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Xhosa language

Index Xhosa language

Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa. [1]

125 relations: Affricate consonant, Afrikaans, Agglutination, Airstream mechanism, Alveolar clicks, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Arthur Capell, Aspirated consonant, Atlantic–Congo languages, Back vowel, Bantu Education Act, 1953, Bantu languages, Benue–Congo languages, Bible, Black Panther (film), Botswana, Captain America: Civil War, Central consonant, Ciskei, Click consonant, Close vowel, Consonant, Dental clicks, Dental consonant, Depressor consonant, Dialect, Eastern Cape, Ejective consonant, Elsevier, English people, Enoch Sontonga, Free State (province), Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gauteng, Gcaleka, Gemination, Glottal consonant, Grammatical gender, Henry Hare Dugmore, Hlubi language, Hlubi people, Implosive consonant, International Phonetic Alphabet, John Kani, Journal of Phonetics, Juǀ'hoan dialect, Khoisan languages, KwaZulu-Natal, ..., Labial consonant, Languages of Africa, Languages of South Africa, Languages of Zimbabwe, Lateral clicks, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lesotho, Limpopo, List of universities in South Africa, Manually coded language in South Africa, Marvel Cinematic Universe, Methodism, Mid vowel, Miriam Makeba, Mpondo people, Mpumalanga, Murmured voice, Namibia, Nasal consonant, National anthem of South Africa, Ngqika people, Nguni languages, Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika, Northern Cape, Northern Ndebele language, Noun, Noun class, Open vowel, Paradisec, Phoneme, Postalveolar consonant, Prefix, Prenasalized consonant, Quthing District, Root (linguistics), Ryan Coogler, Second language, Slack voice, South Africa, South African braille, South African Broadcasting Corporation, Southern Bantoid languages, Southern Bantu languages, Southern Ndebele language, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Taa language, Tanzania, Tenuis consonant, The Click Song, Thembu people, Tone (linguistics), Trill consonant, U-Carmen eKhayelitsha, UCLA Language Materials Project, Umngqusho, Velar consonant, Verb, Voice (phonetics), Voice onset time, Voicelessness, Vowel length, Wakanda (comics), Western Cape, Word order, Xesibe, Xhosa calendar, Xhosa language, Xhosa people, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Zulu language. Expand index (75 more) »

Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.

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Airstream mechanism

In phonetics, the airstream mechanism is the method by which airflow is created in the vocal tract.

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Alveolar clicks

The alveolar or postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arthur Capell

Arthur Capell (28 March 1902 – 1986) was an Australian linguist, who made major contributions to the study of Australian languages, Austronesian languages and Papuan languages.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Atlantic–Congo languages

The Atlantic–Congo languages are a major division constituting the core of the Niger–Congo language family of Africa, characterised by the noun class systems typical of the family.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bantu Education Act, 1953

The Bantu Education Act, 1953 (Act No. 47 of 1953; later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953) was a South African segregation law which legalised several aspects of the apartheid system passed by the Apartheid regime which was really not on the side of the black community.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Benue–Congo languages

Benue–Congo (sometimes called East Benue–Congo) is a major subdivision of the Niger–Congo language family which covers most of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Black Panther (film)

Black Panther is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Captain America: Civil War

Captain America: Civil War is a 2016 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Captain America, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.

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Central consonant

A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.

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Ciskei was a nominally independent state – a Bantustan – in the south east of South Africa.

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Click consonant

Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Dental clicks

Dental (or more precisely denti-alveolar) clicks are a family of click consonants found, as constituents of words, only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Depressor consonant

A depressor consonant is a consonant that depresses (lowers) the tone of its or a neighboring syllable.

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The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Eastern Cape

The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.

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Ejective consonant

In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Enoch Sontonga

Enoch Mankayi Sontonga (– 18 April 1905) was the composer of "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" from then Cape Colony (now part of Eastern Cape province), which has been part of the South African national anthem since 1994.

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Free State (province)

The Free State (Vrystaat, Foreistata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a province of South Africa.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.

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The AmaGcaleka are a major subgroup of the Xhosa found in the former Transkei area of the Eastern Cape.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Henry Hare Dugmore

Henry Hare Dugmore (1810–1896) was an English missionary, writer and translator.

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Hlubi language

Hlubi is a minor Bantu language of South Africa, traditionally considered a dialect of Swazi.

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Hlubi people

The Hlubi (or amaHlubi) are an ethnic group who originate from the Samburu people of Kenya and the Shubi, an ethnic and linguistic group based in the Kagera Region of Tanzania.

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Implosive consonant

Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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John Kani

Bonisile John Kani (born 30 August 1942) is a South African actor, director and playwright.

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Journal of Phonetics

The Journal of Phonetics is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers topics in phonetics and phonology.

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Juǀ'hoan dialect

Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõasi, Dzuǀʼoasi, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoansi), or Southeastern ǃXuun (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana.

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Khoisan languages

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.

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KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.

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Languages of South Africa

There are eleven official languages of South Africa: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, SiSwati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.

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Languages of Zimbabwe

date). Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa. Due to its history as both a British Colony and as the State of Rhodesia, English, Shona and Ndebele are the most widely spoken languages in the country. Approximately 70% of the population is Shona speaking and speaks Shona as their first language. Also it is said that around 20% are Ndebele and speak IsiNdebele as their first language. These statistics have not been officialised yet because Zimbabwe has never conducted a census that enumerated people according to languages.

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Lateral clicks

The lateral clicks are a family of click consonants found only in African languages.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.

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Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa.

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List of universities in South Africa

This is a list of universities in South Africa.

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Manually coded language in South Africa

In South Africa, manually coded language is used in education, as a bridge between South African Sign Language (SASL) and the eleven official oral languages of the country.

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Marvel Cinematic Universe

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Miriam Makeba

Zenzile Miriam Makeba (4 March 1932 – 9 November 2008), nicknamed Mama Africa, was a South African singer, actress, United Nations goodwill ambassador, and civil-rights activist.

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Mpondo people

The Mpondo people, also called AmaMpondo and Pondo, are a Southern African ethnic group.

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Mpumalanga is a province of South Africa.

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Murmured voice

Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.

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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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National anthem of South Africa

The current national anthem of South Africa was adopted in 1997 and is a hybrid song combining new English lyrics with extracts of the 19th century hymn "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" ("God Bless Africa") and the Afrikaans song "Die Stem van Suid-Afrika" ("The Call of South Africa"), which was formerly used as the South African national anthem from the late 1950s to the mid-1990s.

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Ngqika people

The Ngqika people are a royal Xhosa who lived west of the Great Kei River in the what is today the Eastern Cape of South Africa.

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Nguni languages

The Nguni languages are a group of Bantu languages spoken in southern Africa by the Nguni people.

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Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika

"Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" is a hymn originally composed in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga, a Xhosa clergyman at a Methodist mission school near Johannesburg.

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Northern Cape

The Northern Cape (Noord-Kaap; Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated province of South Africa.

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Northern Ndebele language

Northern Ndebele, also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele or North Ndebele, and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Northern Ndebele people, or Matabele, of Zimbabwe.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Noun class

In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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The Pacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures (Paradisec) is a cross-institutional project that supports work on endangered languages and cultures of the Pacific and the region around Australia.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Prenasalized consonant

Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or occasionally a non-nasal sonorant such as) that behave phonologically like single consonants.

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Quthing District

Quthing is a district of Lesotho.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Ryan Coogler

Ryan Kyle Coogler (born May 23, 1986) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Slack voice

Slack voice (or lax voice) is the pronunciation of consonant or vowels with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in modal voice.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South African braille

Several braille alphabets are used in South Africa.

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South African Broadcasting Corporation

The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state broadcaster in South Africa, and provides 19 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 5 television broadcasts to the general public.

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Southern Bantoid languages

Southern Bantoid (or South Bantoid), also known as Wide Bantu or Bin, is a branch of the Benue–Congo languages of the Niger–Congo language family.

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Southern Bantu languages

The Southern Bantu languages are a large group of Bantu languages, largely validated in Janson (1991/92).

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Southern Ndebele language

Southern Ndebele, also known as Transvaal Ndebele, isiNdebele, Ndebele or South Ndebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Ndebele people of South Africa.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Taa language

Taa, also known as ǃXóõ (ǃKhong, ǃXoon – pronounced), is a Tuu language notable for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tenuis consonant

In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.

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The Click Song

Qongqothwane is a traditional song of the Xhosa people of South Africa.

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Thembu people

The Thembu people are one of the handful of nations and population groups that speak Xhosa in South Africa.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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U-Carmen eKhayelitsha

U-Carmen eKhayelitsha is a 2005 South African operatic film directed and produced by Mark Dornford-May.

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UCLA Language Materials Project

The UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) maintains a web resource about teaching materials for some 150 languages that are less commonly taught in the United States.

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Umngqusho is a African dish with several variants.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voice onset time

In phonetics, voice onset time (VOT) is a feature of the production of stop consonants.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Wakanda (comics)

Wakanda is a fictional country located in Sub-Saharan Africa and ran by T'Chaka, created by Marvel Comics.

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Western Cape

The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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The Xesibe are a Xhosa-speaking people from Transkei, South Africa.

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Xhosa calendar

The following is a list of timekeeping terminology in the Xhosa language.

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Xhosa language

Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.

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Xhosa people

The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.

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Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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Zulu language

Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.

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Redirects here:

Bomwana dialect, Hlubi dialect, ISO 639:xh, ISO 639:xho, ISiXhosa language, IsiXhosa, IsiXhosa language, Isixhosa language, Mpondomise dialect, Ndlambe dialect, Ulwimi isiXhosa, Xhosa alphabet, Xhosan language.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xhosa_language

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