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Index Xenotransplantation

Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. [1]

88 relations: Allotransplantation, Altogen Labs CRO, Antibody, Antigen, Apoptosis, Arteriosclerosis, Autonomy, Autotransplantation, Avian influenza, Baboon, Baby Fae, Cancer, CD46, CD59, Cell (biology), Cell-mediated immunity, Chemokine, Circovirus, Classical complement pathway, Coagulopathy, Code of Federal Regulations, Complement system, Confidentiality, Cytokine, Decay-accelerating factor, Declaration of Helsinki, Developmental biology, Diabetes mellitus, E-selectin, Endogenous retrovirus, Eugene Gu, Fetus, Fibrosis, Food and Drug Administration, Graft (surgery), Greek language, Haematopoiesis, Heme oxygenase, Herpesviridae, Histocompatibility, Human, Human biology, Humoral immunity, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, ICAM-1, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Immunosuppressive drug, ..., Informed consent, Interleukin 2, Interspecific pregnancy, Isograft, Jackson Laboratory, Joseph Murray, Kidney, Kidney transplantation, Liver failure, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, National Health and Medical Research Council, Natural killer cell, Necrosis, Organ (anatomy), Organ dysfunction, Organ transplantation, Outbreak, Parkinson's disease, Parvovirus, Patient derived xenograft, Rotavirus, Scientific literature, Species, Syngenic, T cell, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombosis, Tissue (biology), Transplant rejection, Tulane University, Usage, VCAM-1, Xenotransfusion, Xenotransplantation, Zoonosis. Expand index (38 more) »


Allotransplant (allo- meaning "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.

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Altogen Labs CRO

Altogen Labs CRO is a contract research organization (CRO) based in Austin, Texas that is involved in pharmacological discovery and drug development.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- meaning "self" in Greek).

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Avian influenza

Avian influenza—known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.

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Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Baby Fae

Stephanie Fae Beauclair (October 14, 1984 – November 15, 1984), better known as Baby Fae, was an American infant born in 1984 with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene.

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CD59 glycoprotein, also known as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD59 gene.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell-mediated immunity

Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.

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Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.

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Circovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Circoviridae.

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Classical complement pathway

The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune system.

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A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.

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Code of Federal Regulations

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.

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Complement system

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

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Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Decay-accelerating factor

Complement decay-accelerating factor, also known as CD55 or DAF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CD55 gene.

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Declaration of Helsinki

The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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E-selectin, also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM2), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines.

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Endogenous retrovirus

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses.

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Eugene Gu

Eugene Gu (born March 5, 1986) is an American resident physician who is politically active on social media, and has been the subject of public attention due to his research on fetal tissue transplants.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Graft (surgery)

Grafting refers to a surgical procedure to move tissue from one site to another on the body, or from another creature, without bringing its own blood supply with it.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.

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Heme oxygenase

Heme oxygenase or haem oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme.

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Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.

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Histocompatibility, or tissue compatibility, is the property of having the same, or sufficiently similar, alleles of a set of genes called human leukocyte antigens (HLA), the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human biology

Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.

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Humoral immunity

Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.

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Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is severely underdeveloped.

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ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM1 gene.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.

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Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.

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Immunoglobulin M

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.

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Immunosuppressive drug

Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.

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Informed consent

Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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Interspecific pregnancy

Interspecific pregnancy (literally pregnancy between species, also called interspecies pregnancy or xenopregnancy)Page 126 in: is the pregnancy involving an embryo or fetus belonging to another species than the carrier.

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An Isograft is a graft of tissue between two individuals who are genetically identical (i.e. monozygotic twins).

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Jackson Laboratory

The Jackson Laboratory (often abbreviated as JAX) is an independent, nonprofit biomedical research institution dedicated to contributing to a future of better health care based on the unique genetic makeup of each individual.

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Joseph Murray

Joseph Edward Murray (April 1, 1919 – November 26, 2012) was an American plastic surgeon who performed the first successful human kidney transplant on identical twins Richard and Ronald Herrick on December 23, 1954.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney transplantation

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.

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Liver failure

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Loma Linda University Medical Center

Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) is the teaching hospital for Loma Linda University, which includes schools of allied health professions, behavioral health, dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, and religion on the university campus in Loma Linda, California, United States.

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Loma Linda, California

Loma Linda is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States, that was incorporated in 1970.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Major histocompatibility complex

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.

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National Health and Medical Research Council

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australia's peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of roughly $900 million a year.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organ dysfunction

Organ dysfunction is a condition where an organ does not perform its expected function.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Parvovirus is the common name applied to all the viruses in the Parvoviridae taxonomic family.

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Patient derived xenograft

Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are models of cancer where the tissue or cells from a patient's tumor are implanted into an immunodeficient or humanized mouse.

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Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.

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Scientific literature

Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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The word "syngenic" or "syngeneic" (from the Greek word for a relative) means genetically identical, or sufficiently identical and immunologically compatible as to allow for transplantation.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transplant rejection

Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.

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Tulane University

Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.

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Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".

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Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 also known as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or cluster of differentiation 106 (CD106) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VCAM1 gene.

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Xenotransfusion (from Greek xenos- strange or foreign), a form of xenotransplantation, was initially defined as the transfer of blood from one species into the veins of another.

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Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.

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Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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Heterograft, Heterologous graft, Heterotransplant, Organ xenotransplantation, PERVS, Pervs, Pig organ transplants, Porcine Endogenous Retro-Viruses, Porcine endogenous retrovirus, Porcine endogenous retroviruses, Trans-species organ transplants, Transplantation, heterologous, Xenogeneic, Xenograft, Xenografts, Xenographic, Xenosis, Xenotransplant, Xenotransplants, Xenozoonosis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenotransplantation

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