, chemistry, and materials science.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
Mineral springs are naturally occurring springs that produce water containing minerals, or other dissolved substances, that alter its taste or give it a purported therapeutic value.
Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Morris William Travers (24 January 1872 – 25 August 1961) was an English chemist who worked with Sir William Ramsay in the discovery of xenon, neon and krypton.
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neil Bartlett (15 September 1932 – 5 August 2008) was a chemist who specialized in fluorine and compounds containing fluorine, and became famous for creating the first noble gas compounds.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
NMR in Biomedicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published since 1988 by John Wiley & Sons.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Noble gas compounds are chemical compounds that include an element from the noble gases, group 18 of the periodic table.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
A nova (plural novae or novas) or classical nova (CN, plural CNe) is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright, apparently "new" star, that slowly fades over several weeks or many months.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise (or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen difluoride is the chemical compound with the formula OF2.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A Penning mixture, named after Frans Michel Penning, is a mixture of gases used in electric lighting or displaying fixtures.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
In chemistry, perxenates are salts of the yellow xenon-containing anion.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
In physics, the phase problem is the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.
The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell.
Platinum hexafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula PtF6.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Proton-enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy (PENIS), also sometimes called Cross Polarisation (CP), is a nuclear magnetic resonance technique invented by Michael Gibby and Alexander Pines while they were graduate students in the lab of Professor John S. Waugh at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of things like electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Radon difluoride is a compound of radon, a noble gas.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Rubidium fluoride (RbF) is the fluoride salt of rubidium.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
SMART-1 was a Swedish-designed European Space Agency satellite that orbited around the Moon.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
A solar simulator (also artificial sun) is a device that provides illumination approximating natural sunlight.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid hydrogen is the solid state of the element hydrogen, achieved by decreasing the temperature below hydrogen's melting point of (−434.45 °F).
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Spin polarization is the degree to which the spin, i.e., the intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles, is aligned with a given direction.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
A stationary state is a quantum state with all observables independent of time.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
A tactical light is a flashlight used in conjunction with a firearm to aid low-light target identification, allowing the marksman, law enforcement officer or soldier to simultaneously aim a weapon and illuminate the target.
Three test ban treaties aimed at prohibiting most nuclear weapons testing have been adopted.
Tetraxenonogold(II), gold tetraxenide(II) or AuXe is a cationic complex with a square planar configuration of atoms.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A trace gas is a gas which makes up less than 1% by volume of the Earth's atmosphere, and it includes all gases except nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%).
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
A van der Waals molecule is a weakly bound complex of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular attractions such as van der Waals forces or by hydrogen bonds.
A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system.
The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are hypothetical particles that are thought to constitute dark matter.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Sir William Ramsay (2 October 1852 – 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
A xenon arc lamp is a highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.
Xenon dichloride (XeCl2) is a xenon compound and the only known stable chloride of xenon.
Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula, and one of the most stable xenon compounds.
Xenon dioxide, or xenon(IV) oxide, is a compound of xenon and oxygen with formula XeO2, which was synthesized in 2011.
Xenon hexafluoride is a noble gas compound with the formula XeF6 and the highest of the three known binary fluorides of xenon, the other two being XeF2 and XeF4.
Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the product of the reaction of platinum hexafluoride and xenon, in an experiment that proved the chemical reactivity of the noble gases.
Xenon oxytetrafluoride (XeOF4) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Xenon tetrafluoride is a chemical compound with chemical formula.
Xenon tetroxide is a chemical compound of xenon and oxygen with molecular formula XeO4, remarkable for being a relatively stable compound of a noble gas.
Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of xenon in its +6 oxidation state.
Xenon-135 (135Xe) is an unstable isotope of xenon with a half-life of about 9.2 hours.
35 mm film (millimeter) is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.