103 relations: Aeron (kingdom), Alliteration, Aneirin, Angles, Anglo-Saxons, Áedán mac Gabráin, Æthelfrith, Bard, Battle of Catraeth, Battle of Degsastan, Bernicia, Book of Aneirin, Breton language, Brittany, Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Catterick, North Yorkshire, Celtic Britons, Clackmannanshire, Clydno Eiddin, Common Brittonic, Cornish language, Cumbria, Cumbric, Cunedda, Cynon ap Clydno, Dafydd Benfras, David Jones (artist-poet), Dál Riata, Deira, Domnall Brecc, Dumbarton, Eanflæd, Edinburgh, Elegy, Elmet, Epic poetry, Eugein I of Alt Clut, Evan Evans (poet), Firth of Forth, Gaels, Galloway, Gododdin, Gweith Gwen Ystrat, Hen Ogledd, Historia Brittonum, History of the Welsh language, Ida of Bernicia, Ifor Williams, In Parenthesis, Industrial music, ..., John James (writer), John Williams (Ab Ithel), Kenneth H. Jackson, King Arthur, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Lancashire, Latin, Leeds, Llywarch Hen, Llywelyn the Great, Lothian, Manaw Gododdin, Mead, Menai Strait, Middle Welsh, Mynyddog Mwynfawr, National Library of Wales, Nennius, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, Old Welsh, Oliver Padel, Origin myth, Oswiu, Owain Cyfeiliog, Owen Jones (antiquary), Panegyric, Picts, Rheged, Rhyme, Richard Caddel, Richard J. Denning, River Ayr, River Wear, Roman Britain, Rosemary Sutcliff, Scottish Borders, South Glamorgan County Council, Stirling, Strathclyde, Syncope (phonology), Talhaearn Tad Awen, Taliesin, Test Dept, The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Thomas Stephens (historian), Urien, Votadini, Wales, Welsh language, William Forbes Skene. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Aeron was a kingdom of the Brythonic-speaking Hen Ogledd (Old North), presumed to have been located in the region of the River Ayr in what is now southwestern Scotland.
Alliteration is a figure of speech and a stylistic literary device which is identified by the repeated sound of the first or second letter in a series of words, or the repetition of the same letter sounds in stressed syllables of a phrase.
Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced in Old Irish) was a king of Dál Riata from c. 574 until c. 609.
Æthelfrith (died c. 616) was King of Bernicia from c. 593 until his death.
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
The Battle of Catraeth was fought around AD 600 between a force raised by the Gododdin, a Brythonic people of the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain, and the Angles of Bernicia and Deira.
The Battle of Degsastan was fought around 603 between king Æthelfrith of Bernicia and the Gaels under Áedán mac Gabráin, king of Dál Riada.
Bernicia (Old English: Bernice, Bryneich, Beornice; Latin: Bernicia) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England.
The Book of Aneirin (Llyfr Aneirin) is a late 13th century Welsh manuscript containing Old and Middle Welsh poetry attributed to the late 6th century Northern Brythonic poet, Aneirin.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after the Battle of Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle.
Catterick is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Clackmannanshire (Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Chlach Mhannainn) is a historic county and council area in Scotland, bordering the council areas of Stirling, Fife and Perth & Kinross.
Clydno Eiddin was a ruler in the Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking area in what is now Northern England and southern Scotland during the Early Middle Ages.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
Cunedda ap Edern or Cunedda Wledig (5th century) was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd.
Cynon ap Clydno or in some translations KynonIn her translation of The Mabinogion, Guest uses the spelling Kynon, but in the notes to her translation she acknowledges the character as Cynon ap Clydno or Cynan was an Arthurian hero from Welsh mythology.
Dafydd Benfras was a court poet in the Welsh language, regarded by Saunders Lewis and others as one of the greatest of the Poets of the Princes (Beirdd y Tywysogion).
Walter David Jones CH, CBE (known as David Jones, 1 November 1895 – 28 October 1974) was both a painter and one of the first-generation British modernist poets.
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
Deira (Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a Celtic kingdom – first recorded (but much older) by the Anglo-Saxons in 559 AD and lasted til 664 AD, in Northern England that was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.
Domnall Brecc (Welsh: Dyfnwal Frych; English: Donald the Freckled) (died 642 in Strathcarron) was king of Dál Riata, in modern Scotland, from about 629 until 642.
Dumbarton is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the north bank of the River Clyde where the River Leven flows into the Clyde estuary.
Eanflæd (19 April 626 – after 685, also known as Enfleda) was a Deiran princess, queen of Northumbria and later, the abbess of an influential Christian monastery in Whitby, England.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.
Elmet (Elfed) was an area of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire, and an independent Brittonic kingdom between about the 5th century and early 7th century.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Eugein I was a ruler of Alt Clut, the Brittonic kingdom later known as Strathclyde, sometime in the mid-7th century.
Evan Evans (20 May 1731 – 4 August 1788) (bardic name Ieuan Fardd, also known as Ieuan Brydydd Hir) was a Welsh language poet, clergyman, antiquary and literary critic.
The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
The Gododdin were a P-Celtic-speaking Brittonic people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd or Old North (modern south-east Scotland and north-east England), in the sub-Roman period.
Gweith Gwen Ystrat (in English: The Battle of Gwen Ystrad), is a late Old Welsh or Middle Welsh heroic poem found uniquely in the Book of Taliesin, where it forms part of the Canu Taliesin, a series of poems attributed to the 6th-century court poet of Rheged, Taliesin.
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.
The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh.
Ida (died c. 559) is the first known king of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which he ruled from around 547 until his death in 559.
Sir Ifor Williams, FBA (16 April 1881 – 4 November 1965) was a Welsh scholar who laid the foundations for the academic study of Old Welsh, particularly early Welsh poetry.
In Parenthesis is an epic poem of the First World War by David Jones first published in England in 1937.
Industrial music is a fusion genre of electronic and experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes.
David John James (30 November 1923 – 2 October 1993) was a Welsh author of historical novels.
John Williams (bardic name: Ab Ithel) (7 April 1811–27 August 1862), was an antiquary and Anglican priest.
Prof Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson CBE FRSE FSA DLitt (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud (and Strath-Clota in Anglo-Saxon), was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Llywarch Hen, meaning 'Llywarch the Old' (born c. 534, died c. 608), was a prince and poet of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a ruling family in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain (modern southern Scotland and northern England).
Llywelyn the Great (Llywelyn Fawr), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 117311 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.
Lothian (Lowden; Lodainn) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills.
Manaw Gododdin was the narrow coastal region on the south side of the Firth of Forth, part of the Brythonic-speaking Kingdom of Gododdin in the post-Roman Era.
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
The Menai Strait (Afon Menai, the "River Menai") is a narrow stretch of shallow tidal water about long, which separates the island of Anglesey from the mainland of Wales.
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.
Mynyddog Mwynfawr (variant orthographies include: Old Welsh Mynydawc Mwynvawr; Middle Welsh; Mynyddawg Mwynfawr) was, according to Welsh tradition founded on the early Welsh language poem Y Gododdin (attributed to Aneirin), a Brittonic ruler of the kingdom of Gododdin in the Hen Ogledd (southern Scotland).
The National Library of Wales (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru), Aberystwyth, is the national legal deposit library of Wales and is one of the Welsh Government sponsored bodies.
Nennius — or Nemnius or Nemnivus — was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.
Oliver James Padel (born 31 October 1948 in St Pancras, London, England) is an English medievalist and toponymist specializing in Welsh and Cornish studies.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
Oswiu, also known as Oswy or Oswig (Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia from 642 until his death.
Owain ap Gruffydd (c. 1130–1197) was a prince of the southern part of Powys and a poet.
Owen Jones (3 September 1741 – 26 September 1814), known by his bardic name of Owain Myfyr, was a Welsh antiquary.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
Rheged was one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, during the post-Roman era and Early Middle Ages.
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
Richard Caddel (13 July 1949 – 1 April 2003) was a poet, publisher and editor who was a key figure in the British Poetry Revival.
Richard John Denning (born 11 August 1967) is an English author of historical novels and fantasy novels.
The River Ayr (pronounced like air, Uisge Àir in Gaelic) is a river in Ayrshire, Scotland.
The River Wear in North East England rises in the Pennines and flows eastwards, mostly through County Durham to the North Sea in the City of Sunderland.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
Rosemary Sutcliff (14 December 1920 – 23 July 1992) was an English novelist best known for children's books, especially historical fiction and retellings of myths and legends.
The Scottish Borders (The Mairches, "The Marches"; Scottish Gaelic: Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
South Glamorgan County Council (Cyngor Sir De Morgannwg) was the local government authority that administered the county of South Glamorgan, Wales from 1974 till 1996.
Stirling (Stirlin; Sruighlea) is a city in central Scotland.
Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic, meaning "strath (valley) of the River Clyde") was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Talhaearn Tad Awen (fl mid-6th century), was, according to medieval Welsh sources, a celebrated British poet of the sub-Roman period.
Taliesin (6th century AD) was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin.
Test Dept, sometimes credited as Test Department or Test Dept.
The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales is a printed collection of medieval Welsh literature, published in three volumes by the Gwyneddigion Society between 1801 and 1807.
Thomas Stephens (21 April 1821 – 4 January 1875) was a Welsh apothecary, historian and critic.
Urien, often referred to as Urien Rheged or Uriens, was a late 6th-century king of Rheged, an early British kingdom of the Hen Ogledd (today's northern England and southern Scotland).
The Votadini, also known as the Wotādīni, Votādīni or Otadini, were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
William Forbes Skene (7 June 1809 – 29 August 1892), was a Scottish historian and antiquary.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.