44 relations: Bitwise operation, Black, Cathode ray tube, Chroma subsampling, Chrominance, Clipping (signal processing), Color image pipeline, Color space, Component video, Coordinate system, Digital photography, Gamma correction, Gamut, Gibbs phenomenon, H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2, High-definition television, International Commission on Illumination, International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R, ITU-T, JPEG, JPEG File Interchange Format, Luma (video), Luminance, Matrix (mathematics), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, MPEG-2, NTSC, PAL, Primary color, Rec. 2020, Rec. 601, Rec. 709, Redundancy (information theory), Relative luminance, RGB color model, RGB color space, SECAM, Standard-definition television, Video, White, XvYCC, YPbPr, YUV.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information than for luma information, taking advantage of the human visual system's lower acuity for color differences than for luminance.
Chrominance (chroma or C for short) is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y for short).
Clipping is a form of distortion that limits a signal once it exceeds a threshold.
An image pipeline or video pipeline is the set of components commonly used between an image source (such as a camera, a scanner, or the rendering engine in a computer game), and an image renderer (such as a television set, a computer screen, a computer printer or cinema screen), or for performing any intermediate digital image processing consisting of two or more separate processing blocks.
A color space is a specific organization of colors.
Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more component channels.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.
Gamma correction, or often simply gamma, is a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.
In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.
In mathematics, the Gibbs phenomenon, discovered by Available on-line at: and rediscovered by, is the peculiar manner in which the Fourier series of a piecewise continuously differentiable periodic function behaves at a jump discontinuity.
H.262 or MPEG-2 Part 2 (formally known as ITU-T Recommendation H.262 and ISO/IEC 13818-2, also known as MPEG-2 Video) is a video coding format developed and maintained jointly by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG).
High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.
The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is responsible for radio communication.
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
The JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) is an image file format standard.
In video, luma represents the brightness in an image (the "black-and-white" or achromatic portion of the image).
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is a Burlington, Massachusetts (San Francisco, California until 2008) based publisher specializing in computer science and engineering content.
MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) with standard dynamic range (SDR) and wide color gamut (WCG), including picture resolutions, frame rates with progressive scan, bit depths, color primaries, RGB and luma-chroma color representations, chroma subsamplings, and an opto-electronic transfer function.
ITU-R Recommendation BT.601, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec.
ITU-R Recommendation BT.709, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 709 or BT.709, standardizes the format of high-definition television, having 16:9 (widescreen) aspect ratio.
In Information theory, redundancy measures the fractional difference between the entropy of an ensemble, and its maximum possible value \log(|\mathcal_X|).
Relative luminance follows the photometric definition of luminance, but with the values normalized to 1 or 100 for a reference white.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
A RGB color space is any additive color space based on the RGB color model.
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analogue color television system first used in France.
Standard-definition television (SDTV or SD) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high- or enhanced-definition.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
xvYCC or Extended-gamut YCC (also x.v.Color) is a color space that can be used in the video electronics of television sets to support a gamut 1.8 times as large as that of the sRGB color space.
YPbPr or Y'PbPr, also written as, is a color space used in video electronics, in particular in reference to component video cables.
YUV is a color encoding system typically used as part of a color image pipeline.