460 relations: Aaron Arrowsmith, ABC News, Agriculture in China, Airport, Amphibian, Anabarilius liui, Anabarilius polylepis, Ancient Chinese states, Anhui, Anqing, Anqing Yangtze River Bridge, Asian carp, Asiatic Squadron, Atrilinea, Australia, Austria-Hungary, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesia, Ba (state), Baiheliang, Baihetan Dam, Baiji, Baishui River, Baiyue, Batang River, Battle of Caishi, Battle of Red Cliffs, Battle of Shipu, Battle of Tangdao, Beijing, Beijing dialect, Beijing–Kowloon railway, Bighead carp, Black carp, Blast fishing, Boxer Rebellion, Brackish water, Cable-stayed bridge, Caiyuanba Bridge, Cambridge University Press, Carp, Catfish, Changsha, Chao Lake, Chaohu, Chefoo Convention, Chiang Kai-shek, Chimarrichthys kishinouyei, China, China Daily, ..., China Navigation Company, Chinese alligator, Chinese box turtle, Chinese character classification, Chinese characters, Chinese Civil War, Chinese cuisine, Chinese culture, Chinese fire belly newt, Chinese giant salamander, Chinese high-fin banded shark, Chinese Maritime Customs Service, Chinese mitten crab, Chinese paddlefish, Chinese pond turtle, Chinese postal romanization, Chinese softshell turtle, Chinese stripe-necked turtle, Chinese sturgeon, Chishui River, Chizhou, Chongqing, Christian mission, Chu (state), Chu–Han Contention, Chuzhou, Classical Tibetan, Communist Party of China, Craspedacusta sowerbii, Critically endangered, Cypriniformes, Dabry's sturgeon, Dangqu River, Dangtu County, Daxi culture, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas, Demographics of China, Deposition (geology), Destructive fishing practices, Dian Lake, Dickin Medal, Domestic yak, Dongting Lake, Drainage basin, Dujiangyan, East China Sea, East Lake (Wuhan), Eastern Wu, Ecology, Economic history of China before 1912, Economy of China, Electricity, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endemism, English language, Eocene, Estuary, Ethnic groups in Europe, Eurasian otter, Europe, Eutrophication, Exonym and endonym, Extinct in the 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Aaron Arrowsmith (1750–1823) was an English cartographer, engraver and publisher and founding member of the Arrowsmith family of geographers.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Agriculture is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anabarilius liui is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Anabarilius.
Anabarilius polylepis is a species of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family, that is endemic to Yunnan, China.
Ancient Chinese States were typified by variously sized city states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BCE.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Anqing (also Anking, formerly Hwaining) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Anhui province, People's Republic of China.
Anqing Yangtze River Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge spanning over the Yangtze River at Anqing, Anhui Province in eastern China.
Several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fishes are collectively known in the United States as Asian carp.
The Asiatic Squadron was a squadron of United States Navy warships stationed in East Asia during the latter half of the 19th century.
Atrilinea is a genus of cyprinid fishes that contains only three species, all of which are endemic to China.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Austronesia, in historical terms, refers to the homeland of the peoples who speak Austronesian languages, including Malay (Malaysian-Indonesian), Filipino, the Visayan languages, Ilocano, Javanese, Malagasy, the Polynesian languages, Fijian, Taiwan's Formosan languages, Tetum and around ten-thousand other languages.
Ba was an ancient state in eastern Sichuan, China.
Baiheliang (Simplified: 白鹤梁, Traditional: 白鶴梁, Pinyin: Báihèliáng, lit. "White Crane Ridge") is a rock outcrop in Fuling District, Chongqing, People's Republic of China, that parallels the flow of the Yangtze River.
The Baihetan Dam is a large hydroelectric dam under construction on the Jinsha River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, in the southwest of China.
The baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, Lipotes meaning "left behind", vexillifer "flag bearer") is a functionally extinct species of freshwater dolphin formerly found only in the Yangtze River in China.
The Baishui River is a short tributary of the Yangtze River in Yunnan Province, China.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
The Batang River (Chinese: 巴塘河, p Batánghé) or Zha Chu (Chinese: 札曲, p Zháqū; Standard Tibetan: Za Qu), whose two sources are Za Qu (Tibetan: bo, w rdza Chu, z Za Qu) and Bai Qu (Tibetan: དཔལ་ཆུ།, w Dpal Chu, z Bä Qu), is an long river in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, south-eastern Qinghai province, in the People's Republic of China.
The Battle of Caishi (Battle of Ts'ai-shih) was a major naval engagement of the Jin–Song Wars of China that took place on November 26–27, 1161.
The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history.
The Battle of Shipu (Chinese:石浦沉船事件) was a French naval victory during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
The Battle of Tangdao (唐岛之战) was a naval engagement that took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
The Beijing–Jiujiang–Kowloon railway, also known as the Jingjiu railway is a railway in China connecting Beijing West Station in Beijing to Shenzhen Station in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province.
The bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) is a species of freshwater fish, one of several Asian carps.
The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) or black Chinese roach is a species of cyprinid fish and the sole species of the genus Mylopharyngodon.
Blast fishing or dynamite fishing is the practice of using explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers (or pylons), from which cables support the bridge deck.
The Caiyuanba Bridge is an arch bridge which crosses the Yangtze River in Chongqing, China.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Chao Lake (巢湖), also known by its Chinese name Chao Hu, is a lake at the juncture of Chaohu and Hefei cities in Anhui Province, China.
Chaohu was formerly a prefecture-level city and is now a county-level city in central Anhui province, People's Republic of China.
The Chefoo Convention, known in Chinese as the Yantai Treaty, was an "unequal treaty" between the Qing and British Empires, signed by Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang in Zhifu (now a district of Yantai) on 21 August 1876.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Chimarrichthys kishinouyei is a species of sisorid catfish native to Asia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
The China Navigation Co.
The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) (yáng zǐ è), also known as the Yangtze alligator, is one of two known living species of Alligator and is the smaller of the two, a genus in the family Alligatoridae.
The Chinese box turtle, also known as the Yellow-margined box turtle, or Golden-headed turtle, is a species of Asian box turtle.
All Chinese characters are logograms, but several different types can be identified, based on the manner in which they are formed or derived.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
The Chinese fire belly newt (Cynops orientalis) is a small black newt, with bright-orange aposematic coloration on their ventral sides.
The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is the largest salamander and largest amphibian in the world, reaching a length of, although it rarely reaches that size today.
The Chinese high-fin banded shark (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) is a popular freshwater aquarium fish, retrieved on: August 21, 2007 that belongs to the Catostomidae family.
The Chinese Maritime Customs Service was a Chinese governmental tax collection agency and information service from its founding in 1854 until it split in 1949 into services operating in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and in the People's Republic of China.
The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis; Chinese: t 大閘蟹, s 大闸蟹, p dàzháxiè, "big sluice crab"), also known as the Shanghai hairy crab (上海毛蟹, p Shànghǎi máoxiè), is a medium-sized burrowing crab that is named for its furry claws, which resemble mittens.
Chinese paddlefish (Psephurus gladius), also known as Chinese swordfish, are among the largest freshwater fish, although the species is anadromous.
Mauremys reevesii, commonly known as the Chinese pond turtle, the Chinese three-keeled pond turtle, or Reeves' turtle, is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae, a family which was formerly called Bataguridae.
Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.
The Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is a species of softshell turtle that is endemic to China (Inner Mongolia to Hainan) and Taiwan, with records of escapees—some of which have established introduced populations—in a wide range of other Asian countries, as well as Spain, Brazil and Hawaii.
The Chinese stripe-necked turtle (Mauremys sinensis) or golden thread turtle, is a species of turtle in the Geoemydidae family.
The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a critically endangered member of the family Acipenseridae in the order Acipenseriformes.
Chishui River (Chinese: 赤水河) is a major tributary of upper Yangtze River.
Chizhou is a prefecture-level city in the south of Anhui province, China. It borders Anqing to the northwest, Tongling and Wuhu to the northeast, Xuancheng to the east, Huangshan to the southeast, and the province of Jiangxi to the southwest. Mount Jiuhua (Jǐuhuáshān), located in Qingyang county, is one of the four sacred mountains of Chinese Buddhism. Simple history: Chizhou was formally established in the fourth year of era of Wude, Tang Dynasty. (A.D. 621).
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The Chu–Han Contention (206–202 BC) was an interregnum between the Qin dynasty and the Han dynasty in Chinese history.
Chuzhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Anhui Province, China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south and southwest, Huainan to the west, Bengbu to the northwest, and the province of Jiangsu to the east. According to the 2010 Census, the city of Chuzhou has a registered population of 3,937,868 inhabitants, whom 562,321 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 2 urban districts. Nevertheless, 7,260,240 persons declared to be permanent residents.
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Craspedacusta sowerbii is a freshwater jellyfish in the phylum Cnidaria.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Cypriniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, including the carps, minnows, loaches and relatives.
Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) is a species of fish in the sturgeon family, Acipenseridae.
The Dangqu River (Chinese: 当曲, p Dāngqū) or Dam Chu (Tibetan: འདམ་ཆུ, w 'Dam Chu, lit. "Marshy River") is a river in Qinghai province in the People's Republic of China.
Dangtu County is one of three counties under the jurisdiction of the City of Ma'anshan in eastern Anhui Province, China.
The Daxi culture (5000–3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture centered in the Three Gorges region around the middle Yangtze, China.
De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu... (Latin for "On the Christian Mission among the Chinese by the Society of Jesus...") is a book based on an Italian manuscript written by the most important founding figure of the Jesuit China mission, Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), expanded and translated into Latin by his colleague Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628).
The demographics of China are identified by a large population with a relatively small youth division, which was partially a result of China's one-child policy, which is now modified to a two-child policy in 2015.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
Destructive fishing practices are practices that easily result in irreversible damage to aquatic habitats and ecosystems.
Dianchi Lake (Chinese: 滇池, Diānchí), also known as Lake Dian and Kunming Lake (昆明湖, Kūnmínghú), is a large lake located on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau close to Kunming, Yunnan, in southern China.
The PDSA Dickin Medal was instituted in 1943 in the United Kingdom by Maria Dickin to honour the work of animals in World War II.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Dongting Lake is a large, shallow lake in northeastern Hunan province, China.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.
The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.
East Lake is a large freshwater lake within the city limits of Wuhan, China, the largest or the second largest urban lake in China.
Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The economic history of China covers thousands of years and the region has undergone alternating cycles of prosperity and decline.
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An extinct in the wild (EW) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Ezhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Fengdu County (formerly) is a county located in Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China.
Fengjie County is a county of Chongqing Municipality, China.
The Indo-Pacific finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides), or finless porpoise, is one of seven porpoise species.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food.
A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial and natural barriers (such as dams, locks and waterfalls) to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration.
Many types of fish migrate on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annually or longer, and over distances ranging from a few metres to thousands of kilometres.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.
The Five Hegemons refers to several especially powerful rulers of Chinese states of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history (770 to 476 BCE), sometimes alternatively referred to as the "Age of Hegemons".
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
The Fly-class river gunboats (or small China gunboatsthe s were "large China gunboats".), collectively often referred to as the "Tigris gunboat flotilla", were a class of small but well-armed Royal Navy vessels designed specifically to patrol the Tigris river during the World War I Mesopotamian Campaign (the China name was to disguise their function).
The Four Lords of the Warring States were four powerful aristocrats of the late Warring States period of Chinese history who exerted a strong influence on the politics of their respective states in the third century BCE.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Connection was a scheme through which heroin was smuggled from Turkey to France and then to the United States through Canada.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
There are around 1,300 species of freshwater crabs, distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics, divided among eight families.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Fuling is a district in the geographical center of Chongqing Municipality, China.
Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon such that.
The Gan River (赣江, Gàn jiāng) flows through the western part of Jiangxi province, China, before flowing into Lake Poyang and thence into the Yangtze River.
Geladaindong Peak (also spelled Geladandong, Geladaintong or Kolha Dardong) is a snow-covered mountain (or massif) located in southwestern Qinghai province of China near the border of Tibet Autonomous Region.
Geophysical Journal International is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (German Geophysical Society).
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gezhouba Dam or Gezhouba Water Control Project (pinyin: chángjiāng gězhōubà shuǐlì shūniǔ gōngchéng) on the Yangtze River is located in the western suburbs of Yichang City in central China's Hubei province.
Goujian (reigned 496–465 BC) was the king of the Kingdom of Yue (present-day northern Zhejiang) near the end of the Spring and Autumn period.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is the species of fish with the largest reported production in aquaculture globally, over five million tonnes per year.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin (Vịnh Bắc Bộ,; also simplified Chinese: 东京湾; traditional Chinese: 東京灣; pinyin: Dōngjīng Wān) is a body of water located off the coast of northern Vietnam and southern China.
In international politics, gunboat diplomacy (or "Big Stick ideology" in U.S. history) refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval powerimplying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hankou p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan municipality, the capital of the Hubei province, China.
Hanyang District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Haplogroup O mtDNA is a haplogroup derived from haplogroup N and found in Oceania.
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in China.
Hejiang is a county in the southeast of Sichuan Province, China, bordering Guizhou province to the south and Chongqing Municipality to the north and northeast.
The Hemudu culture (5500 BC to 3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China.
Henry Gartf Holt (January 3, 1840 – February 13, 1926), was an American book publisher and author.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.
This article includes a list of China's historical gross domestic product (GDP) values (with the latest to reach above $14 trillion USD for 2018), the market value of all final goods and services produced by a nation in a given year.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of rail transport in China began in the late nineteenth century during the Qing Dynasty.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Hoh Xil or Kekexili, (Mongolian for "Blue Ridge", also Aqênganggyai for "Lord of Ten Thousand Mountains"), is an isolated region in the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock was a Hong Kong dockyard, once among the largest in Asia.
Hong Lake is a freshwater lake in the municipal region of Jingzhou, in central China's Hubei province.
The distinction between Hua and Yi, also known as Sino–barbarian dichotomy, is an ancient Chinese concept that differentiated a culturally defined "China" (called Hua, Huaxia 華夏, or Xia 夏) from cultural or ethnic outsiders (Yi "barbarians").
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.
Huanggang is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China.
The, formerly romanized as Whangpoo, is a long river flowing through Shanghai that was first excavated and created by Lord Chunshen, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States during the Warring States period (475 BC - 221 BC).
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Hukou County is a county under the administration of Jiujiang City, in the north of Jiangxi Province, China, bordering Anhui province to the north.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Hydroacoustics is the study and application of sound in water.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Insect-class gunboats (or large China gunboatsThe s were "small China gunboats") were a class of small, but well-armed Royal Navy ships designed for use in shallow rivers or inshore.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica; Japanese: 日本鰻 nihon'unagi) is a species of anguillid eel found in Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, and Vietnam, as well as the northern Philippines.
Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited, also known as Jardines, is a British conglomerate incorporated in Bermuda, with its primary listing on the Singapore Exchange.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.
The Jialing River, formerly known by numerous other names, is a major tributary of the Yangtze River in the Sichuan Basin.
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (sometimes spelled Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Jiangyin (Jiangyin dialect) is a county-level city on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, and is administered by Wuxi, Jiangsu province.
The Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge is a suspension bridge over the Yangtze River in Jiangsu, China.
Jin (Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze River.
Jingzhou or Jing Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China referenced in Chinese historical texts such as the Tribute of Yu, Erya and Rites of Zhou.
The Jinsha River (Chinese: 金沙江, p Jīnshājiāng, "Gold Dust River") is the Chinese name for the upper stretches of the Yangtze River.
Jiujiang, formerly transliterated Kiukiang or Kew Keang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China.
The Jiujiang Yangtze River Bridge is a combined road-rail bridge over the Yangtze River near the city of Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province in eastern China.
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
The Kārūn (کارون) is Iran's most effluent and only navigable river.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Lake Tai or Lake Taihu is a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta plain.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages.
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category.
Leiocassis is a genus of bagrid catfishes found mostly in Southeast Asia with some species occurring in China.
The Liangzhu culture (3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China.
Lijiang is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Yunnan province, China.
The Lingqu is a canal in Xing'an County, near Guilin, in the northwestern corner of Guangxi, China.
Lishui River (also known as Li River, Chinese language: 澧水, pinyin: lǐshuǐ, Wade-Giles: li3-shui3) is a river in Hunan province of China, one of the Yangtze River's four largest tributaries in the province.
This list includes all types of constructions to lift or lower boats between two levels of a waterway, such as boat lifts, canal inclined planes, portage railways and water slopes, but excluding conventional locks.
This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity.
This article lists the largest power stations in the world, the ten overall and the five of each type, in terms of current installed electrical capacity.
This is a list of the nationally protected areas of China.
This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is their water flow.
This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.
This incomplete list of rivers that flow through China is organized according to the body of water into which each river empties, beginning with the Sea of Okhotsk in the northeast, moving clockwise on a map and ending with the Arctic Ocean.
Road–rail bridges are bridges shared by road and rail lines.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.
Luzhou (Sichuanese Pinyin: Nu2zou1; Luzhou dialect), formerly transliterated as Lu-chou or Luchow, is a prefecture-level city located in the southeast of Sichuan Province, China.
Ma'anshan, also colloquially written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the eastern part of Anhui province in Eastern China.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Majiabang culture was a Chinese Neolithic culture that existed at the mouth of the Yangtze River, primarily around Lake Tai near Shanghai and north of Hangzhou Bay.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
Megalobrama elongata is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Megalobrama.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.
The Min River or Min Jiang (Chinese: 江, p Mínjiāng) is a in central Sichuan province, China.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Minyue was an ancient kingdom in what is now Fujian province in southern China.
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nanjing West railway station is a railway station in Nanjing, China.
The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge is a double-decked road-rail truss bridge across the Yangtze River between Pukou and Xiaguan in Nanjing, China.
The Nanking Incident occurred in March 1927 during the capture of Nanjing (then Nanking) by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) in their Northern Expedition.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Nantong (former names: Nan-t'ung, Nantung, Tongzhou, or Tungchow; Qihai dialect) is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu province, China.
The Nanyang Fleet was one of the four modernised Chinese naval fleets in the late Qing Dynasty.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 481 BC) about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war.
Nei or Inner Lingding Island, formerly romanized as Lintin or is an island in the Pearl River estuary in the southeastern Chinese province of Guangdong.
Nemesis was the first British ocean-going iron warship.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
is a custom of dyeing one's teeth black.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Osmeriformes comprise an order of ray-finned fish that includes the true or freshwater smelts and allies, such as the galaxiids and noodlefishes; they are also collectively called osmeriforms.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Pan's box turtle (Cuora pani) is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae (formerly Bataguridae).
Panzhihua is a prefecture-level city located in the far south of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China, at the confluence of the Jinsha and Yalong Rivers.
The Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), also known as the milu or elaphure, is a species of deer that are mostly found in captivity.
The Pearl River, also known by its Chinese name Zhujiang and formerly often known as the, is an extensive river system in southern China.
The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD), also known as Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao, is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Perciformes, also called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Potamidae is a family of freshwater crabs.
Poyang Lake (Gan: Po-yong U), located in Jiangxi Province, is the largest freshwater lake in China.
The predatory carp (Chanodichthys erythropterus), also known as the redfin culter, is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Chanodichthys.
The Pudu River is a major river in Yunnan Province in southwest China.
Pukou District, is one of 11 districts of Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, China, lying northwest across the Yangtze River from downtown Nanjing.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing River is a right (southern) tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in Hubei province of south-central China.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qingyi River (Chinese: 青弋江) is a major tributary of lower Yangtze River.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Red River (Sông Hồng), also known as the and (lit. "Mother River") in Vietnamese and the in Chinese, is a river that flows from Yunnan in Southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin.
Rediscovering the Yangtze River is a 2006 documentary created by China Central Television to follow up on an earlier 1984 documentary film named "The Story of the Yangtze River".
A Regional Red List (RRL) is a report of the threatened status of species within a certain country or region.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river flows into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean.
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Robert Dollar, also known as Captain Robert Dollar (1844—1932) was a Scots-American industrialist born in Bainsford, Falkirk, Scotland.
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was a British shipping company founded in London in 1839 by a Scot, James MacQueen.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Runyang Yangtze River Bridge is a large bridge complex that crosses the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, downstream of Nanjing.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Samuel Cornell Plant (8 August 1866 – 26 February 1921) was best known as the first to command a merchant steamer plying on the Upper Yangtze River in 1900.
The Sanjiangyuan, is an area of the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai province, China which contains the headwaters of three great rivers of Asia: the Yellow, the Yangtze, and the Mekong.
Schistosoma is a genus of trematodes, commonly known as blood flukes.
Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.
Schizothorax longibarbus is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Schizothorax.
Schizothorax parvus is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Schizothorax from Yunnan.
The Second Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge (Wuhan Changjiang Er Qiao) is a bridge across the Yangtze River in Wuhan, Hubei province, China.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the 1863 merger of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, parts of the Qing Empire held extraterritorially under the terms of a series of Unequal Treaties.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shashi is a district within the main urban area of Jingzhou, Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Shishou is a county-level city under the administration of the prefectural-level city Jingzhou, in the south of Hubei province, China, near its border with Hunan province.
The State of Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan Province.
Shuiyang River() is a tributary on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, one of the principal rivers in Anhui Province.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Sichuan River or Chuan Jiang (Sichuanese Pinyin: Cuan1jiang1; pinyin: Chuānjiāng), is the upper portion of Yangtze River from Yibin to Yichang.
Siltation or siltification is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.
The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a species of freshwater cyprinid fish, a variety of Asian carp native to China and eastern Siberia.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Simon (c. 1947 – 28 November 1949) was the ship's cat who served on the Royal Navy sloop HMS ''Amethyst''.
Simon Winchester, (born 28 September 1944) is a British-American author and journalist.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Siniperca chuatsi, the mandarin fish or Chinese perch, is species of temperate perch native to the Amur and Yangtze basins, and other rivers and lakes in China.
The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Six Dynasties (Chinese: 六朝; Pinyin: Liù Cháo; 220 or 222–589) is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties in China during the periods of the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD), Jin dynasty (265–420), and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589).
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The South–North Water Transfer Project, also translated as the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (literal meaning: Project of diverting the south water to the north) is a multi-decade infrastructure mega-project in the People's Republic of China.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard Oil Co.
After thousands of years of junk and sampan traffic on the Yangtze River (Jiang), river steamers were introduced by Europeans during the mid- to late-nineteenth century.
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
The Sutong Yangtze River Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the Yangtze River in China between Nantong and Changshu, a satellite city of Suzhou, in Jiangsu province.
Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.
The Swire Group is a diversified conglomerate, headquartered in Swire House in the City of Westminster, London.
Taibo or Wu Taibo was the eldest son of King Tai of Zhou and the legendary founder of the State of Wu.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taizhou is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province in eastern China.
Takifugu is a genus of pufferfish, often better known by the Japanese name.
The Tanggula (Chinese: 唐古拉山, p Tánggǔlāshān, or 唐古拉山脉, p Tánggǔlāshānmài), Tangla, Tanglha, or Dangla Mountains (Tibetan: གདང་ལ་།, w Gdang La, z Dang La) are a mountain range in the central part of the Tibetan Plateau in Tibet.
The Tetraodontiformes are an order of highly derived ray-finned fish, also called the Plectognathi.
The Chinese Repository was a periodical published in Canton between May 1832 and 1851 to inform Protestant missionaries working in Asia about the history and culture of China, of current events, and documents.
The Geographical Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).
The Ocean Cleanup is a foundation that develops technologies to extract plastic pollution from the oceans and prevent more plastic debris from entering ocean waters.
The River at the Center of the World: A Journey Up the Yangtze, and Back in Chinese Time is a book by Simon Winchester.
Sir Thomas Francis Wade (25August 181831July 1895), was a British diplomat and sinologist who produced an early Chinese textbook in English, in 1867, that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization system for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The Three Gorges are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
The Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Yunnan province, China.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Tiger Leaping Gorge is a scenic canyon on the Jinsha River, a primary tributary of the upper Yangtze River.
Tongling (former names: Tunglinghsien, Tungkwanshan; literally "Copper Hillock") is a prefecture-level city in southern Anhui province.
The Zhi Qu (Tibetan) or Tongtian River, flows within Qinghai Province of southern China.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese language.
A transport network, or transportation network is a realisation of a spatial network, describing a structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity.
The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.
The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
The treaty ports was the name given to the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade by the unequal treaties with the Western powers.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
Tuo River (pinyin: Túo Jiāng) is a river in Sichuan province of southern China.
The Ulan Moron or Tuotuo River. The Mar Qu, Ulan Moron (Mongolian: ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ, Ulaan Mörön, lit. "Red River"; Chinese: 乌兰木伦, p Wūlánmùlún) or Tuotuo River (Chinese: 沱沱河, p Tuótuó Hé, lit. "Tearful River") is a river in Qinghai province in the People's Republic of China.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States Asiatic Fleet was a fleet of the United States Navy during much of the first half of the 20th century.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
USS Ashuelot was an iron-hulled, double-ended, side-wheel in the United States Navy.
The first USS Monocacy was a sidewheel gunboat in the United States Navy.
The first USS Palos was a 4th rate iron screw tug in the United States Navy during the late 19th century.
USS Wachusett (1861) – the first U.S. Navy ship to be so named – was a large (1,032-ton) steam sloop-of-war that served the United States Navy during the American Civil War.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Digunai (24 February 1122 – 15 December 1161), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Liang and his formal title Prince of Hailing (or Hailing Wang), was the fourth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Wanzhou District is a city on the upper reaches of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in China.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The water deer (Hydropotes inermis) is a small deer superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer.
Wen Tianxiang (June 6, 1236 – January 9, 1283 AD), Duke of Xinguo （信國公）, was a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Wu (Old Chinese: *) was one of the states during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period.
The Wu River is the largest southern tributary of the Yangtze River.
Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han. The name "Wuchang" remains in common use for the part of urban Wuhan south of the Yangtze River. Administratively, however, it is split between several districts of the City of Wuhan. The historic center of Wuchang lies within the modern Wuchang District, which has an area of and a population of 1,003,400. Other parts of what is colloquially known as Wuchang are within Hongshan District (south and south-east) and Qingshan District (north-east). Presently, on the right bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qingshan (for a very small section) to the northeast and Hongshan to the east and south; on the opposite bank it borders Jiang'an, Jianghan and Hanyang. On 10 October 1911, the New Army stationed in the city started the Wuchang Uprising, a turning point of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
Wuchang railway station is a major railway station on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway, the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway and the Hankou–Danjiangkou Railway, located on the east side of Zhongshan Road in Wuchang District, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
The Wuhan Yangtze Great Bridge, commonly known as Wuhan First Yangtze Bridge, is a double-deck road and rail bridge across the Yangtze River in Wuhan, in Central China.
Wuhu (literally "Weedy Lake") is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province, China.
Wuxi is a city in southern Jiangsu province, China.
The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter.
The Xiang River is the chief river of the Lake Dongting drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan Province, China.
Xianning is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Jiangxi to the southeast and Hunan to the southwest.
The Xiluodu Dam is an arch dam on the Jinsha River, i.e. the upper course of the Yangtze in China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
The Yalong River (Chinese: 雅砻江, p Yǎlóngjiāng, w Ya-lung Chiang, IPA) or Nyag Chu (Tibetan: ཉག་ཆུ་, z Nyag Qu) is an long river in Sichuan province in southwestern China.
Yangzhou, Yangchow or Yang Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China mentioned in historical texts such as the Tribute of Yu, Erya and Rites of Zhou.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yangtze giant softshell turtle (Rafetus swinhoei) also known as the Red River giant softshell turtle, Shanghai softshell turtle, Swinhoe’s softshell turtle or speckled softshell turtle (Chinese: 斑鱉; Pinyin: bān bīe) is an extremely rare species of softshell turtle found in China and Vietnam.
The Yangtze Plain (Chinese: 長江中下游平原/长江中下游平原; Wade-Giles: Ch'ang Chiang P'ing-yüan; Pinyin: Chang Jiang Pingyuan) is made up of a series of alluvial plains of along the Yangtze River and its major tributaries.
The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province.
The Yangtze River power line crossings are overhead power lines that cross the Yangtze River in China.
The Yangtze Service Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created in 1930 for presentation to members of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps (and to a lesser extent, members of the United States Army).
Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica), is a medium-sized (to 19.5 cm), semi-aquatic turtle in the family Geoemydidae.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The yellow-headed box turtle (Cuora aurocapitata) or golden-headed box turtle is a proposed species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae (formerly Bataguridae).
Yibin (Sichuanese Pinyin: nyi2bin1; Sichuanese pronunciation) is a prefecture-level city in the southeastern part of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China, located at the junction of the Min and Yangtze Rivers.
Yichang (old postal name 'Ichang') is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China.
The Yichang Yangtze River Highway Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the Yangtze River some 20 km downstream from the center city of Yichang, China.
Yidu is a county-level city in western Hubei Province, China.
Ying (Yǐng) was a capital city of the State of Chu during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of Chinese History.
The Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu is a chapter of the Book of Xia (夏書/夏书) section of the Book of Documents, one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Yuan River, also known by its Chinese name as the Yuanjiang, is one of the four largest rivers in Hunan province in southeast-central China.
Yue (Old Chinese: *), also known as Yuyue, was a state in ancient China which existed during the first millennium BC the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of China's Zhou dynasty in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.
Yueyang is a prefecture-level city at the northeastern corner of Hunan province, People's Republic of China, on the southern shores of Dongting Lake.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis) is a species of turtles in the family Geoemydidae (formerly Bataguridae).
The Yunnan lake newt (Cynops wolterstorffi) was a species of newt in the Salamandridae family, and was also known as Wolterstorff's newt.
Yushu (Yüxü) is a county-level city of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in southern Qinghai province, China.
Yulshul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, commonly known as Yushu (retranscribed into Tibetan as), is an autonomous prefecture of southwestern Qinghai province, China.
Zadoi County (also Dzatö or Dzatoe) is a county of Qinghai Province, China.
Zhao Tuo, known in Vietnamese contexts as Triệu Đà, was a Qin dynasty Chinese general who participated in the conquest of the Baiyue peoples of Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhenjiang, formerly romanized as Chenkiang, is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu Province, China.
Zhicheng (枝城) is a town in Yidu County-level city, Yichang Prefecture-level city, Hubei Province, China.
Zhong’anlun Monument is a memorial monument dedicated to the victims of the Yangtze ferry disaster that occurred in October 1945, during the Chinese Civil War.
Zhongyong was the second ruler of the ancient Chinese State of Wu according to traditional Chinese history.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The Zi River in Hunan, China, flows into the Yangtze River via Lake Dongting.
The 1344 Yellow River flood was a major natural disaster during the Yuan dynasty of Imperial China.
From June to September 1954, the Yangtze River Floods were a series of catastrophic floodings that occurred mostly in Hubei Province.
The 1998 China floods (1998年中国洪水) lasted from middle of June to the beginning of September 1998 in China at the Yangtze RiverChinanews.com.cn.
The 1st National People's Congress was in session from 1954 to 1959.
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