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# Y-factor

The Y-factor method is a widely used technique for measuring the gain and noise temperature of an amplifier. [1]

## Agilent Technologies

Agilent Technologies is an American public research, development and manufacturing company established in 1999 as a spin-off from Hewlett-Packard.

## Amplifier

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

## Gain (electronics)

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.

## Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

## Microwave

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

## Noise temperature

In electronics, noise temperature is one way of expressing the level of available noise power introduced by a component or source.

## Ohm

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

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## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

## References

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