468 relations: Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit, Abdullah Bughra, Administrative division codes of the People's Republic of China, Administrative divisions of China, Afaq Khoja, Afaq Khoja Mausoleum, Afaqi Khoja revolts, Affirmative action in China, Afghanistan, Aksai Chin, Aksu City, Aksu Prefecture, Akto County, Alashankou, Almaty Region, Altai Mountains, Altay City, Altay Prefecture, Altishahr, Amursana, An Lushan Rebellion, Aquaculture in China, Aral, Xinjiang, Arctic Ocean, Artux, Aspect (geography), Auto-segregation, Autonomous administrative divisions of China, Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, Autonomous prefecture, Autonomous regions of China, Ayding Lake, Ürümqi, Ürümqi County, Ürümqi South railway station, Ürümqi–Dzungaria railway, Badakhshan Province, Ban Chao, Battle of Kashgar (1934), Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, BBC News, Beitun, Xinjiang, Bezeklik Caves, Birth rate, Bole, Xinjiang, Borax, Borohoro Mountains, Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bosten Lake, Buddhism, ..., Catholic Encyclopedia, Caucasian race, Chagatai Khanate, Changji, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Chen Quanguo, Chiang Kai-shek, Chigils, China Central Television, China Cotton Association, China Daily, China League One, China proper, China Southern Airlines, China Western Development, Chinese Basketball Association, Chinese Civil War, Chinese economic reform, Chinese folk religion, Chongqing, Christianity, Christianity in Xinjiang, Christopher I. Beckwith, Clinic, Communist Party of China, Confucianism, Cotton, Counties of the People's Republic of China, County-level city, Daur people, Diamond in the Dunes, District (China), Dongxiangs, Dzungar genocide, Dzungar Khanate, Dzungar people, Dzungar–Qing Wars, Dzungaria, East China Sea, East Kazakhstan Region, East Turkestan, East–West Center, Economic development, Eight Banners, Eight-thousander, Ejin–Hami railway, Emin Minaret, Emin Valley, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong's campaign against the Western Regions, Emperor Wu of Han, Endogamy, Endorheic basin, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Ethnic minorities in China, Ethnogenesis, Ethnologue, Eurasia, Eurasian Land Bridge, First East Turkestan Republic, Floating population, Former Liang, Former Qin, Free-trade zone, Fukang, Gansu, Gaochang, Gaochang District, Genghis Khan, Geographical midpoint of Asia, Ghulja incident, Golmud–Korla railway, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, Great Wall of China, Greco-Buddhist art, Gross 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Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit (ئابلەت ئابدۇرىشىت; Ablet Abdurishit;; born March 1942), was the chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
Abdullah Bughra (died 1934) (ئابدۇللا بۇغرا), عبد الله بغرا, was a Uighur Emir of the First East Turkestan Republic.
Administrative division codes of the People's Republic of China identify administrative divisions of the PRC at county level and above.
Due to China's large population and area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times.
Afaq Khoja (1626 – 1694), born Hidayat Allah (هدایتالله), a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: آفاق خواجه) was a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day southern Xinjiang, China).
The Afāq Khoja Mausoleum or Aba Khoja Mausoleum (آفاق خواجه مزار) (Uyghur: Апақ Хоҗа Мазар Apakh Khoja Mazar) is a mausoleum in Xinjiang, China.
During the early and mid-19th century in China, the Afaqi Khojas in the Khanate of Kokand (descended from Khoja Burhanuddin and ultimately from Afaq Khoja) unsuccessfully tried to invade Kashgar and regain Altishahr from the Qing dynasty.
In the People's Republic of China the government had instated affirmative action policies called Youhui zhengce when it began in 1949 and still had impact until today.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Aksai Chin (ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ;Hindi-अक्साई चिन) is a disputed border area between China and India.
Aksu, is a city in and the seat of Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, lying at the northern edge of the Tarim Basin.
Aksu Prefecture is located in mid-western Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Akto County (ﺍﻗﺘﻮﻭ وودانى/Актоо ооданы, Aqtoo oodanı;;; Акəто щян, Akəto şjan) is a county in Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China.
Alashankou (Mongolian:; Uyghur: Алатав Иғизи: Alatav Ighizi) is a border city in Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Almaty (Алматы облысы, Almatı oblısı, الماتى وبلىسى; Алматинская область) is a region of Kazakhstan.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Altay or Aletai (Uyghur: ئالتاي شەھىرى / Алтай Шəһири / Altay Shehiri / Altay Xəⱨiri;; Аләтэ, Aləte, اَلْتَىْ) is a county-level city in Altay Prefecture within Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, in far northern Xinjiang, China.
Altay Prefecture (التاي ايماعى, Алтай аймағы, Altaı aımaǵy);, Xiao'erjing: اَلْتَىْ دِٿٗوٗ; Altay Wilayiti) is located in northern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Altishahr (Traditional spelling: آلتی شهر, Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet: Алтә-шәһәр, Uyghur Latin alphabet: Altä-shähär or Altishähär, Modern Uyghur alphabet: ئالتە شەھەر) is a historical name for the Tarim Basin region used in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Amursana (Mongolian; 172321September 1757) was an 18th-century taishi or prince of the Khoit-Oirat tribe that ruled over parts of Dzungaria and Altishahr in present-day northwest China.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
China, with one-fifth of the world's population, accounts for two-thirds of the world's reported aquaculture production.
Aral, Ala'er or Alar is a sub-prefecture-level city surrounded by Aksu Prefecture in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Artux, Atush or Atushi (Xiao'erjing: اَتُشِ;; ارتىش, Артыш, Artış) is a county-level city in Xinjiang.
In physical geology, aspect is the compass direction that a slope faces.
Auto-segregation or self-segregation is the separation of a religious or ethnic group from the rest of society in a state by the group itself.
. Autonomous administrative divisions of China are specific areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities that are designated as autonomous within the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Autonomous counties and autonomous banners are autonomous administrative divisions of China.
Autonomous prefectures are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities.
An autonomous region (AR) is a first-level administrative division of China.
Aydingkol, Aydingkul (Mongol) or Ayding is a lake in the Turpan Depression, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, PR China.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Ürümqi County is a county within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ürümqi City.
Ürümqi South railway station is a railway station of the Lanzhou-Xinjiang, Northern Xinjiang, and the Second Ürümqi-Jinghe Railways.
The Ürümqi-Dzungaria railway or Wuzhun railway (乌准铁路) is a single-track railway line in Xinjiang, China, between Ürümqi, the regional capital of Xinjiang, and the coal fields of the eastern Junggar Basin (Dzungaria).
Badakhshan Province (بدخشان ولایت Badaxšān wilāyat and Velâyat-e Badakhšân) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the farthest northeastern part of the country between Tajikistan and northern Pakistan.
Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars.
Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, often abbreviated to Bayingol (literally "rich river"), is an autonomous prefecture of the People's Republic of China, bordering Gansu to the east, Qinghai to the southeast, and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beitun is a city in the north of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves is a complex of Buddhist cave grottos dating from the 5th to 14th century between the cities of Turpan and Shanshan (Loulan) at the north-east of the Taklamakan Desert near the ancient ruins of Gaochang in the Mutou Valley, a gorge in the Flaming Mountains, China.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Bole (Bortala) (Mongolian:, Bortal) is a county-level city in Xinjiang, China.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
The Borohoro Mountains is one of the major ranges of the Tian Shan mountain system.
Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (Xiao'erjing: بْعَرتَالا مْعقُ ذِجِجِوْ;, Börtala Mongghul Aptonom Oblasti), abbreviated to Bortala, is a Mongol autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the China.
Bosten Lake (Uyghur: باغراش كۆلى / Бағраш Көли / Baghrash Köli / Baƣrax Kɵli, Chagatai: Bostang) is a freshwater lake on the northeastern rim of the Tarim Basin, about east of Yanqi and northeast of Korla, Xinjiang, China in the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
Changji is a county-level city situated about west of the regional capital, Ürümqi in northern Xinjiang, China, and has about 390,000 inhabitants.
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture,, Xiao'erjing: ﭼْﺎ جِ ﺧُﻮِ ذُﻮْ ذِ جِ ﺟِﻮْ) is an autonomous prefecture of Xinjiang in the China. It is located in the northeastern part of Xinjiang. The prefecture has an area of and its seat is Changji City.
Chen Quanguo (born November 1955) is a Chinese politician and current Communist Party Secretary of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
The Chigil (Chihil, and also Jigil, Djikil, Chiyal) were a Turkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area.
China Central Television (formerly Beijing Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China.
China Cotton Association (CCA) is a Chinese non-profit federation specializing in cotton, which is voluntarily established by cotton farmers, cotton farmers' cooperative organizations, enterprises engaged in cotton production, purchase, processing and operation, cotton textile enterprises, cotton research institutes and other organs and which accepts the supervision and management of the Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs and the professional guidance of the All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
The Chinese Football Association China League, also known as China League One or Chinese Jia League (中甲联赛), is the second tier of Chinese clubs.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
China Southern Airlines Company Limited is an airline headquartered in Baiyun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Established on 1 July 1988 following the restructuring of the Civil Aviation Administration of China that acquired and merged a number of domestic airlines, the airline became one of China's "Big Three" airlines (alongside Air China and China Eastern Airlines), the world's sixth-largest airline measured by passengers carried and Asia's largest airline in fleet size, revenue and passengers carried. With its main hubs at Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and Beijing Capital International Airport, the airline operates more than 2,000 flights to 208 destinations daily as a member of SkyTeam. The logo of the airline consists of a kapok flower (which is also the city flower of Guangzhou) on a blue tail fin. The parent company of China Southern Airlines Company Limited is China Southern Air Holding Company, a state-owned enterprise that was supervised by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council.
China Western Development, also China's Western Development, Western China Development, Great Western Development Strategy or the Open Up the West Program, is a policy adopted for the western regions.
The Chinese Basketball Association, often abbreviated as CBA, is the first-tier professional men's basketball league in China.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity is a minority religion in the Xinjiang region of the People's Republic of China.
Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor in the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Counties, formally county-level divisions, are found in the third level of the administrative hierarchy in Provinces and Autonomous regions, and the second level in municipalities and Hainan, a level that is known as "county level" and also contains autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners, autonomous banner, and City districts.
A county-level municipality, county-level city, or county city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China.
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
Diamond in the Dunes is a feature-length documentary produced by the Documentary Foundation about a Chinese-Muslim baseball team in Xinjiang Province, China.
The term district, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.
The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔);; Xiao'erjing: دْوݣسِيْاݣذُ) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
The Dzungar genocide was the mass extermination of the Mongol Buddhist Dzungar people, sometimes referred as "Zunghars", at the hands of the Manchu Qing dynasty of China and the Uyghurs of Xinjiang.
The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Dzungar–Qing Wars (1687–1757) were a decades-long series of conflicts that pitted the Dzungar Khanate against the Qing dynasty of China and their Mongolian vassals.
Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.
The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.
East Kazakhstan Region (Восточно-Казахстанская область, Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast; Шығыс Қазақстан облысы, S’yg’ys Qazaqstan oblysy) is a region of Kazakhstan.
East Turkestan (Uyghur: شەرقىي تۈركىستان, Шәрқий Түркистан, Shərqiy Türkistan) also known as Eastern Turkistan, Uyghurstan, Uyghuristan is a political term with multiple meanings depending on context and usage.
The East–West Center (EWC), or the Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange Between East and West, is an education and research organization established by the U.S. Congress in 1960 to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
The eight-thousanders are the 14 independentIn making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains.
Ejin–Hami railway or Eha railway, is a railway in western China between Ejin Banner in Alxa League of western Inner Mongolia and the city of Hami in the eastern part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
The Emin Minaret or Emin Tower stands by the Uyghur mosque located in Turfan, Xinjiang, China.
The Emin Valley is located on the China-Kazakhstan border, in Central Asia.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
In the years following Tang Taizong's subjugation of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the emperor began to exert his military power toward the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin (part of the area known in Chinese histories as the Western Regions).
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
Ethnic and Racial Studies is a peer-reviewed social science academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on anthropology, cultural studies, ethnicity and race, and sociology.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Land Bridge (Yevraziyskiy sukhoputniy most), sometimes called the New Silk Road (Новый шёлковый путь, Noviy shyolkoviy put'), or Belt and Road Initiative is the rail transport route for moving freight and passengers overland between Pacific seaports in the Russian Far East and China and seaports in Europe.
The First East Turkistan Republic (ETR), officially the Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkistan (شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتى, Шәрқий Түркистан Ислам Җумхурийити), was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933.
Floating population is a terminology used to describe a group of people who reside in a given population for a certain amount of time and for various reasons, but are not generally considered part of the official census count.
The Former Liang (320–376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (265–420) in China.
The Former Qin (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in eastern Asia, mainly China.
A free-trade zone (FTZ) is a specific class of special economic zone.
Fukang (فۇكاڭ, Фукаң) is a county-level city in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gaochang (Old Uyghur: قۇچۇ, Qocho), also called Karakhoja, Qara-hoja, Kara-Khoja, or Karahoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur), is the site of a ruined, ancient oasis city on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in present-day Xinjiang, China.
Gaochang, is a district in the oasis city of Turpan, in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The location of the geographical centre of Asia (Центр Азии; Азияның Төвү) depends on the definition of the borders of Asia, mainly whether remote islands are included to define the extreme points of Asia, and on the method of calculating the final result.
The Ghulja incident (also referred to as the Ghulja Massacre) was the culmination of the Ghulja protests of 1997, a series of demonstrations in the city of Ghulja (known as Yining (伊宁) in Chinese) in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China (PRC) beginning in early February 1997.
Geku railway (格库铁路) is a railway under construction to connect Golmud and Korla, in western China.
The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region (Вилояти Мухтори Кӯҳистони Бадахшон, Viloyati Muxtori Köhistoni Badaxshon; also known as Gorno-Badakhshan (after translit) is an autonomous region in eastern Tajikistan. Located in the Pamir Mountains, it makes up 45% of the land area of the country but only 3% of its population.Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guan Zhong (c. 720–645 BC) was a chancellor and reformer of the State of Qi during the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guanyin or Guan Yin is an East Asian bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated by Mahayana Buddhists and followers of Chinese folk religions, also known as the "Goddess of Mercy" in English.
The Guanzi is an ancient Chinese political and philosophical text that is named for and traditionally attributed to the 7th century BCE statesman Guan Zhong, who served as Prime Minister to Duke Huan of Qi.
Guizi is a Chinese slang term for foreigners, and has a long history of being used as a racist and deprecating insult.
The Gurbantünggüt Desert (Uyghur: Гурбантүңгүт Қумлуқи) occupies a large part of the Dzungarian Basin in northern Xinjiang, in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.
The Hami melon (pinyin: Hāmì guā) is a type of muskmelon, originally from Hami, Xinjiang.
Hami–Lop Nur railway or Haluo railway, is a railway in the eastern part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China between Hami and Lop Nur.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Han–Xiongnu War,.
Tianchi is an alpine lake in Xinjiang, Northwest China, situated at.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Hexi Corridor (Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
The Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC; Chinese: 香港貿易發展局) is a statutory body established in 1966 as the international marketing arm for Hong Kong-based manufacturers, traders and service providers.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
The Hotan Prefecture (Uyghur: خوتەن ۋىلايىتى; Хотән Вилайити; Xoten Wilayiti; Hotən Vilayiti) is located in the south-western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Huocheng County or Korgas County is situated within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and under the administration of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.
Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin (Никита Яковлевич Бичурин) (August 29, 1777 – May 11, 1853), better known under his monastic name Hyacinth, or Iakinf (Иакинф), was one of the founding fathers of Sinology.
The Id Kah Mosque (ھېيتگاھ مەسچىتى, Хейтгах Месчити Hëytgah Meschiti) (from Persian: عیدگاه Eidgāh, meaning Place of Festivities) is a mosque located in Kashgar, Xinjiang, China.
Ili or Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China.
The Ili Rebellion (Üch Wiläyt inqilawi) was a Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944.
Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili River (Ile, ئله; Или;; Йили хә, Xiao'erjing: اِلِ حْ;, literally "Bareness") is a river situated in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
The incorporation of Xinjiang into the People's Republic of China in 1949, also known in Chinese historiography as the Peaceful Liberation of Xinjiang, refers to the takeover of Xinjiang by the Chinese Communists and the People's Liberation Army, largely through political means, in the waning days of the Chinese Civil War.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, هرتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.
The Irtysh–Karamay–Ürümqi Canal, also known as the Project 635 Canal, is a system of water-transfer canals and reservoirs in the northern part of China's Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
In 1937 an Islamic rebellion broke out in southern Xinjiang.
The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin (also known as Altishahr) and Dzungaria, and was populated by Indo-European Tocharians and Saka peoples, who practiced Buddhism.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ismail Amat (lat; born 1935) is an Uyghur politician born in Qira County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
Ismail Tiliwaldi (born October 29, 1944) is a retired Chinese politician of Uyghur heritage.
Issyk-Kul Region (Ысык-Көл облусу, Isıq-Köl oblusu, ىسىق-كۅل وبلاستى; Иссык-Кульская область, Issyk-Kuljskaja oblastj) is one of the regions of Kyrgyzstan.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Jimsar County (Xiao'erjing: کِمُوسَاعَر ﺷِﯿًﺎ) is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jin Shuren (1879–1941) was a Han Chinese born in Gansu, was the warlord governor of Xinjiang, succeeding Yang Zengxin when Yang was assassinated in 1928.
Jinchuan County (Tibetan: Chuchen) is a county in the northwest of Sichuan Province, China.
The Jinghe (Jing) County is a county of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administration of the Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture.
The Jingyihuo railway, short for Jinghe–Yining–Khorgas railway, is the first electrified railway in operation in Xinjiang, China.
The July 2009 Ürümqi riots were a series of violent riots over several days that broke out on 5 July 2009 in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), in northwestern People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
K2 (کے ٹو), also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori (Balti and چھوغوری),, at above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest, at.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
Karakax County or Qaraqash County is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is located in the southern edge of Tarim basin, it is under the administration of the Hotan Prefecture.
The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
The N-35 or National Highway 35 (قومی شاہراہ 35), known more popularly as the Karakoram Highway (شاہراہ قراقرم) and China-Pakistan Friendship Highway, is a 1300 km national highway in Pakistan which extends from Hasan Abdal in Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.
Karamay or Kelamayi is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Karamay District is a district within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of Karamay city.
Karasahr or Karashar (Chinese 焉耆), which was originally known, in the Tocharian languages as Ārśi (or Arshi) and Agni, or the Chinese derivative Yānqí 焉耆 (Wade–Giles Yen-ch’i), is an ancient town on the Silk Road and the capital of Yanqi Hui Autonomous County in the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, in northwestern China.
Kargilik or Karghalik, or Yecheng in Chinese, is a town in Xinjiang, China.
The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kashgar Prefecture or Kashi Prefecture officially Kaxgar Prefecture is located in southwestern Xinjiang, China.
Kashgar railway station (喀什站) is the main railway station of Kashgar, Xinjiang, and the westernmost railway station in China.
The Kashgar–Hotan railway or Kahe railway (abbreviated) is a single-track, non-electrified, railway in Xinjiang, China between Kashgar and Hotan.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazakhstania, the Kazakh terranes, or the Kazakhstan Block, is a geological region in Central Asia which consists of the area roughly centered on Lake Balkhash, north and east of the Aral Sea, south of the Siberian craton and west of the Altai Mountains.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
Khoja or Khwaja, (Қожа, خوجا), a Persian word literally meaning 'master', was used in Central Asia as a title of the descendants of the noted Central Asian Naqshbandi Sufi teacher, Ahmad Kasani (1461–1542) or others in the Naqshbandi intellectual lineage prior to Baha al-din Naqshband.
Korgas (Qorğas), also known as Khorgos, Chorgos and Gorgos, formerly Gongchen, is a Chinese city near the border with Kazakhstan.
Khunjerab Pass or (elevation) is a high mountain pass in the Karakoram Mountains in a strategic position on the northern border of the Pakistani region of Gilgit–Baltistan Hunza – Nagar District on the southwest border of the Xinjiang region of China.
Taxila–Khunjerab Railway Line (ٹیکسلا - خنجراب مرکزی راه آهن خط), also known as Khunjerab Railway or Karakoram Railway, is one of several proposed railway lines in Pakistan, to be operated and maintained by Pakistan Railways.
The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Iranic Saka Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture of China.
Kokdala is a city in northern Xinjiang, China.
Korla, Kurla, or Kuerle (ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠯ;; كورلا, Корла, lit. Krorain) is a mid-sized city in central Xinjiang, and is, administratively, a county-level city and the seat of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, which is larger than Great Britain and is the largest Chinese prefecture.
Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.
The Kumtag Desert ("kum-tag" meaning "sand-mountain" in a number of Turkic languages), is an arid landform in northwestern China, which was proclaimed as a national park in the year 2002.
The Kumul Rebellion (Hāmì bàodòng, "Hami Uprising") was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen.
The Kunlun Mountains (Хөндлөн Уулс, Khöndlön Uuls) are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than.
Kunyu or Kurumkash (Uyghur: Қурумқаш) is a county-level city in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Kuqa County is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region under the administration of the Aksu Prefecture.
Kuytun or Kuitun is a county-level city with about 285,000 residents (2000 census) in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China.
The Kuytun–Beitun railway or Kuibei railway is a single-track railway in Xinjiang, China between Kuytun and Beitun.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lake Balkhash (Балқаш көлі,; Озеро Балхаш, Ozero Balhaš) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
The Lanzhou–Xinjiang high-speed railway, also known as Lanzhou–Xinjiang Passenger Railway or Lanxin Second Railway (兰新铁路第二双线), is a high-speed rail in northwestern China from Lanzhou in Gansu Province to Ürümqi in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
The Lanzhou−Xinjiang railway or Lanxin railway is the longest railway in northwestern China.
th:ราชวงศ์เหลียงยุคหลัง (ห้าชนเผ่าสิบหกแคว้น) The Later Liang (386-403) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China.
Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.
Lianyungang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangsu province, China.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China (PRC), including all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, in order of their Human Development Index (HDI), alongside Taiwan.
This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China (PRC), including all provinces (except the claimed Taiwan Province), autonomous regions, special administrative regions, and municipalities, in order of their total land area as reported by the national or provincial-level government.
The article lists China's province-level divisions by gross domestic product (GDP).
The article lists China's first-level administrative divisions by their gross domestic product per capita in main years.
This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of China in order of their total resident populations.
This is a list of the 50 largest country subdivisions and dependent territories by area (including surface water) in square kilometres.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The following is a list of universities in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China, by cities.
Long Shujin (November 1910 – April 16, 2003) was a People's Liberation Army major general and a People's Republic of China politician.
Lop Nur or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake") is a former salt lake in China, now largely dried-up, located between the Taklamakan and Kumtag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Manas Lake is a salt lake in China's Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Mao Zemin (毛泽民; April 3, 1896 – September 27, 1943), also using Zhou Bin (周彬) as his alias, was born in Xiangtan, Hunan province.
Bachu County or Maralbexi County or Maralbashi is located in the southwest of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China and is under the administration of the Kashgar Prefecture.
Midong District (Pinyin: Mǐdōng Qū Miqüen-Kɵktaƣ Rayoni. USY: Мичүән-Көктағ Райони) is a county in the Prefecture-level city of Ürümqi, which is the capital region of China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
Migration to Xinjiang is both an ongoing and historical movement of people, often sponsored by various states who controlled the region, including the Han dynasty, Qing dynasty, Republic of China, and People's Republic of China.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA) is a ministry in the State Council of the People's Republic of China, responsible for social and administrative affairs.
Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from مغولستان, Moqulestân/Moġūlistān), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate, was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tian Shan mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Chinese Mongols are citizens of the People's Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Naryn Region (Нарын облусу, Narın oblusu/Naryn oblusu, نارىن وبلاستى) is the largest region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
The National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China or NBS is an agency directly under the State Council of the People's Republic of China charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the People's Republic of China at the national and local levels.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).
The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex record of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
The Northern Liang (397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
The Northern Silk Road is a prehistoric trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the Taklamakan Desert to reach the ancient kingdoms of Parthia, Bactria and eventually Persia and Rome.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
The Northern Xinjiang railway or Beijiang railway (北疆铁路) is a railway in Xinjiang, China between Ürümqi, the regional capital of Xinjiang, and Alashankou on the border with Kazakhstan.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra (d. April 16, 1934) (نۇر ئەخمەتجان بۇغرا), نور احمد جان بغرا, was an Uighur Emir of the First East Turkestan Republic.
Nur Bekri (نۇر بەكرى, Нур бəкри; born 9 August 1961) is a Chinese politician of Uyghur origin, currently serving as a minister-level Vice Chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission and Director of the National Energy Administration.
Oirat (Clear script: Oirad kelen; Kalmyk: Өөрд, Őrd; Khalkha-Mongolian: Ойрад, Oirad) belongs to the group of Mongolic languages.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Ordos Loop is a large rectangular bend of the Yellow River in central China.
Osh Region (Ош облусу, Oş oblusu/Osh oblusu, وش وبلاستى; Ошская область, Oshskaya oblast’/Ošskaja oblastj) is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is Osh. It is bounded by (clockwise) Jalal-Abad Region, Naryn Region, Xinjiang, China, Tajikistan, Batken Region, and Uzbekistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Pamiris (پامیری; Помири) are an Iranian ethnic group who are native to the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of eastern Tajikistan, the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan, the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in Xinjiang, China, and the Chitral and Gilgit Baltistan regions of northern Pakistan.
In modern Chinese politics, a Party Committee Secretary, commonly translated as Party Secretary, party chief, or party boss, is the leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) organization in a province, city, or other administrative region.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A pole of inaccessibility marks a location that is the most challenging to reach owing to its remoteness from geographical features that could provide access.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city; formerly known as province-controlled city from 1949 to 1983, is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC), ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure.
Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.
The President of the Executive Yuan, commonly known as the Premier of Republic of China (sometimes as Prime Minister), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West, or Anxi Protectorate (640–c.790) was a protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty in 640 to control the Tarim Basin.
The Protectorate of the Western Regions was an imperial administration imposed by Han China – between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE – on many smaller and previously independent states, which were known in China as the "Western Regions"). "Western Regions" referred mostly to areas west of Yumen Pass, especially the Tarim Basin. These areas were later regarded as Altishahr (southern Xinjiang, excluding Dzungaria). Previously, "western regions" was used more generally in regard to Central Asia and sometimes even included parts of South Asia. The protectorate was the first direct rule by a Chinese government of the area.Yu 2003, 57-59 It comprised various vassal protectorates, under the nominal authority of a Chief Protector of the Western Regions, appointed by the Han court.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is generally funded from public sources, such as taxes.
The Qapqal News (Xibe:, Möllendorff: Cabcal Serkin) is the world's only newspaper in the Xibe language, a Tungusic language spoken in northwest China.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
The Qiang people are an ethnic group in China.
The Cherchen County (Uyghur: Чәрчән Наһийиси) is a county under the administration of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing reconquest of Xinjiang was the event when the Qing dynasty in China reconquered Xinjiang after the Dungan Revolt in the late 19th century.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.
A raisin is a dried grape.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Ethnic Russians (Pусские) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China, according to the ethnicity classification as applied in mainland China.
Saifuddin Azizi (March 12, 1915 – November 24, 2003), also known as Seypidin Azizi, Saif al-Dīn ʿAzīz, Saifuding Aizezi, and Saifuding, was the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
The Salar people (Salır, سالار;, Xiao'erjing: صَالاذُ) are an ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz Turkic language.
The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping, Geographical Names Committee and former Script Reform Committee of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanizations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters.
Sayram Lake is located in the Bortala Prefecture near the Tian Shan Mountains, Xinjiang, China.
The Second Ürümqi–Jinghe railway or Wujing Line No.
The Second East Turkestan Republic, commonly referred to simply as the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), was a short-lived Soviet-backed Turkic socialist people's republic.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
The term Serindia combines Seres (China) and India to refer to the part of Asia also known as Sinkiang, Chinese Turkestan or High Asia.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Sheng Shicai (3 December 1895 – 13 July 1970) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shihezi is a sub-prefecture-level city in northern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Shohrat Zakir (شۆھرەت زاكىر, Шɵһрəт закир; born August 1953), is a Chinese politician of Uyghur origin and, since December 2014, the Chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and the deputy party chief of Xinjiang.
Shuanghe or Qoshögüz (Uyghur: Қошөгүз) is a county-level city in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Shule (Kashgar Yengisheher) County is a county situated in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Kashgar Prefecture.
The Shule Kingdom (Chinese: 疏勒) was an Indo-European oasis kingdom of the Taklamakan Desert that was on the Northern Silk Road, in the historical Western Regions of what is now Xinjiang in Northwest China.
The Sibe or Xibo are a Tungusic people living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Song Hanliang (December 1934 – October 3, 2000) was a Chinese politician, notable for being the Party Secretary of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region during the economic reform era.
The Southern Xinjiang railway or Nanjiang railway is a railway between Turpan and Kashgar in Xinjiang, China.
The Soviet invasion of Xinjiang was a military campaign of the Soviet Union in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
A sub-provincial division (or deputy-provincial divisions) in the People's Republic of China is like a prefecture-level city that is governed by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Tacheng (Qoqek/Sawesek) or Chöchek is a county-level city (1994 est. pop. 56,400) and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, one of the autonomous regions of China.
Tacheng (Tarbagatay) Prefecture is located in northern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Chinese Tajiks or Mountain Tajiks in China (Sarikoli:, Tujik), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
The Tang campaign against Karakhoja, known as Gaochang in Chinese sources, was a military campaign in 640 CE conducted by Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty against the Tarim Basin kingdom of Karakhoja, based in the city of Turfan in Xinjiang.
The Tang campaign against Kucha was a military campaign led by the Tang Dynasty general Ashina She'er against the Tarim Basin oasis state of Kucha in Xinjiang, which was aligned with the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Tang campaigns against Karasahr were two military campaigns sent by Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty against the Tarim Basin kingdom of Karasahr, a vassal of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Tang campaigns against the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, were a series of military campaigns conducted during the Tang dynasty against the Western Turkic Khaganate in the 7th century AD.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tao Zhiyue (1892 – 26 December 1988) was a lieutenant general of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, and a full general of the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1800 BCE to the first centuries BCE.
The Tarim River (Mandarin Tǎlǐmù Hé, 塔里木河; Uyghur: تارىم دەرياسى, Тарим дәряси), known in Sanskrit as the Śītā is an endorheic river in Xinjiang, China.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tömür Dawamat (lat;; born June 1927 in Toksun, Xinjiang, China) was the chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China from 1985 to 1993.
Terrorism in China refers to the use or threatened use of violence to affect political or ideological change in the People's Republic of China.
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Tianshan District is a core urban district of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
Tiemenguan or Bashegym (Uyghur: Башәгйм) is a county-level city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Tocharians or Tokharians were Indo-European peoples who inhabited the medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China) in ancient times.
Torugart Pass is a mountain pass in the Tian Shan mountain range near the border between the Naryn Province of Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China.
Townships, formally township-level divisions, are the basic level (fourth-level administrative units) of political divisions in China.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
The Tujia (Northern Tujia: Bifzivkar, IPA:pi˧˥ ʦi˥ kʰa˨˩; Southern Tujia: Mongrzzir, IPA: /mõ˨˩ ʣi˨˩/; Chinese: 土家族, pinyin: Tǔjiāzú), with a total population of over 8 million, is the 8th largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China.
Tumxuk or Tumushuke (also known as Tumushuk, Tumshuq, etc.) is a sub-prefecture-level city in the western part of Xinjiang, China, surrounded by Kaxgar Prefecture.
The Turkestan–Siberian Railway (commonly abbreviated as the Turk–Sib, Түрксіб, Tu’rksib, تٷركسٸب, tʰʉɾkˈsɘb; Турксиб, Turksib) is a broad gauge railway that connects Central Asia with Siberia.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Turpan Depression, or Turfan Depression, is a fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about southeast of the regional capital Ürümqi.
Ulungur Lake is located in Fuhai County, Xinjiang, China.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
Urumqi People's Broadcasting Station (UBS) consists of radio broadcasting to Urumqi and the Xinjiang province area.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
The Uyghur Latin alphabet (Уйғур Латин Йезиқи, Uyghur Latin Yëziqi, ULY) is an auxiliary alphabet for the Uyghur language based on the Latin script.
Uyghur nationalism, or the East Turkestan independence movement, is the notion that the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group who primarily inhabit China's Xinjiang region (or "East Turkestan"), should form an independent state.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
The Wakhi people, or Khik (called Gujali in Gojal, Pakistan), are an ethnic group in the Wakhan of today's Badakhshan region located in northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Wang Enmao (May 19, 1913 – April 12, 2001) was a People's Liberation Army lieutenant general and a People's Republic of China politician.
Wang Feng (1910–1998) original surname Wang, was a People's Republic of China politician, born in Shaanxi Province.
Wang Lequan (born December 1944) is a retired Chinese politician, most notable for being the Communist Party Secretary in Xinjiang, the autonomous region's top political office, between 1994 and 2010.
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
Wang Zhen (April 11, 1908 – March 12, 1993) was a Chinese political figure and one of the Eight Elders of the Communist Party of China.
Wei Yuan (April23, 1794March26, 1857), born Wei Yuanda, courtesy names Moshen (默深) and Hanshi (漢士), was a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan.
The West–East Gas Pipeline is a set of natural gas pipelines which run from the western part of China to the east.
The Western Liang (400-421) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China, one of the "Five Liang" (Wu Liang) of this era.
The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia or sometimes more specifically the easternmost portion of it (e.g. Altishahr or the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang), though it was sometimes used more generally to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent (as in the novel Journey to the West).
The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. At its height, the Western Turkic Khaganate included what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and parts of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Russia. The ruling elite or perhaps the whole confederation was called Onoq or "ten arrows", possibly from oğuz (literally "arrow"), a subdivision of the Turkic tribes. A connection to the earlier Onogurs, which also means 'ten tribes', is questionable. The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (the summer capital) and Suyab (the principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east from Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab. Turkic rule in Mongolia was restored as Second Turkic Khaganate in 682.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
General William Mesny (1842 – 11 December 1919) was an adventurer and writer born on the island of Jersey but spent most of his childhood in Alderney, the family home of the Mesnys.
Wujiaqu is a sub-prefecture-level city in the northern part of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, about north of Ürümqi.
The Wusun were an Indo-European semi-nomadic steppe people mentioned in Chinese records from the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE.
The Xibe language (sibe gisun, also Sibo, Sibe, Xibo language) is a Tungusic language spoken by members of the Xibe minority of China.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
There are various kinds of Xinjiang coins.
The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist conflict in China's far-west province of Xinjiang, whose northern region is known as Dzungaria and whose southern region (the Tarim Basin) is known as East Turkestan.
Xinjiang cuisine reflects the cooking styles of many ethnic groups of the Xinjiang region, and refers particularly to Uyghur cuisine. Signature ingredients include roasted mutton, kebabs, roasted fish, and rice.
The Xinjiang Economic Daily is a state-run daily newspaper published in the Xinjiang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.
The Xinjiang Tianshan Rural-Commercial Bank Flying Tigers (Chinese: 新疆天山农商银行飞虎), also known simply as Xinjiang Flying Tigers or China Kashgar, are a professional basketball team based in Ürümqi, Xinjiang, China, which plays in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association.
Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited (Chinese: 新疆广电传输网络有限责任公司), also known as Xinjiang Broadcast Network consists of media broadcasting to Urumqi and the Xinjiang province area.
Xinjiang People's Broadcasting Station (XJBS) consists of radio broadcasting to the Xinjiang province area.
The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and paramilitary organization in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
The January 2007 Xinjiang raid was carried out on January 5, 2007 by the Chinese police against a suspected East Turkestan Islamic Movement training camp in Akto County in the Pamir plateau.
Xinjiang Tianshan Leopard F.C. is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the China League One division under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA).
The Xinjiang Time, or known as Ürümqi Time, is set due to its geographical location in the westernmost part of China.
Xinjiang University (XJU) is one of the major universities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China, and is a national key university.
The Xinjiang Wars were a series of armed conflicts which took place within Xinjiang in the Republic of China during the Warlord Era and Chinese Civil War.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yang Zengxin (March 6, 1864 – July 7, 1928) was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.
Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ) (Яъқуб-бек, Ya’qub-bek) (182030 May 1877) was an adventurer of Tajik or Uzbek descent who was master of the Tarim Basin from 1865 to 1877.
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
Yengisar County is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China.
Yining, also known as Ghulja or Qulja (قۇلجا, Құлжа), and formerly Ningyuan is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.
Yizhou, is the central district of the Hami prefecture-level city, in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
Yutian County or Keriya (Kériye) County is a county in Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Zhang Chunxian (born May 1953) is a Chinese politician, best known for his term as the Communist Party Secretary of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and the Political Commissar of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps from 2010 to 2016.
Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
The Zhuang people are an ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
Zulfiya Abdiqadir is a Uyghur civil servant in the People's Republic of China.
Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang;; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.
On February 25, 1997, three bombs exploded on three buses (line 10, line 44, and line 2) in Ürümqi, Xinjiang, China.
The 2008 Kashgar attack occurred on the morning of 4 August 2008 in the city of Kashgar in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army.
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617 to 1682) was the Fifth Dalai Lama, and the first Dalai Lama to wield effective temporal and spiritual power over all Tibet.
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