49 relations: Aldehyde, Arabinose, Biomass, Blood, Carbon, Chemical formula, Chondroitin sulfate, D-xylose absorption test, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Embryo, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme, Fasting, Functional group, Furfural, Hemiacetal, Hemicellulose, Heparan sulfate, Hydrogen production, Hydrogenation, Life, Lyxose, Malabsorption, Monosaccharide, O-linked glycosylation, Open-chain compound, Organic redox reaction, Organic synthesis, Pentose, Polyphosphate, Polysaccharide, Protein xylosyltransferase, Proteoglycan, Reducing sugar, Ribose, Saccharophagus degradans, Serine, Sucrose, Sugar substitute, Threonine, Urine, Xylan, Xylitol, Xylonic acid, Xylose metabolism, XYLT1, XYLT2, Xylulokinase, Xylulose.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid).
D-xylose absorption test is a medical test performed to diagnose conditions that present with malabsorption of the proximal small intestine due to defects in the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Furfural is an organic compound produced from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust.
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues.
Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
In the field of biochemistry, O-linked glycosylation is the attachment of a sugar molecule to an oxygen atom in an amino acid residue in a protein.
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.
Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
In enzymology, a protein xylosyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which a beta-D-xylosyl residue is transferred from UDP-D-xylose to the sidechain oxygen atom of a serine residue in a protein.
Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated.
A reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free aldehyde group or a free ketone group.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Saccharophagus degradans (formerly Microbulbifer degradans) is a gram-negative, marine bacterium shown to degrade a number of complex polysaccharides as energy source.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Xylan (CAS number: 9014-63-5) is a group of hemicelluloses that are found in plant cell walls and some algae.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.
Xylonic acid is a sugar acid that can be obtained by the complete oxidation of xylose (a primary alcohol).
D-Xylose is a five-carbon aldose (pentose, monosaccharide) that can be catabolized or metabolized into useful products by a variety of organisms.
Xylosyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the XYLT1 gene.
Xylosyltransferase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the XYLT2 gene.
In enzymology, a xylulokinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-xylulose, whereas its two products are ADP and D-xylulose 5-phosphate.
Xylulose is a ketopentose, a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group.